Thermochromic behavior of yttrium substituted bismuth oxides.

Author(s) Liu, X.; Staubitz, A.; Gesing, T.M.
Journal ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
Date Published 2019 Aug 15

High-temperature thermochromic materials are poorly explored in fundamental research, let alone applied research, alt-hough these materials may be used as low-cost, intuitively usable sensing materials in an industrial environment. Yet, only few of these materials have been described systematically. We describe a series of yttrium substituted bismuth oxides (Bi1-xYx)2O3 (0.05 <= x <= 0.25) that show thermochromic behavior with a color change from yellow at low temperatures to various brown hues at high temperatures. The compounds were analyzed between 293 K and 1050 K by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), UV/Vis spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A combination of derived absorption spectral fitting (DASF) and Tauc methods were applied to determine the band gap energies and band gap types from the diffuse UV/Vis spectra, respectively. Two types of materials were found: one, with x = 0.05 that exhibits the tetragonal β-phase at room temperature, and the defect fluorite-type cubic δ-phase at temperatures above 920 K. This phase showed a reversible, grad-ual color change upon heating, followed by an abrupt color change at the phase-transformation temperature. The second type of material had higher yttrium contents (x > 0.10); these samples were cubic at room temperature and showed a contin-uous color change upon heating and cooling. In contrast to the material with x = 0.05, these latter phases show a reduced cycle stability and were gradually annealed to the hexagonal phase-I. The samples with x = 0.10 provided a mixture of the β- and δ-phase, showing both, the reversible behavior for the β- to δ-phase transition and the irreversible behavior concerning the β2-phase. This points the way towards smart materials that can not only sense the actual thermal stress, but also monitor cumulative thermal stresses over a certain material lifetime.

DOI 10.1021/acsami.9b11450
ISSN 1944-8252
Citation ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2019.

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