Visualization and Studies of Ion-Diffusion Kinetics in Cesium Lead Bromide Perovskite Nanowires.

Author(s) Pan, D.; Fu, Y.; Chen, J.; Czech, K.J.; Wright, J.C.; Jin, S.
Journal Nano Lett
Date Published 2018 Feb 07

The facile chemical transformation of metal halide perovskites via ion exchange has been attributed to their "soft" crystal lattices that enable fast ion migration. Kinetic studies of such processes could provide mechanistic insights on the ion migration dynamics. Herein, by using aligned single-crystal nanowires of cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3) perovskite on epitaxial substrates as platforms, we visualize and investigate the cation or anion interdiffusion kinetics via spatially resolved photoluminescence measurement on heterostructures fabricated by stacking CsPbCl3, MAPbI3, or MAPbBr3 microplates on top of CsPbBr3 nanowires. Time-dependent confocal photoluminescence microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed the solid-state anion interdiffusion readily occurs to result in halide concentration gradients along CsPbBr3-3xCl3x (x = 0-1) nanowires. Quantitative analysis of such composition profiles using Fick's law allowed us, for the first time, to extract interdiffusion coefficients of the chloride-bromide couple and an activation energy of 0.44 ± 0.02 eV for ion diffusion from temperature-dependent studies. In contrast, iodide-bromide interdiffusion is limited, likely due to the complex phase behaviors of mixed alloys of CsPb(Br,I)3. In contrast to the relatively mobile anions, A-site cation interdiffusion across the MAPbBr3/CsPbBr3 junctions was barely observed at room temperature. Our results present a general method to investigate the kinetics of the solid-state ion migration, and the gained insights on ion diffusion can provide guidelines for rationally designing perovskite heterostructures that could lead to new properties for fundamental studies and technological applications.

DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b05023
ISSN 1530-6992
Citation Nano Lett. 2018.

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