Water managements limit heavy metal accumulation in rice: Dual effects of iron-plaque formation and microbial communities.

Author(s) Zhang, Q.; Chen, H.; Huang, D.; Xu, C.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Q.
Journal Sci Total Environ
Date Published 2019 Oct 15

Understanding the mechanisms on how water management can minimize the concentrations of heavy metals in rice grains is important. Two water managements were concerned in our studies, including continuously flooding and alternate wetting and drying (AWD). Compared to AWD, a continuously flooded culture reduces the concentration of cadmium and other metals in the rice grains by reducing the root-to-shoot translocation and the availability of metals in rhizosphere. In a flooded environment, the rice rhizosphere was characterized by an increased soil pH, reduced fluorescein diacetate (FDA) activity, and lower metal bioavailability. In addition, flooding significantly decreased the iron plaque on the root surface and reduced the affinity for metals in rhizosphere. Water managements significantly changed soil microbial diversity, especially the proportion of anaerobic bacteria, including the iron-reducing bacteria Latescibacteria, Desulfuromonadales, and Geobacteraceae. Interestingly, these bacteria exhibited a significant correlation with cadmium that was adsorbed on the root. This study revealed that continuously flooded culture is a valuable strategy for minimizing heavy metal accumulation in rice grains. By increasing the abundance of unique bacterial community, iron plaque formation and the affinity of metals in rhizosphere were reduced, and the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in rice plants was finally mitigated.

DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.044
ISSN 1879-1026
Citation Sci Total Environ. 2019;687:790799.

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