Safety of Strontium Chloride as a Skeletal Marking Agent for Pacific Salmon.

Title Safety of Strontium Chloride as a Skeletal Marking Agent for Pacific Salmon.
Authors R.G. Getchell; P.R. Bowser; E.R. Cornwell; T. Pavek; P. Baneux; D. Kirby; K.L. Sams; H. Marquis
Journal J Aquat Anim Health
DOI 10.1080/08997659.2017.1360412

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects associated with administering strontium chloride as a marking agent to age-0 Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha fry. Fish were held in a 0× (0 mg/L), 1× (3,000 mg/L; current standard dosage), 3× (9,000 mg/L), or 5× (15,000 mg/L) solution of strontium chloride for 72 h (three times the standard duration of 24 h). The mortality among fish in the 5× strontium chloride exposure group was significantly higher than that observed in the other groups. A dose-related effect on general fish behavior and on feeding behavior was observed. Fish in all test tanks appeared to feed to satiation, except for fish in the 5× tanks during days 2 and 3. Fish in all other test tanks behaved normally. No dose-related effect on fish growth was detected. Histopathological evaluations showed that fish in the 5× exposure group had a significantly higher number of gill lesions than the 0× group. Our mortality, behavioral, and histological assessments suggested that juvenile Chinook Salmon could be safely immersed for three consecutive days in a 9,000-mg/L solution of strontium chloride. This finding potentially expands the present 1,000-3,000-mg/L dosage and 24-h holding period that can be used to mark juvenile fish with strontium chloride solutions. The research also provides necessary target animal safety data for U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of strontium chloride as an alternative marking method that is suitable for fish with a short holding time. Received February 19, 2017; accepted July 16, 2017.

Citation R.G. Getchell; P.R. Bowser; E.R. Cornwell; T. Pavek; P. Baneux; D. Kirby; K.L. Sams; H. Marquis.Safety of Strontium Chloride as a Skeletal Marking Agent for Pacific Salmon.. J Aquat Anim Health. 2017;29(4):181188. doi:10.1080/08997659.2017.1360412

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Chlorine is a Block P, Group 17, Period 3 element. Its electron configuration is [Ne]3s23p5. The chlorine atom has a covalent radius of 102±4 pm and its Van der Waals radius is 175 pm. Chlorine ModelIn its elemental form, chlorine is a yellow-green gas. Chlorine is the second lightest halogen after fluorine. It has the third highest electronegativity and the highest electron affinity of all elements, making it a strong oxidizing agent. It is rarely found by itself in nature. Chlorine was discovered and first isolated by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774. It was first recognized as an element by Humphry Davy in 1808.


See more Strontium products. Strontium (atomic symbol: Sr, atomic number: 38) is a Block S, Group 2, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 87.62 . Strontium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Strontium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 8, 2] and its electron configuration is [Kr] 5s2. The strontium atom has a radius of 215 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 249 pm. Strontium was discovered by William Cruickshank in 1787 and first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1808. In its elemental form, strontium is a soft, silvery white metallic solid that quickly turns yellow when exposed to air. Elemental StrontiumCathode ray tubes in televisions are made of strontium, which are becoming increasingly displaced by other display technologies pyrotechnics and fireworks employ strontium salts to achieve a bright red color. Radioactive isotopes of strontium have been used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and for certain cancer treatments. In nature, most strontium is found in celestite (as strontium sulfate) and strontianite (as strontium carbonate). Strontium was named after the Scottish town where it was discovered.

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