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About Carbon

Carbon Bohr Model

Carbon is far from the most common element in the universe; at 0.5% it is less abundant than hydrogen, helium, and oxygen, yet it is arguably the most important element on earth. The basis for life as we define it, carbon is not only critical to all processes both biological and environmental, but is also the basis for all technology used by society, from energy for transportation to industrial manufacturing, and is playing an increasingly more important role in the advanced high technology semiconductors, electronics, nanotechnology, and green technology.

The diversity of uses for carbon is mirrored by its equally diverse number of forms. Elemental carbon, a nonmetal (though sometimes classified as a semimetal or metalloid), exists in several different structural forms known as allotropes that differ widely in appearance and properties: graphite and diamond, the most classically well-known forms, are only two of a set that has been expanded by additional recently discovered or artificially synthesized forms using advanced technology such as chemical vapor deposition.

Elemental Forms

Graphite is an opaque black form of carbon with a layered hexagonal crystal structure (in alpha form) that is extremely soft, thermodynamically stable, and electrically conductive. The beta form of graphite forms in the trigonal or rhombohedral lattice system; both forms have similar properties and can be converted via either mechanical or heat treatment. Graphite occurs naturally in various rocks and minerals around the world, but it can also be artificially synthesized by subjecting silicon carbide (or carborundum) to temperatures high enough to vaporize the silicon, leaving the graphitized carbon behind. It is perhaps most widely recognized as the soft gray “lead" in pencils. Its softness also makes it an excellent lubricant in powdered form. Because it is the most stable form of carbon under standard temperature and pressure ranges and remains intact even when subjected to extremely high temperatures, graphite often composes items such as heat shields, nuclear reactor components, and melting crucibles for high temperature processes such as metallurgy and crystal growth. Its other major metallurgic use is as an additive in steelmaking.

Pyrolytic graphite, or PG, is a chemically inert, high purity form of graphite artificially synthesized via chemical vapor deposition and considered to be a refractory ceramic material. It is extremely anisotropic, exhibiting both directional electrical and thermal conductivity, and extremely heat resistant, in addition to being lightweight and flexible; for these reasons it is typically commercially employed in coatings and heat spreaders for electronics components. Pyrolytic graphite also possesses the unusual property of diamagnetism, which causes it to float in mid-air above a high-powered magnet.

Black carbon, also known as soot or coal, was the earliest form recognized and utilized by humans. Coal has been used for thousands of years as fuel, and is still primarily applied as fuel today. This form of carbon usually has a black appearance, and varying structures depending on the amount of heat and pressure that has been applied to the material. There are a few different ranks of coal that depend on the pressurization such as Peat, Lignite, Sub-bituminous coal, Bituminous coal, Steam coal and Anthracite, with Anthracite as the highest rank. There are many different forms of this type of carbon including solids, powders and nanopowders.

Diamond is a transparent crystalline form of carbon and is the hardest known naturally occurring material on the planet. Though well known as a precious gemstone, like other gemstones such as sapphire (Al2O3), diamond has technical applications. Diamond saws are used to cut industrial materials, slice semiconductor wafers and single crystals. Diamonds are also used in the precision cutting and grinding of optical glass and steel. Though it is the hardest material known to man, the cost of the material and associated production costs are commercially prohibited. Diamond is often found in crystalline solid structures, but it can also be ground down into powders and nanopowders.

Amorphous carbon is a reactive form of carbon that lacks a defined crystal structure. Typically amorphous carbon refers to coal and other carbide derived carbons that are impure and neither graphite nor diamond. These forms contain significant amounts of other elements such as oxygen, hydrogen and sulfur. Amorphous carbon has a few applications such as antireflective coatings on crystalline silicon solar cells .

Glassy carbon, or vitreous carbon, is a non-graphitizing carbon which combines ceramic and glassy characteristics with those of graphite. This gives glassy carbon many important properties, such as high temperature resistance, hardness, low density, low electrical resistance, low friction, low thermal resistance, extreme resistance to chemical attack and impermeability to gases and liquids. One of the most prominent applications of glassy carbon is as an electrode material in electrochemistry. Other applications include use as high temperature crucibles and components in prosthetic devices.

Nanostructured Forms

Graphene is a two dimensional, single layer of carbon atoms in hexagonal lattice. It is the basis of other discovered two dimensional elemental forms such as hexagonal boron nitride, and the applications for these materials are numerous. Some of these include development in electronics, biological engineering, filtration, lightweight and strong composite materials, photovoltaics and energy storage. Graphene has many unique properties which include strength that is 200 times more than that of steel by weight, near transparence and extremely efficient heat and electrical conductivity. The material was first explored in 1947 by P.R. Wallace while he was studying three-dimensional graphite. However, extensive research on graphene was not prominent until the turn of the century. Graphene is also the basic structural element of other carbon allotropes including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. Other forms of graphene include graphene oxide, which has enhanced photo-conducting properties, and nitrogen-doped graphene, which features efficient growth, structure and electronic properties.

Carbon nanotubes are another allotrope of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have a significantly larger length-to-diameter ratio than any other material, with ratios of up to 132,000,000:1 having been constructed. Carbon nanotubes have very unique properties that are valuable in fields such as nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of technology and materials sciences. These properties include extraordinary thermal conductivity and other mechanical and electrical properties. Other properties appear depending on the radius and rolling angle of the nanotubes, either making it a metal or a semiconductor. Carbon nanotubes are classified according to their wall thickness, either single-walled or multi-walled. Carbon nanotubes were first discovered by L.V. Radushkevich and V.M. Lukyanovich in 1952.

Fullerenes, or buckeyballs, are molecules of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube and a variety of other shapes. Fullerenes have a similar structure to graphite, which is made up of stacked graphene sheets in linked hexagonal rings. The first fullerene molecule discovered was a buckminsterfullerene by Richard Smalley, Robert Curl, James Heath, Sean O’Brien and Harold Kroto in 1985. This discovery greatly expanded the amount of known carbon allotropes from just graphite, diamond and amorphous carbon to many different nanomaterials and other varieties of carbon. Fullerenes have many technological applications in materials science, electronics and nanotechnology.

There are more and more carbon nanomaterials that are being developed every day. These include nanohoops, nanobuds, nanohorns and many others that have a large variety of applications.

Organometallics & Metalorganics

Organometallic chemistry is the study of chemical compounds that have a minimum of one bond between a metal and a carbon atom of an organic compound. Organometallic chemistry incorporates characteristics of both inorganic and organic chemistry. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are the elements that make up organic molecules. When organic molecules are bonded to other atoms of the inorganic variety, molecules known as organometallics are created. The true classification of an organometallics is dependent on the specific location of the carbon bond. Molecules known as Organometallic refer to complexes in which the site of the carbon bond occurs with a metal atom. The first metal complex identified as an organometallic was Potassium trichloro(ethene)platinate(II) - or Zeise’s salt - which is a salt that was obtained from a reaction of ethylene with platinum(II) chloride. These materials have common properties such as low melting points, insolubility in water, solubility in ether, toxicity, oxidizability and high reactivity. When the metal is bonded to a different element like oxygen or hydrogen, the resulting material is classified roughly as a Metalorganic. Examples of organometallics include tetracarbonyl nickel, ferrocene, diethylmagnesium, iodo(methyl)magnesium and diethylzinc among others. Metalorganics include beta-diketonates, alkoxides, and dialkylamides.

The main applications of organometallics are in stoichiometric and catalytic processes. Organometallics are extremely useful as catalysts or reagents in the synthesis of pharmaceutical products and other organic compounds. The earliest application of Organometallics in biomedicine was with the discovery of organoarsenical Salvarsan, which was the first antisyphilitic agent. Metalorganics have applications in material science for metalorganic vapor deposition and sol-gel processing.


Carbonates are salts of carbonic acid that consist of one carbon atom surrounded by three oxygen atoms, with two single bonds between the carbon atom and the two negative oxygen atoms, and one short double bond between the carbon atom and the remaining neutral oxygen atom. This allows the oxygen atoms to link with other metal atoms in order to form compounds such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. Carbonates can also refer to functional groups within larger molecules in organic chemistry. Some of the more important carbonates in organic chemistry are dimethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate and triphosgene, and are referred to as organocarbonates. Organocarbonates are widely used as solvents such as those used in lithium batteries, which, due to their high polarity, can dissolve lithium salts.

Carbides are very strong and heat resistant materials used in industrial cutting, high melting crucibles and furnace equipment. Carbides are composed of carbon and a less electronegative element with examples such as calcium carbide, silicon carbide, tungsten carbide and iron carbide. Carbides are generally classified by chemical bonding type into four categories: Salt-like, covalent compounds, interstitial compounds and transition metal carbides. Additionally, carbides can have crystalline forms such as that of silicon carbide, which has applications in electronic equipment such as power electronic devices and light emitting diodes.

Other compound forms of carbon include cyanides, which are molecules that consist of a carbon atom triple bonded to a nitrogen atom, and carbonyls, which are formed with a carbon atom triple bonded to an oxygen atom. Cyanides have applications within industrial organic chemistry, the mining industry, medicine, pest control and as food additives. Carbonyls are used in metallurgy, as catalysts and as carbon monoxide releasing molecules.


There are many carbon alloys, with the most common being steel. According to the American Iron and Steel Institute the true name for steel is in fact carbon steel. Steel has many applications but the most important are within the construction, transportation, energy, packaging and appliance industries. There is typically a small amount of carbon in steel, ranging from about .12% - 2.0%, but levels can be as low as .05% or as high as 3.0% depending on the intended application. As the carbon percentage rises, steel becomes harder and stronger, but sacrifices ductility.

Other alloys containing carbon include stellite, which is used in saw teeth, hardfacing and acid-resistant machine parts; cast iron, which is primarily used in kitchen appliances; pig iron, which is used to make ductile iron; spiegeleisen, which is used in steelmaking; staballoy, which are primarily used in munitions; and nickel-carbon.

Applications for Carbon

Carbon has many applications throughout an immense number of industries. The most prominent of these is the fossil fuel industry, where hydrocarbons in methane gas and petroleum are used for fuel. Other valuable sources of carbon are in carbon-containing polymers that are produced in plants in the form of cotton, linen and hemp. These carbon-containing polymers can also be procured from animals in the form of wool, cashmere and silk. Carbon-containing polymers have obvious applications in the clothing industry.

A new application for carbon that is being developed is within battery anodes. Carbon-coated particles are used specifically in lithium ion batteries, in which the carbon coating on the particles allow lithium ions to pass through freely, while limiting the movement of the particle within its shell. Carbon materials are also finding applications within the defense industry, with carbon nanotubes being substituted for copper wire and cables in aerospace and defense electronics due to its significantly lighter weight. Another carbon form that is finding new uses is carbon foam, which is applicable as a container for active materials with needs for thermal energy storage, electric energy storage, absorbents for large molecules and others including microwave absorption.


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Due to their extreme hardness and resistance to heat and pressure, diamond and diamond micropowder have numerous industrial applications in geological drilling Ultra High Purity (99.999%) Carbon (C) Powderbits, grinding media and as a high-strength/ high-temperature abrasive. Carbon also finds application in steel alloys, in various filtering and purification technologies, and as a neutron moderator in nuclear power plants. Carbon is available in its elemental form and as compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Carbon nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Carbon is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Carbon Properties

Carbon (C) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCarbon is a Block P, Group 14, Period 2 element. Carbon Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Carbon's shells is 2, 4 and its electron configuration is [He] 2s2 2p2. In its elemental form, carbon's CAS number is 7440-44-0. Carbon is at the same time one of the softest (graphite) and hardest (diamond) materials found in nature. It is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element (by mass) in the universe after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon was discovered by the Egyptians and Sumerians circa 3750 BC. It was first recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier in 1789.

Symbol: C
Atomic Number: 6
Atomic Weight: 12.01
Element Category: nonmetal
Group, Period, Block: 14, 2, p
Color: black (graphite), transparent/colourless (diamond)
Other Names: Carbone, Carbonio
Melting Point: 3825 °C, 6917 °F, 4098.15 K
Boiling Point: Sublimes
Density: 2.267 g/cm3 @ 20 °C
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Density @ 20°C: 2.267 g/cm3 (gr), 3.513 g/cm3(di)
Density of Solid: 2267 kg·m3
Specific Heat: N/A
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: 4600 K, 10800 kPa
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 105
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 710.9
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 711.2
Thermal Conductivity: 119-165 W/m/K
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond) µm·m-1·K-1
Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 8.517 (graphite) J·mol-1·K-1, 6.155 (diamond) J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 1050 (diamond) GPa
Shear Modulus: 478 (diamond) GPa
Bulk Modulus: 442 (diamond) GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.1 (diamond)
Mohs Hardness: 10 (diamond) 1-2 (graphite)
Vickers Hardness: N/A
Brinell Hardness: N/A
Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 2.55
Sanderson Electronegativity: 2.75
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 2.5
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: 2.48 (sp3 orbital)
Allen Electronegativity: 2.544
Pauling Electropositivity: 1.45
Reflectivity (%): 27
Refractive Index: 2.417 (diamond)
Electrons: 6
Protons: 6
Neutrons: 6
Electron Configuration: [He] 2s2 2p2
Atomic Radius: N/A
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 0.75
Van der Waals Radius: N/A
Oxidation States: 170 pm
Phase: 2, 4, -4
Crystal Structure: Solid
Magnetic Ordering: simple hexagonal
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 121.733
1st Ionization Energy: 1086.46 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1086.46 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2352.6 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-44-0
EC Number: 231-153-3
MDL Number: MFCD00133992
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: C
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/C
PubChem CID: 297
ChemSpider ID: 4575370
Earth - Total: 446 ppm
Mercury - Total: 5.1 ppm
Venus - Total: 468 ppm
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 28000
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 14400
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 1800000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 3100000
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 3000000
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 300000
Stream, ppb by weight: 1200
Stream, ppb by atoms: 100
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 15000000
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 18000000
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: N/A
Universe, ppb by atom: N/A
Discovered By: Egyptians and Sumerians
Discovery Date: circa 3750 BC
First Isolation: N/A

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Carbon

Carbon in its purest form has very low toxicity. Carbon black dust, such as soot or coal dust, can cause irritation and damage to the lungs when inhaled in large quantities. Safety data for Carbon and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to graphitic carbon in bulk (non-powdered) form.

Safety Data
Signal Word N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Precautions N/A
RTECS Number FF5250100
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Review and Print SDS for Carbon (Graphite)


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: (Carbon) Graphite

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. C-GR-01, C-GR-02, C-GR-03, C-GR-04, C-GR-05

CAS #: 7782-42-5

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture
Not a hazardous substance or mixture.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Not a hazardous substance or mixture.
Hazards not otherwise classified (HNOC) or not covered by GHS - none


Formula: C
Molecular weight: 12.01 g/mol
CAS-No.: 7782-42-5
EC-No.: 231-955-3


Description of first aid measures
If inhaled
If breathed in, move person into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration.
In case of skin contact
Wash off with soap and plenty of water.
In case of eye contact
Flush eyes with water as a precaution.
If swallowed
Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water.
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
The most important known symptoms and effects are described in the labelling (see section 2) and/or in section 11
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No data available


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing media
Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
Carbon oxides
Advice for firefighters
Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.
Further information
No data available


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas.
For personal protection see section 8.
Environmental precautions
Do not let product enter drains.
Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up
Sweep up and shovel. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal.
Reference to other sections
For disposal see section 13.


Precautions for safe handling
Further processing of solid materials may result in the formation of combustible dusts. The potential for combustible dust formation should be taken into consideration before additional processing occurs.
Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed.
For precautions see section 2.2.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.
Specific end use(s)
Apart from the uses mentioned in section 1.2 no other specific uses are stipulated


Exposure controls
Appropriate engineering controls
General industrial hygiene practice.
Personal protective equipment
Eye/face protection
Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).
Skin protection
Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique (without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands.
Body Protection
Choose body protection in relation to its type, to the concentration and amount of dangerous substances, and to the specific work-place., The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace.
Respiratory protection
Respiratory protection is not required. Where protection from nuisance levels of dusts are desired, use type N95 (US) or type P1 (EN 143) dust masks. Use respirators and components tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or CEN (EU).
Control of environmental exposure
Do not let product enter drains.


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
Form: Solid in various forms
Colour: Black/ Dark grey
Odour Threshold
No data available
No data available
Melting point/freezing point
Melting point/range: 3,652 -3,697 °C (6,606 -6,687 °F)-lit.
Initial boiling point and boiling range
No data available
Flash point
No data available
Evaporation rate
No data available
Flammability (solid, gas)
No data available
Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits
No data available
Vapour pressure
No data available
Vapour density
No data available
Relative density
No data available
Water solubility
slightly soluble
Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water
No data available
No data available
Decomposition temperature
No data available
No data available
Explosive properties
No data available
Oxidizing properties
No data available
Other safety information
No data available


No data available
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
No data available
Conditions to avoid
No data available
Incompatible materials
Strong oxidizing agents
Hazardous decomposition products
Other decomposition products - No data available
In the event of fire: see section 5


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity
LD50 Oral - Rat - female - > 2,000 mg/kg
(OECD Test Guideline 423)
LC50 Inhalation - Rat - male and female - 4 h - 2,000 mg/m3
(OECD Test Guideline 403)
No data available
No data available
Skin corrosion/irritation
Skin - Rabbit
Result: No skin irritation
(OECD Test Guideline 404)
Serious eye damage/eye irritation
Eyes - Rabbit
Result: No eye irritation
(OECD Test Guideline 405)
Respiratory or skin sensitisation
- Mouse
Did not cause sensitisation on laboratory animals.
(OECD Test Guideline 429)
Germ cell mutagenicity
in vitro assay
S. typhimurium
Result: negative
No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as
probable, possible or confirmed human carcinogen by IARC.
No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a
carcinogen or potential carcinogen by ACGIH.
No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a known or anticipated carcinogen by NTP.
No component of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0.1% is identified as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen by OSHA.
Reproductive toxicity
No data available
No data available
Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure
No data available
Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure
No data available
Aspiration hazard
No data available
Additional Information
Repeated dose toxicity - Rat - male - Feed - No observed adverse effect level - 813 mg/kg
RTECS: MD9659600
To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical, and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated.


Toxicity to fish
semi - static test LC50 - Danio rerio (zebra fish) - > 100 mg/l - 96 h
(OECD Test Guideline 203)
Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates
static test EC50 - Daphnia magna (Water flea) - > 100 mg/l - 48 h
(OECD Test Guideline 202)
Toxicity to algae
static test EC50 - Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata - > 100 mg/l - 72 h
(OECD Test Guideline 201)Persistence and degradability
No data available
Bioaccumulative potential
No data available
Mobility in soil
No data available
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT/vPvB assessment not available as chemical safety assessment not required/not conducted
Other adverse effects
No data available


Waste treatment methods
Offer surplus and non-recyclable solutions to a licensed disposal company.
Contaminated packaging
Dispose of as unused product.


Not dangerous goods
Not dangerous goods
Not dangerous goods


SARA 302 Components
No chemicals in this material are subject to the reporting requirements of SARA Title III, Section 302.
SARA 313 Components
This material does not contain any chemical components with known CAS numbers that exceed the threshold (De Minimis) reporting levels established by SARA Title III, Section 313.
SARA 311/312 Hazards
No SARA Hazards
Massachusetts/Pennsylvania/New Jersey Right To Know Components
CAS-No.: 7782-42-5
Revision Date: 1989-08-11
California Prop. 65 Components
This product does not contain any chemicals known to State of California to cause cancer, birth defects, or any other reproductive harm.


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Carbon Isotopes

Carbon has two stable isotopes: 12C and 13C.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
8C 8.037675(25) 2.0(4) x 10-21 s [230(50) keV] 2p to 6Be 0+ N/A 22.87 -
9C 9.0310367(23) 126.5(9) ms EC to 9B; EC + p to 8Be; EC + 2a to 2H (3/2-) N/A 37.1 -
10C 10.0168532(4) 19.290(12) s EC to 10B 0+ N/A 59.15 -
11C 11.0114336(10) 20.334(24) min EC to 11B 3/2- -0.964 71.89 -
12C 12 exactly STABLE - 0+ 0 90.21 98.93
13C 13.0033548378(10) STABLE - 1/2- 0.702411 95.5 1.07
14C 14.003241989(4) 5.70(3) x 103 yeyrs ß- to 14N 0+ N/A 103.57 -
15C 15.0105993(9) 2.449(5) s ß- to 15N 1/2+ 1.32 105.13 -
16C 16.014701(4) 0.747(8) s ß- to 16N 0+ N/A 109.48 -
17C 17.022586(19) 193(5) ms ß- to 17N; ß- + n to 16N (3/2+) N/A 110.11 -
18C 18.02676(3) 92(2) ms ß- to 18N; ß- + n to 17N 0+ N/A 114.46 -
19C 19.03481(11) 46.2(23) ms ß- + n to 18N; ß- to 19N; ß- + 2n to 17N (1/2+) N/A 115.09 -
20C 20.04032(26) 16(3) ms [14(+6-5) ms] ß- + n to 19N; ß- to 20N 0+ N/A 117.58 -
21C 21.04934(54)# <30 ns n to 20C (1/2+)# N/A 117.27 -
22C 22.05720(97)# 6.2(13) ms [6.1(+14-12) ms] ß- to 22N 0+ N/A 117.9 -