About Hydroxides

Hydroxide Formula Diagram (-OH)

The hydroxide ion consists of one atom each of hydrogen and oxygen held together by a covalent bond, together forming a polyatomic ion with a formal charge of -1. Hydroxides are compounds which contain this ion.

Inorganic hydroxides include hydroxides of alkali and alkali earth metals, many of which are important industrial alkalis such as sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and calcium hydroxide. Boron hydroxide is also known as boric acid, as rather than dissociating in water, it reacts as a Lewis acid, releasing protons. Zinc and lead hydroxides are amphoteric—they can act as acids or bases. Transition metal and post-transition metal hydroxides are insoluble in water.

American Elements manufactures multiple forms of hydroxide compounds including solutions, nanopowders, submicron, and -325 mesh powders, and high surface area materials with particle distribution and particle size controlled and certified. We also produce larger -40 mesh, -100 mesh, -200 mesh range sizes and <0.5 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm and other sizes of shot, granules, lump, flake and pieces. Purities include 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999% and 99.9999% (2N, 3N, 4N, 5N and 6N).

American Elements maintains industrial scale production for all its hydroxide products and will execute Non-Disclosure or Confidentiality Agreements to protect customer know-how.

Hydroxides Products

Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum Hydroxide Acetate Hydrate Aluminum Hydroxide Hydrate
Aluminum Phthalocyanine Hydroxide Aluminum Zirconium Chloride Hydroxide Ammonium Hydroxide Solution
Barium Hydroxide Barium Hydroxide Hydrate Barium Hydroxide Monohydrate
Barium Hydroxide Octahydrate Beryllium Carbonate Hydroxide Beryllium Hydroxide
Bismuth Hydroxide Boric Acid Cadmium Hydroxide
Calcium Hydroxide Cerium Hydroxide Cesium Hydroxide Hydrate
Cesium Hydroxide Monohydrate Cesium Hydroxide Solution Chromium Hydroxide
Chromium(III) Acetate Hydroxide Cobalt Hydroxide Copper Hydroxide
Copper Hydroxide Phosphate Copper Oxychloride Dysprosium Hydroxide
Ferric Hydroxide Oxide Gadolinium Hydroxide Gadolinium(III) Hydroxide Hydrate
Gallium(III) Phthalocyanine Hydroxide Gold Hydroxide Hafnium Hydroxide
Indium Hydroxide Lanthanum Hydroxide Lithium Hexafluorostannate(IV)
Lithium Hydroxide Lithium Hydroxide Anhydrous Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate
Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide Hydrate Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide Pentahydrate Magnesium Hydroxide
Manganese Hydroxide Metatitanic Acid Methylmercury(II) Hydroxide
Neodymium Hydroxide Neodymium(III) Hydroxide Hydrate Nickel Hydroxide
Nickel(II) Carbonate Hydroxide Tetrahydrate Palladium Hydroxide Palladium Hydroxide on Carbon
Potassium Hydroxide Potassium Hydroxide Flake Potassium Hydroxide Hydrate
Potassium Hydroxide Pellets Potassium Hydroxide Solution Praseodymium Hydroxide
Rubidium Hydroxide Rubidium Hydroxide Hydrate Rubidium Hydroxide Solution
Samarium(III) Hydroxide Hydrate Silicon Phthalocyanine Dihydroxide Sodium Borohydride - Sodium Hydroxide Solution
Sodium Deuteroxide Solution Sodium Hydroxide Monohydrate Sodium Hydroxide Pellets
Sodium Hydroxide Solution Sodium Hydroxide, Anhydrous Strontium Hydroxide
Strontium Hydroxide Octahydrate Tetraammineplatinum(II) Hydroxide Hydrate Tetraammineplatinum(II) Hydroxide Solution
Titanium Hydroxide Trimethyltin Hydroxide Triphenyltin Hydroxide
Zinc Chloride Hydroxide Monohydrate Zinc Hydroxide Zirconium Hydroxide
Zirconium(IV) Acetate Hydroxide

Recent Research & Development for Hydroxides

Facile sonochemical synthesis of amorphous NiFe-(oxy)hydroxide nanoparticles as superior electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction., Lee, Eunjik, Park Ah-Hyeon, Park Hyun-Uk, and Kwon Young-Uk , Ultrason Sonochem, 2018 Jan, Volume 40, Issue Pt A, p.552-557, (2018)

ZnFe-Cl nanolayered double hydroxide as a novel catalyst for sonocatalytic degradation of an organic dye., Khataee, Alireza, Arefi-Oskoui Samira, and Samaei Lale , Ultrason Sonochem, 2018 Jan, Volume 40, Issue Pt A, p.703-713, (2018)

Enhanced luminescence of delaminated layered europium hydroxide (LEuH) composites with sensitizer anions of coumarin-3-carboxylic acid., Ma, Lijiao, Yuan Mengwei, Liu Chenyu, Xie Linxia, Su Feifei, Ma Shulan, Sun Genban, and Li Huifeng , Dalton Trans, 2017 Sep 26, Volume 46, Issue 37, p.12724-12731, (2017)

Self-assembly of exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets and layered double hydroxide (LDH): Towards reducing fire hazards of epoxy., Zhou, Keqing, Gao Rui, and Qian Xiaodong , J Hazard Mater, 2017 Sep 15, Volume 338, p.343-355, (2017)

Self-Supported Nickel Iron Layered Double Hydroxide-Nickel Selenide Electrocatalyst for Superior Water Splitting Activity., Dutta, Soumen, Indra Arindam, Feng Yi, Song Taeseup, and Paik Ungyu , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017 Sep 01, (2017)

Dissolution mechanism of cellulose in quaternary ammonium hydroxide: Revisiting through molecular interactions., Zhong, Chao, Cheng Fang, Zhu Yingkui, Gao Zhen, Jia Honghua, and Wei Ping , Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Oct 15, Volume 174, p.400-408, (2017)

Fatigue strength of yttria-stabilized zirconia polycrystals: Effects of grinding, polishing, glazing, and heat treatment., Zucuni, Camila Pauleski, Guilardi Luís Felipe, Rippe Marilia Pivetta, Pereira Gabriel Kalil Roch, and Valandro Luiz Felipe , J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2017 Nov, Volume 75, p.512-520, (2017)

Synthesis and characterization of chitosan/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide composite for the removal of oil particles from oil-in-water emulsion., S Elanchezhiyan, Sd, and Meenakshi Sankaran , Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Nov, Volume 104, Issue Pt B, p.1586-1595, (2017)

Synthetic Applications and Mechanistic Studies of the Hydroxide-Mediated Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Ketones., Mazziotta, Andrea, Makarov Ilya S., Fristrup Peter, and Madsen Robert , J Org Chem, 2017 May 18, (2017)

Preparation of Mesoporous Basic Mixed Metal Oxides through Assembly of Monodispersed Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles., Oka, Yuya, Kuroda Yoshiyuki, Matsuno Takamichi, Kamata Keigo, Wada Hiroaki, Shimojima Atsushi, and Kuroda Kazuyuki , Chemistry, 2017 May 17, (2017)

Effect of double antibiotic and calcium hydroxide pastes on dislodgement resistance of an epoxy resin-based and two calcium silicate-based root canal sealers., Gokturk, Hakan, Bayram Emre, Bayram Huda Melike, Aslan Tugrul, and Ustun Yakup , Clin Oral Investig, 2017 May, Volume 21, Issue 4, p.1277-1282, (2017)

Understanding Nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid) reactions with ferric hydroxide., Martínez, Rodrigo Javier, and Farrell James , Chemosphere, 2017 May, Volume 175, p.490-496, (2017)

Mesoporous-activated carbon prepared from chitosan flakes via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue., Marrakchi, F, Ahmed M J., Khanday W A., Asif M, and Hameed B H. , Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 May, Volume 98, p.233-239, (2017)