About Sulfates

Sulfates are chemical compounds containing the sulfate anion, (SO42-). Sulfates are salts or esters of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, formed by replacing one or both of the hydrogen atoms with a metal cation or organic group. Most metal sulfates are readily soluble in water, but calcium sulfate is only slightly soluble, while barium, lead, and strontium sulfates are insoluble. Sulfates are widely distributed in nature. Barium sulfate occurs as barite; calcium sulfate is found as gypsum, alabaster, and selenite; Epsom salts are magnesium sulfate; sodium sulfate occurs as its decahydrate, Glauber's salt; and strontium sulfate occurs as celestite. Some sulfates were formerly known as vitriols; blue vitriol is cupric sulfate, green vitriol is ferrous sulfate, and white vitriol is zinc sulfate. Sulfates play a significant role both in the chemical industry and in biological systems. Sulfuric acid is used in lead storage batteries and in the manufacture of nitric acid; copper sulfate is a common algicide.

Recent Research & Development for Sulfates

Chicken leg bone as a source of chondroitin sulfate., Wang, Xiaojun, Shen Qingshan, Zhang Chunhui, Jia Wei, Han Ling, and Yu Qunli , Carbohydr Polym, 2019 Mar 01, Volume 207, p.191-199, (2019)

Effects of ferric sulfate and polyaluminum chloride coagulation enhanced treatment wetlands on Typha growth, soil and water chemistry., Liang, Yan Ling, Kraus Tamara E. C., Silva Lucas C. R., Bachand Philip A. M., Bachand Sandra M., Doane Timothy A., and Horwath William R. , Sci Total Environ, 2019 Jan 15, Volume 648, p.116-124, (2019)

The interfacial reactivity of arsenic species with green rust sulfate (GR)., Perez, Jeffrey Paulo H., Freeman Helen M., Schuessler Jan A., and Benning Liane G. , Sci Total Environ, 2019 Jan 15, Volume 648, p.1161-1170, (2019)

Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium as double salts in PM: Direct observations and implications for haze events., Sun, Zhenli, Duan Fengkui, He Kebin, Du Jingjing, and Zhu Lidan , Sci Total Environ, 2019 Jan 10, Volume 647, p.204-209, (2019)

Protamine sulfate for the reversal of enoxaparin associated hemorrhage beyond 12 h., Lauer, Brian R., Nelson Richard A., Adamski John H., Gibbons Joseph, Janko Matthew R., Ravi Gayathri, and Barcelona Robert A. , Am J Emerg Med, 2019 Jan, Volume 37, Issue 1, p.174.e5-174.e6, (2019)

Chemical reaction between sodium pyruvate and ammonium sulfate in aerosol particles and resultant sodium sulfate efflorescence., Yang, Hui, Wang Na, Pang Shu-Feng, Zheng Chuan-Ming, and Zhang Yun-Hong , Chemosphere, 2019 Jan, Volume 215, p.554-562, (2019)

Establishment of highly sensitive analytical method for chondroitin sulfate by flow injection chemiluminescence., Zhang, Siying, Zhou Guanglian, Zhang Xiao, Chen Dong, Liu Jian, and Liu Xiumei , Carbohydr Polym, 2019 Feb 15, Volume 206, p.504-510, (2019)

Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate from corb (Sciaena umbra) skin: Purification, structural analysis and anticoagulant effect., Bougatef, Hajer, Krichen Fatma, Capitani Federica, Ben Amor Ikram, Maccari Francesca, Mantovani Veronica, Galeotti Fabio, Volpi Nicola, Bougatef Ali, and Sila Assaad , Carbohydr Polym, 2018 Sep 15, Volume 196, p.272-278, (2018)

Structural characterization and in vitro antioxidant activities of chondroitin sulfate purified from Andrias davidianus cartilage., Zhu, Wenming, Ji Yang, Wang Yi, He Dong, Yan Yishu, Su Nan, Zhang Chong, and Xing Xin-Hui , Carbohydr Polym, 2018 Sep 15, Volume 196, p.398-404, (2018)

Synthesis of Magnetic CoFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles and Their Efficient Degradation of Diclofenac by Activating Persulfate via Formation of Sulfate Radicals., Zhang, Huixuan, Li Huarui, Wang Zhongjuan, Li Bo, Cheng Xiuwen, and Cheng Qingfeng , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2018 Oct 01, Volume 18, Issue 10, p.6942-6948, (2018)

New insights into the enhancement of biochemical degradation potential from waste activated sludge with low organic content by Potassium Monopersulfate treatment., Jin, Baodan, Niu Jintao, Dai Jingwen, Li Nuonan, Zhou Ping, Niu Jiahui, Zhang Ju, Tao Hongfan, Ma Zhigang, and Zhang Zhongfang , Bioresour Technol, 2018 Oct, Volume 265, p.8-16, (2018)

Growth and antioxidant response in Ceratophyllum demersum L. under sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), phenol and joint stress., Liu, Nian, and Wu Zhonghua , Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2018 Nov 15, Volume 163, p.188-195, (2018)

Performance of two differently designed permeable reactive barriers with sulfate and zinc solutions., Pérez, Norma, Schwarz Alex O., Barahona Esteban, Sanhueza Pamela, Diaz Isabel, and Urrutia Homero , Sci Total Environ, 2018 Nov 15, Volume 642, p.894-903, (2018)

Mapping magnesium sulfate salts from saline mine discharge with airborne hyperspectral data., Pfitzner, Kirrilly S., Harford Andrew J., Whiteside Timothy G., and Bartolo Renee E. , Sci Total Environ, 2018 Nov 01, Volume 640-641, p.1259-1271, (2018)

Multi-zinc oxide-cores@uni-barium sulfate-shell with improved photo-, thermal-, and ambient-stability: Non-equilibrium sorption fabrication and light-emitting diodes application., Liang, Ya-Chuan, Liu Kai-Kai, Wu Xue-Ying, Lu Xian-Li, Lu Ying-Jie, Zhao Qi, and Shan Chong-Xin , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Nov 01, Volume 529, p.1-10, (2018)