About Sulfates

Sulfates are chemical compounds containing the sulfate anion, (SO42-). Sulfates are salts or esters of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, formed by replacing one or both of the hydrogen atoms with a metal cation or organic group. Most metal sulfates are readily soluble in water, but calcium sulfate is only slightly soluble, while barium, lead, and strontium sulfates are insoluble. Sulfates are widely distributed in nature. Barium sulfate occurs as barite; calcium sulfate is found as gypsum, alabaster, and selenite; Epsom salts are magnesium sulfate; sodium sulfate occurs as its decahydrate, Glauber's salt; and strontium sulfate occurs as celestite. Some sulfates were formerly known as vitriols; blue vitriol is cupric sulfate, green vitriol is ferrous sulfate, and white vitriol is zinc sulfate. Sulfates play a significant role both in the chemical industry and in biological systems. Sulfuric acid is used in lead storage batteries and in the manufacture of nitric acid; copper sulfate is a common algicide.

American Elements manufactures multiple forms of sulfate compounds including solutions, nanopowders, submicron, and -325 mesh powders, and high surface area materials with particle distribution and particle size controlled and certified. We also produce larger -40 mesh, -100 mesh, -200 mesh range sizes and <0.5 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm and other sizes of shot, granules, lump, flake and pieces. Purities include 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999% and 99.9999% (2N, 3N, 4N, 5N and 6N).

American Elements maintains industrial scale production for all its sulfate products and will execute Non-Disclosure or Confidentiality Agreements to protect customer know-how.

Sulfates Products

Aluminum Cesium Sulfate Dodecahydrate Aluminum Potassium Sulfate Dodecahydrate Aluminum Sodium Sulfate
Aluminum Sodium Sulfate Dodecahydrate Aluminum Sulfate (Anhydrous) Aluminum Sulfate Hexadecahydrate
Aluminum Sulfate Hydrate Aluminum Sulfate Octadecahydrate Aluminum Sulfate Solution
Ammonium Nickel(II) Sulfate Hexahydrate Ammonium Persulfate Ammonium Sulfate
Ammonium Zinc Sulfate Hydrate Antimony Sulfate Solution Antimony(III) Sulfate
Barium Sulfate Barium Sulfate Solution Beryllium Sulfate Solution
Beryllium Sulfate Tetrahydrate Bismuth Sulfate Bismuth Sulfate Solution
Cadmium Sulfate Hydrate Cadmium Sulfate Octahydrate Cadmium Sulfate Solution
Cadmium Sulfate, Anhydrous Calcium Sulfate Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate
Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Calcium Sulfate Solution Cerium Sulfate Solution
Cerium(III) Sulfate Cerium(III) Sulfate Hydrate Cerium(III) Sulfate Octahydrate
Cerium(IV) Sulfate Cerium(IV) Sulfate Hydrate Cerium(IV) Sulfate Hydrate, Complex with Sulfuric Acid
Cerium(IV) Sulfate Tetrahydrate Cesium Iridium Sulfate Dodecahydrate Cesium Sulfate
Cesium Sulfate Solution Chromium Potassium Sulfate Chromium Sulfate
Chromium Sulfate Basic Chromium Sulfate Hydrate Chromium Sulfate Solution
Chromium(III) Potassium Sulfate Dodecahydrate Chromium(III) Potassium Sulfate Solution Cobalt Sulfate
Cobalt Sulfate Hydrate Cobalt Sulfate Solution Cobalt(II) Sulfate Heptahydrate
Copper Sulfate Copper Sulfate Basic Copper Sulfate Monohydrate
Copper Sulfate Solution Copper Tetraammine Sulfate Hydrate Copper(II) Sulfate Pentahydrate
Cupric Sulfate Anhydrous Dihydrogen Dinitrosulfatoplatinate(II) Solution Dysprosium Sulfate Octahydrate
Dysprosium Sulfate Solution Erbium Sulfate Erbium Sulfate Solution
Erbium(III) Sulfate Hydrate Erbium(III) Sulfate Octahydrate Europium Sodium Sulfate
Europium Sulfate Europium Sulfate Solution Europium(III) Sulfate Hydrate
Europium(III) Sulfate Octahydrate Ferric Subsulfate Ferric Subsulfate Solution
Ferric Sulfate Ferric Sulfate Hydrate Ferrous Sulfate
Gadolinium Sulfate Gadolinium Sulfate Solution Gadolinium(III) Sulfate Octahydrate
Gallium Sulfate Gallium Sulfate Solution Gallium(III) Sulfate Hydrate
Gold Sulfate Gold Sulfate Solution Gold(I) Sodium Thiosulfate Hydrate
Hafnium Sulfate Hafnium Sulfate Solution Holmium Sulfate
Holmium Sulfate Solution Holmium(III) Sulfate Octahydrate Indium Sulfate
Indium Sulfate Solution Indium(III) Sulfate Hydrate Iridium Sulfate
Iridium Sulfate Solution Iron Sulfate Solution Iron(II) Sulfate Heptahydrate
Iron(II) Sulfate Hydrate Lanthanum Sulfate Lanthanum Sulfate Solution
Lanthanum(III) Sulfate Hydrate Lead Sulfate Lead Sulfate Solution
Lithium Dodecyl Sulfate Lithium Sulfate Lithium Sulfate Monohydrate
Lithium Sulfate Solution Lithium-6 Sulfate Lithopone
Lutetium Sulfate Lutetium Sulfate Solution Lutetium(III) Sulfate Hydrate
Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate Magnesium Sulfate Hexahydrate
Magnesium Sulfate Hydrate Magnesium Sulfate Monohydrate Magnesium Sulfate Solution
Manganese Sulfate Monohydrate Manganese Sulfate Solution Manganese(II) Sulfate
Manganese(II) Sulfate Hydrate Manganese(II) Sulfate Tetrahydrate Mercury(I) Sulfate
Mercury(II) Sulfate Molybdenum Sulfate Molybdenum Sulfate Solution
Neodymium Sulfate Neodymium Sulfate Solution Neodymium(III) Sulfate Hydrate
Neodymium(III) Sulfate Octahydrate Nickel Sulfate Nickel Sulfate Anhydrous
Nickel Sulfate Solution Nickel(II) Sulfate Heptahydrate Palladium Sulfate
Palladium Sulfate Solution Palladium(II) Potassium Thiosulfate Monohydrate Palladium(II) Sulfate Dihydrate
Platinum Sulfate Platinum Sulfate Solution Potassium Bisulfate
Potassium Dinitrosulfatopalladate(II) Solution Potassium Disulfate Potassium Disulfitopalladate(II)
Potassium Fluorosulfate Potassium Monoperoxysulfate Potassium Peroxydisulfate
Potassium Persulfate Potassium Sulfate Potassium Sulfate Solution
Potassium Thiosulfate Praseodymium Sulfate Praseodymium Sulfate Solution
Praseodymium(III) Sulfate Octahydrate Propylene Sulfate Rhodium on Barium Sulfate
Rhodium Sulfate Rhodium Sulfate Solution Rhodium(III) Sulfate Tetrahydrate
Rubidium Sulfate Rubidium Sulfate Solution Ruthenium Sulfate
Ruthenium Sulfate Solution Ruthenium(III) Nitrosylsulfate Samarium Sulfate Solution
Samarium(III) Sulfate Octahydrate Samarium(III) Sulfate, Anhydrous Scandium Sulfate
Scandium Sulfate Octahydrate Scandium Sulfate Pentahydrate Scandium Sulfate Solution
Silver Sulfate Silver Sulfate Solution Sodium Bisulfate Monohydrate
Sodium Cholesteryl Sulfate Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate
Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate Sodium Persulfate Sodium Sulfate
Sodium Sulfate Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate Decahydrate Sodium Sulfate Solution
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Sodium Thiosulfate Anhydrous Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate
Sodium Thiosulfate Solution Strontium Sulfate Strontium Sulfate Solution
Tellurium Sulfate Solution Terbium Sulfate Octahydrate Terbium Sulfate Solution
Tetraamminecopper(II) Sulfate Monohydrate Tetraamminepalladium(II) Sulfate Thallium Sulfate
Thallium Sulfate Solution Thulium Sulfate Thulium Sulfate Octahydrate
Thulium Sulfate Solution Tin Sulfate Solution Tin(II) Sulfate
Tin(IV) Sulfate Titanium Oxysulfate Dihydrate Titanium Sulfate
Titanium(III) Sulfate Solution Titanium(IV) Oxysulfate Titanium(IV) Oxysulfate - Sulfuric Acid Hydrate
Titanium(IV) Oxysulfate Solution Titanium(IV) Sulfate Hydrate Titanium(IV) Sulfate Solution
Vanadium Oxysulfate Hydrate Vanadium Sulfate Vanadium Sulfate Solution
Vanadium(IV) Oxide Sulfate Hydrate Vanadyl Sulfate Vanadyl Sulfate Pentahydrate
Ytterbium Sulfate Ytterbium Sulfate Solution Yttrium Sulfate
Yttrium Sulfate Solution Zinc Sulfate Zinc Sulfate Heptahydrate
Zinc Sulfate Monohydrate Zinc Sulfate Solution Zirconium Sulfate
Zirconium Sulfate Solution

Recent Research & Development for Sulfates

High temperature dielectric properties of spent adsorbent with zinc sulfate by cavity perturbation technique., Lin, Guo, Liu Chenhui, Zhang Libo, Hu Tu, Peng Jinhui, Li Jing, and Wang Shixing , J Hazard Mater, 2017 May 15, Volume 330, p.36-45, (2017)

Highly sensitive ratiometric detection of heparin and its oversulfated chondroitin sulfate contaminant by fluorescent peptidyl probe., Mehta, Pramod Kumar, Lee Hyeri, and Lee Keun-Hyeung , Biosens Bioelectron, 2017 May 15, Volume 91, p.545-552, (2017)

Astragalus polysaccharides protect against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by inhibiting NF-κВ activation., Lv, Jun, Zhang Yahong, Tian Zhiqiang, Liu Fang, Shi Ying, Liu Yao, and Xia Peiyuan , Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 May, Volume 98, p.723-729, (2017)

Ropinirole-dextran sulfate nanoplex for nasal administration against Parkinson's disease: in silico molecular modeling and in vitro-ex vivo evaluation., Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing Vijaysing, and Belgamwar Veena Shailendra , Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2017 May, Volume 45, Issue 3, p.635-648, (2017)

Purification, structural characterization and anticoagulant properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate isolated from Holothuria mexicana., Mou, Jiaojiao, Wang Cong, Li Wenjing, and Yang Jie , Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 May, Volume 98, p.208-215, (2017)

Isocyanide-Induced Activation of Copper Sulfate: Direct Access to Functionalized Heteroarene Sulfonic Esters., Hong, Xiaohu, Tan Qitao, Liu Bingxin, and Xu Bin , Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2017 Mar 27, Volume 56, Issue 14, p.3961-3965, (2017)

A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate., Restaino, Odile Francesca, Finamore Rosario, Diana Paola, Marseglia Mariacarmela, Vitiello Mario, Casillo Angela, Bedini Emiliano, Parrilli Michelangelo, Corsaro Maria Michela, Trifuoggi Marco, et al. , Anal Chim Acta, 2017 Mar 15, Volume 958, p.59-70, (2017)

Combined iron and sulfate reduction biostimulation as a novel approach to enhance BTEX and PAH source-zone biodegradation in biodiesel blend-contaminated groundwater., Müller, Juliana B., Ramos Débora T., Larose Catherine, Fernandes Marilda, Lazzarin Helen S. C., Vogel Timothy M., and Corseuil Henry X. , J Hazard Mater, 2017 Mar 15, Volume 326, p.229-236, (2017)

Surface-active bismuth ferrite as superior peroxymonosulfate activator for aqueous sulfamethoxazole removal: Performance, mechanism and quantification of sulfate radical., Da Oh, Wen-, Dong ZhiLi, Ronn Goei, and Lim Teik-Thye , J Hazard Mater, 2017 Mar 05, Volume 325, p.71-81, (2017)

Development, characterization and biocompatibility of chondroitin sulfate/poly(vinyl alcohol)/bovine bone powder porous biocomposite., da Silva, Gabriela T., Voss Guilherme T., Kaplum Vanessa, Nakamura Celso V., Wilhelm Ethel A., Luchese Cristiane, and Fajardo André R. , Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Mar 01, Volume 72, p.526-535, (2017)

A tracheal scaffold of gelatin-chondroitin sulfate-hyaluronan-polyvinyl alcohol with orientated porous structure., Yu, Xueping, Qian Guowen, Chen Si, Xu Dong, Zhao Xiujuan, and Du Chang , Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Mar 01, Volume 159, p.20-28, (2017)

Performance of a MALDI-TOF MS-based imipenem hydrolysis assay incorporating zinc sulfate., Knox, James, and Palombo Enzo , Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2017 Mar, Volume 87, Issue 3, p.258-260, (2017)

Persistent Epithelial Defects and Corneal Opacity After Collagen Cross-Linking With Substitution of Dextran (T-500) With Dextran Sulfate in Compounded Topical Riboflavin., Höllhumer, Roland, Watson Stephanie, and Beckingsale Peter , Cornea, 2017 Mar, Volume 36, Issue 3, p.382-385, (2017)

Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure With Hemoptysis in a Dog Exposed to Copper Sulfate Powder., Giudice, Elisabetta, Crinò Chiara, Lanzafame Paola, Viganò Fabio, Macrì Francesco, and Di Pietro Simona , Top Companion Anim Med, 2017 Mar, Volume 32, Issue 1, p.36-40, (2017)

Melt-compounded composites of ethylene vinyl acetate with magnesium sulfate as flexible EPR dosimeters: Mechanical properties, manufacturing process feasibility and dosimetric characteristics., Suman, S K., Kadam R M., Mondal R K., Murali S, Dubey K A., Bhardwaj Y K., and Natarajan V , Appl Radiat Isot, 2017 Mar, Volume 121, p.82-86, (2017)