About Phthalocyanines

Phthalocyanines are organometallic coordination complexes composed of phthalocyanine (C32H18N8, abbreviated H2PC) with another metallic element. Phthalocyanines are brilliant blue to green colored and thus are used as synthetic pigments in the industrial fields of paper manufacturing, textile dying, and microscopy staining. Additional applications include organic and printed electronics, semiconductor devices, and catalysis.

One of the most widely used phthalocyanine complex is copper phthalocyanine (CuPC), a vivid blue compound that is highly stable and insoluble in water. Copper phthalocyanine is the most used pigment in fine art paints, in which it is known by numerous synonyms such as Winsor blue, Monstral blue, phthalo blue, C.I. Pigment Blue 15:2, Cu-Phthaloblue, PB-15, PB-36, C.I. 74160, British Rail blue, and others. It has also been investigated as a material for polymer and perovskite photovolaic cells, quantum computing, and light-emitting diodes.

American Elements manufactures numerous high purity phthalocyanine compounds with a range of dye content (typically 85-99%) and in various grades. Custom compositions are available

American Elements maintains industrial scale production for all its phthalocyanine products and will execute Non-Disclosure or Confidentiality Agreements to protect customer know-how.

Recent Research & Development for Phthalocyanines

Phthalocyanine supported dinuclear Ln(III) complexes: the solvent-induced change of magnetic properties in dysprosium(iii) analogues., Ge, Jing-Yuan, Wang Hai-Ying, Li Jing, Xie Jia-Ze, Song You, and Zuo Jing-Lin , Dalton Trans, 2017 Mar 07, Volume 46, Issue 10, p.3353-3362, (2017)

A novel glucose sensor using lutetium phthalocyanine as redox mediator in reduced graphene oxide conducting polymer multifunctional hydrogel., Al-Sagur, H, Komathi S, Khan M A., Gurek A G., and Hassan A , Biosens Bioelectron, 2017 Jun 15, Volume 92, p.638-645, (2017)

Through-space electronic communication of zinc phthalocyanine with substituted [60]Fullerene bearing O2Nxaza-crown macrocyclic ligands., Ghanbari, Bahram, Shahhoseini Leila, Mahlooji Niloofar, Gholamnezhad Parisa, and Rizi Zahra Taheri , Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2017 Jan 15, Volume 171, p.330-339, (2017)

A Ru-Ru pair housed in ruthenium phthalocyanine: the role of a "cage" architecture in the molecule coupling with the Ag(111) surface., Alippi, Paola, Lanzilotto Valeria, Paoletti Anna Maria, Mattioli Giuseppe, Zanotti Gloria, Pennesi Giovanna, Filippone Francesco, Cossaro Albano, Verdini Alberto, Morgante Alberto, et al. , Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2017 Jan 04, Volume 19, Issue 2, p.1449-1457, (2017)

Application of aluminum chloride phthalocyanine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for photodynamic inactivation of melanoma cells., Goto, Patrícia L., Siqueira-Moura Marigilson P., and Tedesco Antonio C. , Int J Pharm, 2017 Feb 25, Volume 518, Issue 1-2, p.228-241, (2017)

Raman and Luminescent Spectra of Sulfonated Zn Phthalocyanine Enhanced by Gold Nanoparticles., Kavelin, V, Fesenko O, Dubyna H, Vidal C, Klar T A., Hrelescu C, and Dolgov L , Nanoscale Res Lett, 2017 Dec, Volume 12, Issue 1, p.197, (2017)

Surface Functionalization with Copper Tetraaminophthalocyanine Enables Efficient Charge Transport in Indium Tin Oxide Nanocrystal Thin Films., Khoshkhoo, Mahdi Samadi, Maiti Santanu, Schreiber Frank, Chassé Thomas, and Scheele Marcus , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017 Apr 26, Volume 9, Issue 16, p.14197-14206, (2017)

Tetrabutylammonium Salts of Aluminum(III) and Gallium(III) Phthalocyanine Radical Anions Bonded with Fluoren-9-olato(-) Anions and Indium(III) Phthalocyanine Bromide Radical Anions., Konarev, Dmitri V., Khasanov Salavat S., Ishikawa Manabu, Nakano Yoshiaki, Otsuka Akihiro, Yamochi Hideki, Saito Gunzi, and Lyubovskaya Rimma N. , Chem Asian J, 2017 Apr 18, Volume 12, Issue 8, p.910-919, (2017)

Combined regimen of photodynamic therapy mediated by Gallium phthalocyanine chloride and Metformin enhances anti-melanoma efficacy., Tudor, Diana, Nenu Iuliana, Filip Gabriela Adriana, Olteanu Diana, Cenariu Mihai, Tabaran Flaviu, Ion Rodica Mariana, Gligor Lucian, and Baldea Ioana , PLoS One, 2017, Volume 12, Issue 3, p.e0173241, (2017)

Self-floating graphitic carbon nitride/zinc phthalocyanine nanofibers for photocatalytic degradation of contaminants., Xu, Tiefeng, Ni Dongjing, Chen Xia, Wu Fei, Ge Pengfei, Lu Wangyang, Hu Hongguang, Zhu ZheXin, and Chen Wenxing , J Hazard Mater, 2016 Nov 5, Volume 317, p.17-26, (2016)

Generation of transparent oxygen evolution electrode consisting of regularly-ordered nanoparticles from self-assembly cobalt phthalocyanine as a template., Ziani, Ahmed, Shinagawa Tatsuya, Stegenburga Liga, and Takanabe Kazuhiro , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016 Nov 4, (2016)

Photodynamic inactivation of pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans with lutetium (III) acetate phthalocyanines and specific light irradiation., Mantareva, Vanya, Kussovski Vesselin, Durmuş Mahmut, Borisova Ekaterina, and Angelov Ivan , Lasers Med Sci, 2016 Nov, Volume 31, Issue 8, p.1591-1598, (2016)

Remarkable thermal stability of gold nanoparticles functionalised with ruthenium phthalocyanine complexes., King, Shirin R., Shimmon Susan, Gentle Angus R., Westerhausen Mika T., Dowd Annette, and McDonagh Andrew M. , Nanotechnology, 2016 May 27, Volume 27, Issue 21, p.215702, (2016)

Axial PEGylation of Tin Octabutoxy Naphthalocyanine Extends Blood Circulation for Photoacoustic Vascular Imaging., Huang, Haoyuan, Wang Depeng, Zhang Yuzhen, Zhou Yang, Geng Jumin, Chitgupi Upendra, Cook Timothy R., Xia Jun, and Lovell Jonathan F. , Bioconjug Chem, 2016 Jun 3, (2016)

Lutetium(III) acetate phthalocyanines for photodynamic therapy applications: Synthesis and photophysicochemical properties., Mantareva, Vanya, Durmuş Mahmut, Aliosman Meliha, Stoineva Ivanka, and Angelov Ivan , Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther, 2016 Jun, Volume 14, p.98-103, (2016)