About Chromates

Chromate Ion

Chromate salts contain the anion CrO42-, while dichromate salts contain the dichromate anion, Cr2O72-. Both classes of compounds contain chromium in the oxidation state +6--hexavalent chromium--and act as strong oxidizing agents. Water soluble chromates are frequently used in chrome electroplating processes used to protect underlying metals from corrosion or improve paint adhesion. Chromate conversion coating, a process which uses oxidants to passivate certain metal alloy surfaces, may utilize chromate derived from chromic acid. Non-soluble chromates have strong colors and have been used as pigments. Because hexavalent chromium is now known to be toxic, chromate waste disposal is regulated and chromate usage is declining in areas where there are suitable substitutes. In particular, chromium pigments such as chrome yellow, widely recognized as the color of American school buses, have largely fallen out of use in favor of safer pigment compounds.

Recent Research & Development for Chromates

Chromate exposure induces DNA hypermethylation of the mismatch repair gene MLH1 in lung cancer., Tsuboi, Mitsuhiro, Kondo Kazuya, Soejima Shiho, Kajiura Koichiro, Kawakita Naoya, Toba Hiroaki, Kawakami Yukikiyo, Yoshida Mitsuteru, Takizawa Hiromitsu, and Tangoku Akira , Mol Carcinog, 2020 Jan, Volume 59, Issue 1, p.24-31, (2020)

Autochthonous N-doped carbon nanotube/activated carbon composites derived from industrial paper sludge for chromate (VI) reduction in microbial fuel cells., Zhou, Shaofeng, Zhang Beiping, Liao Zhiyang, Zhou Lihua, and Yuan Yong , Sci Total Environ, 2020 Apr 10, Volume 712, p.136513, (2020)

A hybrid iron oxyhydroxide agglomerates-ultrafiltration process for efficient removal of chromate., Wei, Zongsu, Semiat Raphael, and Shemer Hilla , Environ Technol, 2020 Apr 03, p.1-19, (2020)

A concise and mild green synthetic route of sodium chromate through ferrochrome electrochemical oxidation and in-situ purification., Li, Bo, Han Ping, Zhang Bo, Feng Haitao, Li Wu, and Dong Yaping , J Hazard Mater, 2020 04 05, Volume 387, p.121699, (2020)

Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to chromate reduction in a methane-based membrane biofilm batch reactor., Dong, Qiu-Yi, Wang Zhen, Shi Ling-Dong, Lai Chun-Yu, and Zhao He-Ping , Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Sep, Volume 26, Issue 25, p.26286-26292, (2019)

Experimental modeling of the acute toxicity and cytogenotoxic fate of composite mixtures of chromate, copper and arsenate oxides associated with CCA preservative using Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)., Fagbenro, Olukunle S., Alimba Chibuisi G., and Bakare Adekunle A. , Environ Anal Health Toxicol, 2019 Sep, Volume 34, Issue 3, p.e2019010, (2019)

Effects of accelerated aging on characteristics, leaching, and toxicity of commercial lead chromate pigmented microplastics., Luo, Hongwei, Li Yu, Zhao Yaoyao, Xiang Yahui, He Dongqin, and Pan Xiangliang , Environ Pollut, 2019 Oct 31, p.113475, (2019)

Insights into the mode of flavin mononucleotide binding and catalytic mechanism of bacterial chromate reductases: A molecular dynamics simulation study., Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar, Singh Nihar Ranjan, Dehury Budheswar, Panda Debashis, Modi Mahendra Kumar, and Thatoi Hrudayanath , J Cell Biochem, 2019 May 26, (2019)

Structural characteristics of cake layer in membrane bioreactor with chromate exposure., Zhou, Lijie, Ye Biao, and Xia Siqing , Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2019 Mar, Volume 169, p.583-589, (2019)

Reduction of chromate with UV/diacetyl for the final effluent to be below the discharge limit., Wu, Bingdang, Zhang Li, Wei Shijie, Ou'Yang Lixue, Yin Ran, and Zhang Shujuan , J Hazard Mater, 2019 Dec 09, p.121841, (2019)

Putting the Squeeze on Lead Chromate Nanorods., Yuan, Hongsheng, Rodriguez-Hernandez Placida, Muñoz Alfonso, and Errandonea Daniel , J Phys Chem Lett, 2019 Aug 15, Volume 10, Issue 16, p.4744-4751, (2019)

Association of blood chromium and rare earth elements with the risk of DNA damage in chromate exposed population., Bai, Yi, Long Changmao, Hu Guiping, Zhou Di, Gao Xiaoying, Chen Zhangjian, Wang Tiancheng, Yu Shanfa, Han Youli, and Yan Lailai , Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 2019 Aug 01, Volume 72, p.103237, (2019)

[Early effects of low-level long-term occupational chromate exposure on workers'health]., Liu, J X., Hu G P., Zhao L, Zhang Y M., Wang L, Jia G, Liu R X., Feng H M., and Xu H D. , Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban, 2019 Apr 18, Volume 51, Issue 2, p.307-314, (2019)

Adsorption mechanisms of chromate and phosphate on hydrotalcite: A combination of macroscopic and spectroscopic studies., Hsu, Liang-Ching, Tzou Yu-Min, Chiang Po-Neng, Fu Wei-Min, Wang Ming-Kuang, Teah Heng Yi, and Liu Yu-Ting , Environ Pollut, 2019 Apr, Volume 247, p.180-187, (2019)