About Carbonates

Carbonates are salts or esters of carbonic acid and contain the carbonate ion, CO32−. Most carbonate salts are insoluble in water, but those that are soluble—carbonates of lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, and uranium—produce alkaline aqueous solutions. Metal carbonates decompose into carbon dioxide and a metal oxide upon heating, a process known as calcination. This name is derived from calx, the Latin name of calcium oxide or quick lime, which is produced by roasting calcium carbonate minerals, known commonly as limestone, in a kiln. Many naturally-occurring minerals including calcite, dolomite, and aragonite, also consist of or contain carbonates. Calcium carbonate and carbonates of other alkali and alkali earth metals are important chemical commodities, and among other uses are found as drying agents, electrolytes, buffering or pH adjusting agents, and fluxes in the production of ceramics and glass. Other metal carbonates are primarily used as sources of the metal they contain or as chemical reagents/catalysts.

Recent Research & Development for Carbonates

Refined protocol for δ C analysis of calcite and dolomite in carbonate mixture samples., Du, Yong, and Song Huyue , Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom, 2020 May 30, Volume 34, Issue 10, p.e8743, (2020)

In Vitro Performance and Chemical Stability of Lipid-Based Formulations Encapsulated in a Mesoporous Magnesium Carbonate Carrier., Alvebratt, Caroline, Dening Tahnee J., Åhlén Michelle, Cheung Ocean, Strømme Maria, Gogoll Adolf, Prestidge Clive A., and Bergström Christel A. S. , Pharmaceutics, 2020 May 06, Volume 12, Issue 5, (2020)

Lithium and strontium isotope dynamics in a carbonate island aquifer, Rottnest Island, Western Australia., Martin, A N., Meredith K, Norman M D., Bryan E, and Baker A , Sci Total Environ, 2020 May 01, Volume 715, p.136906, (2020)

Isolation of selenate from selenite, carbonate, phosphate, and arsenate solutions for δO-selenate determination., Xia, Lichao, Schellenger Alexandra E. P., Onnis-Hayden Annalisa, Jaisi Deb, and Larese-Casanova Philip , Isotopes Environ Health Stud, 2020 Mar 05, p.1-17, (2020)

Lower soil carbon stocks in exotic vs. native grasslands are driven by carbonate losses., Wilsey, Brian, Xu Xia, H Polley Wayne, Hofmockel Kirsten, and Hall Steven J. , Ecology, 2020 Mar 05, p.e03039, (2020)

Fabrication of porous carbonate apatite granules using microfiber and its histological evaluations in rabbit calvarial bone defects., Akita, Kazuya, Fukuda Naoyuki, Kamada Kumiko, Kudoh Keiko, Kurio Naito, Tsuru Kanji, Ishikawa Kunio, and Miyamoto Youji , J Biomed Mater Res A, 2020 Mar, Volume 108, Issue 3, p.709-721, (2020)

Effect of molten sodium nitrate on the decomposition pathways of hydrated magnesium hydroxycarbonate to magnesium oxide probed by in situ total scattering., Rekhtina, Margarita, Dal Pozzo Alessandro, Stoian Dragos, Armutlulu Andac, Donat Felix, Blanco Maria V., Wang Zhu-Jun, Willinger Marc-Georg, Fedorov Alexey, Abdala Paula M., et al. , Nanoscale, 2020 Jun 01, (2020)

Preliminary study on the correlation between the trace Mn and the calcite polymorph in gallstones containing calcium carbonate from the northeast China via electron spin resonance., Lu, Da-Yong, Gao Xiang-Lu, Chi Yu, Wang Hong-Guang, Yang Xue, and Qiao Tie , J Trace Elem Med Biol, 2020 Jul, Volume 60, p.126494, (2020)

Chloride Resistance of Portland Cement-Based Mortar Incorporating High Aluminate Cement and Calcium Carbonate., Lee, Yunsu, Lim Seungmin, and Lee Hanseung , Materials (Basel), 2020 Jan 12, Volume 13, Issue 2, (2020)

Excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) luminescence mechanism for 4-N,N-diethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone in propylene carbonate, acetonitrile and the mixed solvents., Chen, Yan, Piao Yongzhe, Feng Xia, Yu Xi, Jin Xiaoning, and Zhao Guangjiu , Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2020 Jan 05, Volume 224, p.117416, (2020)

Carbon dioxide, bicarbonate and carbonate ions in aqueous solutions under deep Earth conditions., Dettori, Riccardo, and Donadio Davide , Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2020 Feb 27, (2020)

Liquid Degradable Poly(trimethylene-carbonate--5-hydroxy-trimethylene carbonate): An Injectable Drug Delivery Vehicle for Acid-Sensitive Drugs., Mohajeri, Sara, Chen Fei, de Prinse Mitchell, Phung Ta, Burke-Kleinman Jonah, Maurice Donald H., and Amsden Brian G. , Mol Pharm, 2020 Feb 24, (2020)

Boron incorporation into precipitated calcium carbonates affected by aqueous pH and boron concentration., Kobayashi, Kazuki, Hashimoto Yohey, and Wang Shan-Li , J Hazard Mater, 2020 Feb 05, Volume 383, p.121183, (2020)

Synthesis and assessment of metallic ion migration through a novel calcium carbonate coating for biomedical implants., Bang, Le Thi, Filho Luimar C., Engqvist Håkan, Xia Wei, and Persson Cecilia , J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2020 Feb, Volume 108, Issue 2, p.429-438, (2020)

Synthesis of Manganese Carbonate Templates with Different Morphologies and Their Application in Preparing Hollow MoS₂ Micro/Nanostructures for Photocatalysis., Lu, Yun, Gao Rui, Song Jimei, Li Wenfang, and Hu Gang , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2020 Apr 01, Volume 20, Issue 4, p.2239-2246, (2020)