About Carbonates

Carbonates are salts or esters of carbonic acid and contain the carbonate ion, CO32−. Most carbonate salts are insoluble in water, but those that are soluble—carbonates of lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, and uranium—produce alkaline aqueous solutions. Metal carbonates decompose into carbon dioxide and a metal oxide upon heating, a process known as calcination. This name is derived from calx, the Latin name of calcium oxide or quick lime, which is produced by roasting calcium carbonate minerals, known commonly as limestone, in a kiln. Many naturally-occurring minerals including calcite, dolomite, and aragonite, also consist of or contain carbonates. Calcium carbonate and carbonates of other alkali and alkali earth metals are important chemical commodities, and among other uses are found as drying agents, electrolytes, buffering or pH adjusting agents, and fluxes in the production of ceramics and glass. Other metal carbonates are primarily used as sources of the metal they contain or as chemical reagents/catalysts.

Recent Research & Development for Carbonates

Lithium and strontium isotope dynamics in a carbonate island aquifer, Rottnest Island, Western Australia., Martin, A N., Meredith K, Norman M D., Bryan E, and Baker A , Sci Total Environ, 2020 May 01, Volume 715, p.136906, (2020)

Isolation of selenate from selenite, carbonate, phosphate, and arsenate solutions for δO-selenate determination., Xia, Lichao, Schellenger Alexandra E. P., Onnis-Hayden Annalisa, Jaisi Deb, and Larese-Casanova Philip , Isotopes Environ Health Stud, 2020 Mar 05, p.1-17, (2020)

Lower soil carbon stocks in exotic vs. native grasslands are driven by carbonate losses., Wilsey, Brian, Xu Xia, H Polley Wayne, Hofmockel Kirsten, and Hall Steven J. , Ecology, 2020 Mar 05, p.e03039, (2020)

Fabrication of porous carbonate apatite granules using microfiber and its histological evaluations in rabbit calvarial bone defects., Akita, Kazuya, Fukuda Naoyuki, Kamada Kumiko, Kudoh Keiko, Kurio Naito, Tsuru Kanji, Ishikawa Kunio, and Miyamoto Youji , J Biomed Mater Res A, 2020 Mar, Volume 108, Issue 3, p.709-721, (2020)

Chloride Resistance of Portland Cement-Based Mortar Incorporating High Aluminate Cement and Calcium Carbonate., Lee, Yunsu, Lim Seungmin, and Lee Hanseung , Materials (Basel), 2020 Jan 12, Volume 13, Issue 2, (2020)

Excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) luminescence mechanism for 4-N,N-diethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone in propylene carbonate, acetonitrile and the mixed solvents., Chen, Yan, Piao Yongzhe, Feng Xia, Yu Xi, Jin Xiaoning, and Zhao Guangjiu , Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2020 Jan 05, Volume 224, p.117416, (2020)

Carbon dioxide, bicarbonate and carbonate ions in aqueous solutions under deep Earth conditions., Dettori, Riccardo, and Donadio Davide , Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2020 Feb 27, (2020)

Liquid Degradable Poly(trimethylene-carbonate--5-hydroxy-trimethylene carbonate): An Injectable Drug Delivery Vehicle for Acid-Sensitive Drugs., Mohajeri, Sara, Chen Fei, de Prinse Mitchell, Phung Ta, Burke-Kleinman Jonah, Maurice Donald H., and Amsden Brian G. , Mol Pharm, 2020 Feb 24, (2020)

Boron incorporation into precipitated calcium carbonates affected by aqueous pH and boron concentration., Kobayashi, Kazuki, Hashimoto Yohey, and Wang Shan-Li , J Hazard Mater, 2020 Feb 05, Volume 383, p.121183, (2020)

Synthesis and assessment of metallic ion migration through a novel calcium carbonate coating for biomedical implants., Bang, Le Thi, Filho Luimar C., Engqvist Håkan, Xia Wei, and Persson Cecilia , J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2020 Feb, Volume 108, Issue 2, p.429-438, (2020)

Synthesis of Manganese Carbonate Templates with Different Morphologies and Their Application in Preparing Hollow MoS₂ Micro/Nanostructures for Photocatalysis., Lu, Yun, Gao Rui, Song Jimei, Li Wenfang, and Hu Gang , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2020 Apr 01, Volume 20, Issue 4, p.2239-2246, (2020)

Formation of large carbonate concretions in black cherts in the Gufeng Formation (Guadalupian) at Enshi, South China., Wei, Hengye, Tang Zhanwen, Qiu Zhen, Yan Detian, and Bai Maquzong , Geobiology, 2020 01, Volume 18, Issue 1, p.14-30, (2020)

The impact of sodium carbonate on physico-chemical properties and cooking qualities of starches isolated from alkaline yellow noodles., Tao, Han, Li Mingyang, Deng Hao-Dong, Ren Ke-Xin, Zhuang Gang-Qiang, Xu Xue-Ming, and Wang Hui-Li , Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Sep 15, Volume 137, p.697-702, (2019)

Heterogeneous sonocatalytic degradation of an anionic dye in aqueous solution using a magnetic lanthanum dioxide carbonate-doped zinc ferrite-reduced graphene oxide nanostructure., Han, Jonghun, Jun Byung-Moon, Heo Jiyong, Kim Sewoon, Yoon Yeomin, and Park Chang Min , Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2019 Oct 30, Volume 182, p.109396, (2019)

Non-stoichiometric hydrated magnesium-doped calcium carbonate precipitation in ethanol., Magnabosco, Giulia, Condorelli Andrea M. M., Rosenberg Rose, Polishchuk Iryna, Pokroy Boaz, Gebauer Denis, Cölfen Helmut, and Falini Giuseppe , Chem Commun (Camb), 2019 Oct 24, Volume 55, Issue 86, p.12944-12947, (2019)