About Carbonates

Carbonates are salts or esters of carbonic acid and contain the carbonate ion, CO32−. Most carbonate salts are insoluble in water, but those that are soluble—carbonates of lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, and uranium—produce alkaline aqueous solutions. Metal carbonates decompose into carbon dioxide and a metal oxide upon heating, a process known as calcination. This name is derived from calx, the Latin name of calcium oxide or quick lime, which is produced by roasting calcium carbonate minerals, known commonly as limestone, in a kiln. Many naturally-occurring minerals including calcite, dolomite, and aragonite, also consist of or contain carbonates. Calcium carbonate and carbonates of other alkali and alkali earth metals are important chemical commodities, and among other uses are found as drying agents, electrolytes, buffering or pH adjusting agents, and fluxes in the production of ceramics and glass. Other metal carbonates are primarily used as sources of the metal they contain or as chemical reagents/catalysts.

American Elements manufactures multiple forms of carbonate compounds including solutions, nanopowders, submicron, and -325 mesh powders, and high surface area materials with particle distribution and particle size controlled and certified. We also produce larger -40 mesh, -100 mesh, -200 mesh range sizes and <0.5 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm and other sizes of shot, granules, lump, flake and pieces. Purities include 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999% and 99.9999% (2N, 3N, 4N, 5N and 6N).

American Elements maintains industrial scale production for all its carbonate products and will execute Non-Disclosure or Confidentiality Agreements to protect customer know-how.

Carbonates Products

Aluminum Carbonate Ammonium Bicarbonate Ammonium Carbonate/Scandium Carbonate Double Salt Monohydrate
Ammonium Zirconium(IV) Carbonate Antimony Carbonate Barium Carbonate
Barium Carbonate-13C Barium-136 Carbonate Isotope Barium-137 Carbonate Isotope
Barium-138 Carbonate Isotope Beryllium Carbonate Beryllium Carbonate Hydroxide
Bismuth Carbonate Bismuth Subcarbonate Cadmium Carbonate
Calcium Carbonate Calcium Carbonate Microparticles Cerium Carbonate
Cesium Carbonate Cesium Hydrogencarbonate Chromium Carbonate
Cobalt Carbonate Cobalt Carbonate, Basic Cobalt(II) Carbonate Hydrate
Copper Carbonate Copper(I) Iodide/Cesium Carbonate Admixture Copper(II) Carbonate Basic
Dysprosium Carbonate Erbium Carbonate Erbium Carbonate Hydrate
Europium(III) Carbonate Hydrate Gadolinium Carbonate Gadolinium Carbonate Hydrate
Holmium Carbonate Indium Carbonate Iron Carbonate
Lanthanum Carbonate Lead Carbonate Lead Carbonate, Basic
Lithium Carbonate Lithium Carbonate Solution Lithium-6 Carbonate Isotope
Lithium-7 Carbonate Lutetium(III) Carbonate Hydrate Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxycarbonate
Magnesium Carbonate Magnesium Carbonate Hydrate Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide Hydrate
Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide Pentahydrate Magnesium Carbonate Microparticles Magnesium Carbonate Trihydrate
Manganese Carbonate Manganese Nickel Carbonate Manganese(II) Carbonate Hydrate
Neodymium Carbonate Neodymium(III) Carbonate Hydrate Nickel Carbonate
Nickel Carbonate Basic Hydrate Nickel(II) Carbonate Basic Nickel(II) Carbonate Hydroxide Tetrahydrate
Potassium Bicarbonate Potassium Carbonate Potassium Carbonate Sesquihydrate
Potassium Carbonate, Anhydrous Potassium Hydrogen Carbonate Potassium Zirconium Carbonate
Praseodymium Carbonate Rubidium Carbonate Samarium Carbonate, Anhydrous
Samarium(III) Carbonate Hydrate Scandium Atomic Absorption Standard Solution Scandium Carbonate
Scandium(III) Carbonate Hydrate Silver Carbonate Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium Carbonate Sodium Carbonate Decahydrate Sodium Carbonate Monohydrate
Sodium Carbonate, Anhydrous Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Sodium Percarbonate
Strontium Carbonate Terbium Carbonate Terbium(III) Carbonate Hydrate
Thallium Carbonate Thallium(I) Carbonate Thulium Carbonate
Ytterbium Carbonate Yttrium Carbonate Yttrium(III) Carbonate Trihydrate
Zinc Carbonate Zinc Carbonate Basic Zirconium Basic Carbonate Hydrate
Zirconium Basic Carbonate Paste Zirconium Carbonate Zirconium Carbonate Oxide
Zirconium Dicarbonate Hydrate

Recent Research & Development for Carbonates

Targeted delivery and pH-responsive release of doxorubicin to cancer cells using calcium carbonate/hyaluronate/glutamate mesoporous hollow spheres., Guo, Yuming, Li Han, Shi Weike, Zhang Jie, Feng Jing, Yang Xiaoli, Wang Kui, Zhang Hua, and Yang Lin , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2017 Sep 15, Volume 502, p.59-66, (2017)

Comparison of fluid balance and hemodynamic and metabolic effects of sodium lactate versus sodium bicarbonate versus 0.9% NaCl in porcine endotoxic shock: a randomized, open-label, controlled study., Duburcq, Thibault, Durand Arthur, Dessein Anne-Frédérique, Vamecq Joseph, Vienne Jean-Claude, Dobbelaere Dries, Mention Karine, Douillard Claire, Maboudou Patrice, Gmyr Valery, et al. , Crit Care, 2017 May 19, Volume 21, Issue 1, p.113, (2017)

Lanthanum carbonate - a new phosphate binding drug in advanced renal failure., Aaseth, Jan, and Bjørke-Monsen Anne-Lise , Curr Med Chem, 2017 May 09, (2017)

Synthesis and characterization of cellulose carbonate using greenchemistry: Surface modification of Avicel., Khiari, Ramzi, Salon Marie-Christine Brochier, Mhenni Mohamed Farouk, Mauret Evelyne, and Belgacem Mohamed Naceur , Carbohydr Polym, 2017 May 01, Volume 163, p.254-260, (2017)

Effect of carbonate substitution on physicochemical and biological properties of silver containing hydroxyapatites., Kolmas, Joanna, Piotrowska Urszula, Kuras Marzena, and Kurek Eliza , Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 May 01, Volume 74, p.124-130, (2017)

Mesoporous phenylalanine ammonia lyase microspheres with improved stability through calcium carbonate templating., Cui, Jiandong, Zhao Yamin, Tan Zhilei, Zhong Cheng, Han Peipei, and Jia Shiru , Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 May, Volume 98, p.887-896, (2017)

Ciprofloxacin HCl-loaded calcium carbonate nanoparticles: preparation, solid state characterization, and evaluation of antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus., Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki, Lotfipour Farzaneh, Barzegar-Jalali Mohammad, Zarrintan Mohammad-Hossein, and Adibkia Khosro , Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2017 May, Volume 45, Issue 3, p.535-543, (2017)

Complete genome sequence of Lysinibacillus sphaericus LMG 22257, a strain with ureolytic activity inducing calcium carbonate precipitation., Yan, Wenkai, Xiao Xiang, and Zhang Yu , J Biotechnol, 2017 Mar 20, Volume 246, p.33-35, (2017)

Porous calcium carbonate as a carrier material to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble flavouring compounds., Johnson, Maria Lundin, Noreland David, Gane Patrick, Schoelkopf Joachim, Ridgway Cathy, and Fureby Anna Millqvist , Food Funct, 2017 Mar 15, (2017)

Lauryl phosphate adsorption in the flotation of Bastnaesite, (Ce,La)FCO3., Liu, Weiping, Wang Xuming, Xu Hui, and Miller J D. , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2017 Mar 15, Volume 490, p.825-833, (2017)

A combined high-temperature experimental and theoretical kinetic study of the reaction of dimethyl carbonate with OH radicals., Khaled, Fethi, Giri Binod Raj, Szőri Milán, Mai Tam V. - T., Huynh Lam K., and Farooq Aamir , Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2017 Mar 08, Volume 19, Issue 10, p.7147-7157, (2017)

Fabrication of calcite blocks from gypsum blocks by compositional transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions in sodium carbonate solution., Ishikawa, Kunio, Kawachi Giichiro, Tsuru Kanji, and Yoshimoto Ayami , Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Mar 01, Volume 72, p.389-393, (2017)

Evaluation of the osteoconductive potential of poly(propylene carbonate)/nano-hydroxyapatite composites mimicking the osteogenic niche for bone augmentation., Zou, Qin, Liao Jianguo, Li Jidong, and Li Yubao , J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2017 Mar, Volume 28, Issue 4, p.350-364, (2017)

Effects of acidified aqueous glycerol and glycerol carbonate pretreatment of rice husk on the enzymatic digestibility, structural characteristics, and bioethanol production., Ebrahimi, Majid, Villaflores Oliver B., Ordono Emma E., and Caparanga Alvin R. , Bioresour Technol, 2017 Mar, Volume 228, p.264-271, (2017)

A novel approach for continuous synthesis of calcium carbonate using sequential operation of two sonochemical reactors., Shirsath, S R., Bhanvase B A., Sonawane S H., Gogate P R., and Pandit A B. , Ultrason Sonochem, 2017 Mar, Volume 35, Issue Pt A, p.124-133, (2017)