About Carbonates

Carbonates are salts or esters of carbonic acid and contain the carbonate ion, CO32−. Most carbonate salts are insoluble in water, but those that are soluble—carbonates of lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, and uranium—produce alkaline aqueous solutions. Metal carbonates decompose into carbon dioxide and a metal oxide upon heating, a process known as calcination. This name is derived from calx, the Latin name of calcium oxide or quick lime, which is produced by roasting calcium carbonate minerals, known commonly as limestone, in a kiln. Many naturally-occurring minerals including calcite, dolomite, and aragonite, also consist of or contain carbonates. Calcium carbonate and carbonates of other alkali and alkali earth metals are important chemical commodities, and among other uses are found as drying agents, electrolytes, buffering or pH adjusting agents, and fluxes in the production of ceramics and glass. Other metal carbonates are primarily used as sources of the metal they contain or as chemical reagents/catalysts.

Recent Research & Development for Carbonates

The use of calcium carbonate-enriched clay minerals and diammonium phosphate as novel immobilization agents for mercury remediation: Spectral investigations and field applications., Wang, Jianxu, Xing Ying, Xie Yuanyan, Meng Yong, Xia Jicheng, and Feng Xinbin , Sci Total Environ, 2019 Jan 01, Volume 646, p.1615-1623, (2019)

Quantitatively assessing the role played by carbonate radicals in bromate formation by ozonation., Yang, Jingxin, Dong Zijun, Jiang Chengchun, Liu Hong, and Li Ji , J Hazard Mater, 2019 Feb 05, Volume 363, p.428-438, (2019)

A Synthesis of Alkoxylates from Styrenated Phenols and Ethylene Carbonate Over KOH/La₂O₃ Catalysts., Lee, Seungmin, Son Seokhwan, Kwak Wonbong, Jung Sunghun, Ahn Hogeun, and Chung Minchul , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2019 Feb 01, Volume 19, Issue 2, p.1200-1203, (2019)

Cross-linking of sodium carbonate-soluble pectins from apple by zinc ions., Gawkowska, Diana, Cybulska Justyna, and Zdunek Artur , Carbohydr Polym, 2018 Sep 15, Volume 196, p.1-7, (2018)

A new suppressor design for low noise performance with carbonate eluents for Ion Chromatography., Srinivasan, Kannan, Omphroy Brittany K., Lin Rong, and Pohl Christopher A. , Talanta, 2018 Oct 01, Volume 188, p.152-160, (2018)

Effects of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate on colloidal properties and molecular characteristics of konjac glucomannan hydrogels., Liu, Xuanbo, Gan Jing, Nirasawa Satoru, Tatsumi Eizo, Yin Lijun, and Cheng Yongqiang , Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Oct 01, Volume 117, p.863-869, (2018)

Determination of volatile fatty acids in digestate by solvent extraction with dimethyl carbonate and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry., Ghidotti, Michele, Fabbri Daniele, Torri Cristian, and Piccinini Sergio , Anal Chim Acta, 2018 Nov 30, Volume 1034, p.92-101, (2018)

Green analytical method for simultaneous determination of salinity, carbonate and ammoniacal nitrogen in waters using flow injection coupled dual-channel C4D., Chaneam, Sumonmarn, Inpota Prawpan, Saisarai Suttipong, Wilairat Prapin, Ratanawimarnwong Nuanlaor, Uraisin Kanchana, Meesiri Wanchai, and Nacapricha Duangjai , Talanta, 2018 Nov 01, Volume 189, p.196-204, (2018)

CO conversion by the integration of biological and chemical methods: Spirulina sp. LEB 18 cultivation with diethanolamine and potassium carbonate addition., Cardias, Bruna Barcelos, de Morais Michele Greque, and Costa Jorge Alberto Vi , Bioresour Technol, 2018 Nov, Volume 267, p.77-83, (2018)

A selective volatilization method for determination of chloride and sulfate in calcium carbonate pharmaceutical raw material and commercial tablets., Novo, Diogo L. R., Pereira Rodrigo M., Hartwig Carla A., Santos Clarissa M. M., and Mesko Marcia F. , Talanta, 2018 May 01, Volume 181, p.440-447, (2018)

High Aspect Ratio Perforated Co₃O₄ Nanowires Derived from Cobalt-Carbonate-Hydroxide Nanowires with Enhanced Sensing Performance., Zhou, Tuantuan, Gao Wanlin, Wang Qiang, and Umar Ahmad , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2018 May 01, Volume 18, Issue 5, p.3499-3504, (2018)

Red mud carbonation using carbon dioxide: Effects of carbonate and calcium ions on goethite surface properties and settling., Liang, Gaojie, Chen Wenmi, Nguyen Anh V., and Nguyen Tuan A. H. , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 May 01, Volume 517, p.230-238, (2018)

Effects of Lanthanum Carbonate on Coronary Artery Calcification and Cardiac Abnormalities After Initiating Hemodialysis., Fujii, Hideki, Kono Keiji, Nakai Kentaro, Goto Shunsuke, Nishii Tatsuya, Kono Atsushi, and Nishi Shinichi , Calcif Tissue Int, 2018 Mar, Volume 102, Issue 3, p.310-320, (2018)

Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing of new hydrogel nanocomposite biosorbent containing calcium carbonate nanoparticles and tragacanth gum for removal of heavy metal., Mallakpour, Shadpour, Abdolmaleki Amir, and Tabesh Farbod , Ultrason Sonochem, 2018 Mar, Volume 41, p.572-581, (2018)

Synthesis of Cu Nanoparticles Using Copper Carbonate as Cu Source Toward Versatile Applications., Yano, Kazuhisa, Ishizaki Toshitaka, and Sugiyama Hidehiko , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2018 Jul 01, Volume 18, Issue 7, p.5101-5104, (2018)