About Phosphides

solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte cross section by SEM

Phosphides are compounds of phosphorus with one or more less electronegative elements. Most elements less-electronegative than phosphorus form at least one binary phosphide, and most form a number of binary phosphides with different stoichiometries. Notably, potassium is capable of forming nine different binary phosphides: K3P, K4P3, K5P4, KP, K4P6, K3P7, K3P11, KP10.3, KP15. Phosphides may be principally ionic compounds with P3- ions, ionic compounds with polymeric phosphorus ions such as P24- or P113-, or compounds with individual phosphorus atoms incorporated into a metal lattice which may exhibit metal-like or semiconductor-like properties.

Although there are a number of ways to prepare phosphides, the most general method is to heat stoichiometric amounts of the metal and red phosphorus to high temperature in an inert atmosphere or a vacuum. Alkali and alkaline earth metals transition-metal phosphides are inert metallic-looking solids with high melting points and electrical conductivities.

Some metal phosphides have been used as rodenticides, primarily calcium phosphide, zinc phosphide, and aluminum phosphide. Zinc phosphide baits have strong, pungent garlic-like odor characteristic for phosphine liberated by hydrolysis. The odor attracts rodents, but has a repulsive effect on other animals. Aluminum phosphide is also wide band gap semiconductor. Calcium phosphide has uses in incendiary bombs. On contact with acids or water, calcium phosphide releases phosphine, which ignites spontaneously. Calcium phosphide is also used in fireworks, torpedoes, self-igniting naval pyrotechnic flares, and various water-activated ammunition.

Gallium phosphide is an important semiconducting phosphide used in the manufacture of low-cost red, orange, and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with low to medium brightness since the 1960s. It has a relatively short life at higher current and its lifetime is sensitive to temperature. Pure gallium phosphide LEDs emit green light at a wavelength of 555 nm. Nitrogen-doped gallium phosphide emits yellow-green (565 nm) light, zinc oxide doped gallium phosphide emits red (700 nm). Indium phosphide is a semiconductor and is used in high-power and high-frequency electronics because of its superior electron velocity with respect to the more common semiconductors such as gallium arsenide. Indium phosphide also has one of the longest-lived optical phonons of any compound with the zincblende crystal structure.

Sodium phosphide is a source of the highly reactive phosphide anion, and is often employed commercially in conjunction with zinc phosphide and aluminum phosphide as a catalyst in polymer production. Sodium phosphide is highly dangerous, releasing toxic phosphine upon hydrolysis, a process that is so exothermic that it may result in fires.

American Elements manufactures multiple forms of phosphide compounds including solutions, nanopowders, submicron, and -325 mesh powders, and high surface area materials with particle distribution and particle size controlled and certified. We also produce larger -40 mesh, -100 mesh, -200 mesh range sizes and <0.5 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm and other sizes of shot, granules, lump, flake and pieces. Purities include 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999% and 99.9999% (2N, 3N, 4N, 5N and 6N).

American Elements maintains industrial scale production for all its phosphide products and will execute Non-Disclosure or Confidentiality Agreements to protect customer know-how.

Phosphides Products

Aluminium Gallium Indium Phosphide Aluminum Gallium Phosphide Aluminum Phosphide
Antimony Phosphide Arsenic Monophosphide Arsenic Phosphide
Barium Phosphide Beryllium Phosphide Bismuth Phosphide
Boron Phosphide Cadmium Phosphide Cd3P2 Cadmium Phosphide CdP2
Calcium Phosphide Cerium Phosphide Cesium Phosphide
Chromium Phosphide Cobalt Phosphide Copper Phosphide
Copper Phosphorus Alloy Dysprosium Phosphide Erbium Phosphide
Europium Phosphide Gadolinium Phosphide Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Granule
Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Lump Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Powder Gallium Phosphide
Gallium Phosphide Single Crystal Substrate Germanium Phosphide Gold Phosphide
Hafnium Phosphide Holmium Phosphide InAlP
Indium Gallium Phosphide InGaP Indium Phosphide Indium Phosphide Arsenide
Indium Phosphide Wafer InGaAsP Iodine Phosphide
Iridium Phosphide Iron Phosphide Iron Phosphide, Fe2P
Iron Phosphide, Fe3P Lanthanum Phosphide Lead Phosphide
Lithium Phosphide Lutetium Phosphide Magnesium Phosphide
Manganese Phosphide Manganese(II) Phosphide Molybdenum Phosphide
Neodymium Phosphide Nickel Phosphide Niobium Phosphide
Osmium Phosphide Palladium Phosphide Platinum Phosphide
Potassium Phosphide Praseodymium Phosphide Rhenium Phosphide
Rhodium Phosphide Ruthenium Phosphide Samarium Phosphide
Scandium Phosphide Selenium Phosphide Silicon Phosphide
Silver Phosphide Sodium Phosphide Strontium Phosphide
Tantalum Phosphide Tellurium Phosphide Terbium Phosphide
Thallium Phosphide Thulium Phosphide Tin Phosphide
Titanium Phosphide Tungsten Phosphide Vanadium Phosphide
Ytterbium Phosphide Yttrium Phosphide Zinc Diphosphide
Zinc Germanium Phosphide Granule Zinc Germanium Phosphide Lump Zinc Germanium Phosphide Powder
Zinc Phosphide Zinc Tin Phosphide Granule Zinc Tin Phosphide Lump
Zinc Tin Phosphide Powder Zirconium Phosphide