About Phosphides

solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte cross section by SEM

Phosphides are compounds of phosphorus with one or more less electronegative elements. Most elements less-electronegative than phosphorus form at least one binary phosphide, and most form a number of binary phosphides with different stoichiometries. Notably, potassium is capable of forming nine different binary phosphides: K3P, K4P3, K5P4, KP, K4P6, K3P7, K3P11, KP10.3, KP15. Phosphides may be principally ionic compounds with P3- ions, ionic compounds with polymeric phosphorus ions such as P24- or P113-, or compounds with individual phosphorus atoms incorporated into a metal lattice which may exhibit metal-like or semiconductor-like properties.

Although there are a number of ways to prepare phosphides, the most general method is to heat stoichiometric amounts of the metal and red phosphorus to high temperature in an inert atmosphere or a vacuum. Alkali and alkaline earth metals transition-metal phosphides are inert metallic-looking solids with high melting points and electrical conductivities.

Some metal phosphides have been used as rodenticides, primarily calcium phosphide, zinc phosphide, and aluminum phosphide. Zinc phosphide baits have strong, pungent garlic-like odor characteristic for phosphine liberated by hydrolysis. The odor attracts rodents, but has a repulsive effect on other animals. Aluminum phosphide is also wide band gap semiconductor. Calcium phosphide has uses in incendiary bombs. On contact with acids or water, calcium phosphide releases phosphine, which ignites spontaneously. Calcium phosphide is also used in fireworks, torpedoes, self-igniting naval pyrotechnic flares, and various water-activated ammunition.

Gallium phosphide is an important semiconducting phosphide used in the manufacture of low-cost red, orange, and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with low to medium brightness since the 1960s. It has a relatively short life at higher current and its lifetime is sensitive to temperature. Pure gallium phosphide LEDs emit green light at a wavelength of 555 nm. Nitrogen-doped gallium phosphide emits yellow-green (565 nm) light, zinc oxide doped gallium phosphide emits red (700 nm). Indium phosphide is a semiconductor and is used in high-power and high-frequency electronics because of its superior electron velocity with respect to the more common semiconductors such as gallium arsenide. Indium phosphide also has one of the longest-lived optical phonons of any compound with the zincblende crystal structure.

Sodium phosphide is a source of the highly reactive phosphide anion, and is often employed commercially in conjunction with zinc phosphide and aluminum phosphide as a catalyst in polymer production. Sodium phosphide is highly dangerous, releasing toxic phosphine upon hydrolysis, a process that is so exothermic that it may result in fires.

American Elements manufactures multiple forms of phosphide compounds including solutions, nanopowders, submicron, and -325 mesh powders, and high surface area materials with particle distribution and particle size controlled and certified. We also produce larger -40 mesh, -100 mesh, -200 mesh range sizes and <0.5 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm and other sizes of shot, granules, lump, flake and pieces. Purities include 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999% and 99.9999% (2N, 3N, 4N, 5N and 6N).

American Elements maintains industrial scale production for all its phosphide products and will execute Non-Disclosure or Confidentiality Agreements to protect customer know-how.

Phosphides Products

Aluminium Gallium Indium Phosphide Aluminum Gallium Phosphide Aluminum Phosphide
Antimony Phosphide Arsenic Monophosphide Arsenic Phosphide
Barium Phosphide Beryllium Phosphide Bismuth Phosphide
Boron Phosphide Cadmium Phosphide Cd3P2 Cadmium Phosphide CdP2
Calcium Phosphide Cerium Phosphide Cesium Phosphide
Chromium Phosphide Cobalt Phosphide Copper Phosphide
Copper Phosphorus Alloy Dysprosium Phosphide Erbium Phosphide
Europium Phosphide Gadolinium Phosphide Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Granule
Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Lump Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Powder Gallium Phosphide
Gallium Phosphide Nanodispersion Gallium Phosphide Single Crystal Substrate Germanium Phosphide
Gold Phosphide Hafnium Phosphide Holmium Phosphide
InAlP Indium Gallium Phosphide InGaP Indium Phosphide
Indium Phosphide Arsenide Indium Phosphide Wafer InGaAsP
Iodine Phosphide Iridium Phosphide Iron Phosphide
Iron Phosphide, Fe2P Iron Phosphide, Fe3P Lanthanum Phosphide
Lead Phosphide Lithium Phosphide Lutetium Phosphide
Magnesium Phosphide Manganese Phosphide Manganese(II) Phosphide
Molybdenum Phosphide Neodymium Phosphide Nickel Phosphide
Niobium Phosphide Osmium Phosphide Palladium Phosphide
Platinum Phosphide Potassium Phosphide Praseodymium Phosphide
Rhenium Phosphide Rhodium Phosphide Ruthenium Phosphide
Samarium Phosphide Scandium Phosphide Selenium Phosphide
Silicon Phosphide Silver Phosphide Sodium Phosphide
Strontium Phosphide Tantalum Phosphide Tellurium Phosphide
Terbium Phosphide Thallium Phosphide Thulium Phosphide
Tin Phosphide Titanium Phosphide Tungsten Phosphide
Vanadium Phosphide Ytterbium Phosphide Yttrium Phosphide
Zinc Diphosphide Zinc Germanium Phosphide Granule Zinc Germanium Phosphide Lump
Zinc Germanium Phosphide Powder Zinc Phosphide Zinc Tin Phosphide Granule
Zinc Tin Phosphide Lump Zinc Tin Phosphide Powder Zirconium Phosphide

Recent Research & Development for Phosphides

Sugar Blowing-Induced Porous Cobalt Phosphide/Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanostructures with Enhanced Electrochemical Oxidation Performance toward Water and Other Small Molecules., Zhu, Chengzhou, Fu Shaofang, Xu Bo Z., Song Junhua, Shi Qiurong, Engelhard Mark H., Li Xiaolin, Beckman Scott P., Sun Junming, Du Dan, et al. , Small, 2017 Sep, Volume 13, Issue 33, (2017)

Heterogeneous Bimetallic Phosphide/Sulfide Nanocomposite for Efficient Solar-Energy-Driven Overall Water Splitting., Xin, Yanmei, Kan Xiang, Gan Li-Yong, and Zhang Zhonghai , ACS Nano, 2017 Oct 24, Volume 11, Issue 10, p.10303-10312, (2017)

Mesoporous Semimetallic Conductors: Structural and Electronic Properties of Cobalt Phosphide Systems., Pramanik, Malay, Tominaka Satoshi, Wang Zhong-Li, Takei Toshiaki, and Yamauchi Yusuke , Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2017 Oct 16, Volume 56, Issue 43, p.13508-13512, (2017)

Advanced oxygen evolution catalysis by bimetallic Ni-Fe phosphide nanoparticles encapsulated in nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur tri-doped porous carbon., Li, Ping, and Zeng Hua Chun , Chem Commun (Camb), 2017 May 30, Volume 53, Issue 44, p.6025-6028, (2017)

On the mechanisms of melatonin in protection of aluminum phosphide cardiotoxicity., Asghari, Mohammad Hossein, Moloudizargari Milad, Baeeri Maryam, Baghaei Amir, Rahimifard Mahban, Solgi Reza, Jafari Abbas, Aminjan Hamed Haghi, Hassani Shokoufeh, Moghadamnia Ali Akbar, et al. , Arch Toxicol, 2017 May 27, (2017)

A case report of zinc phosphide poisoning: complicated by acute renal failure and tubulo interstitial nephritis., Yogendranathan, Nilukshana, Herath H M. M. T. B., Sivasundaram Thenuka, Constantine R, and Kulatunga Aruna , BMC Pharmacol Toxicol, 2017 May 25, Volume 18, Issue 1, p.37, (2017)

Three-Dimensional Cobalt Phosphide Nanowire Arrays as Negative Electrode Material for Flexible Solid-State Asymmetric Supercapacitors., Zheng, Zhi, Retana Michael, Hu Xiaobing, Luna Ramona, Ikuhara Yumi H., and Zhou Weilie , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017 May 24, Volume 9, Issue 20, p.16986-16994, (2017)

Scalable Indium Phosphide Thin-Film Nanophotonics Platform for Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Devices., Lin, Qingfeng, Sarkar Debarghya, Lin Yuanjing, Yeung Matthew, Blankemeier Louis, Hazra Jubin, Wang Wei, Niu Shanyuan, Ravichandran Jayakanth, Fan Zhiyong, et al. , ACS Nano, 2017 May 23, Volume 11, Issue 5, p.5113-5119, (2017)

General Strategy for the Synthesis of Transition-Metal Phosphide/N-Doped Carbon Frameworks for Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution., Pu, Zonghua, Zhang Chengtian, Amiinu Ibrahim Saana, Li Wenqiang, Wu Lin, and Mu Shichun , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017 May 17, Volume 9, Issue 19, p.16187-16193, (2017)

Regulating Water-Reduction Kinetics in Cobalt Phosphide for Enhancing HER Catalytic Activity in Alkaline Solution., Xu, Kun, Ding Hui, Zhang Mengxing, Chen Min, Hao Zikai, Zhang Lidong, Wu Changzheng, and Xie Yi , Adv Mater, 2017 May 17, (2017)

Electrostatically driven resonance energy transfer in "cationic" biocompatible indium phosphide quantum dots., Devatha, Gayathri, Roy Soumendu, Rao Anish, Mallick Abhik, Basu Sudipta, and Pillai Pramod P. , Chem Sci, 2017 May 01, Volume 8, Issue 5, p.3879-3884, (2017)

A hierarchically porous nickel-copper phosphide nano-foam for efficient electrochemical splitting of water., Wei, Li, Goh Kunli, Birer Özgür, H Karahan Enis, Chang Jian, Zhai Shengli, Chen Xuncai, and Chen Yuan , Nanoscale, 2017 Mar 30, Volume 9, Issue 13, p.4401-4408, (2017)

Carbon-Incorporated Nickel-Cobalt Mixed Metal Phosphide Nanoboxes with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Evolution., He, Peilei, Yu Xin-Yao, and Lou Xiong Wen David , Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2017 Mar 27, Volume 56, Issue 14, p.3897-3900, (2017)

Oxidative formation of phosphinyl radicals from a trigonal pyramidal terminal phosphide Rh(i) complex, with an unusually long Rh-P bond., Fischbach, Urs, Trincado M, and Grützmacher Hansjörg , Dalton Trans, 2017 Mar 14, Volume 46, Issue 11, p.3443-3448, (2017)

Synthesis of Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Supported on Pristine Graphene by Dynamically Self-Assembled Graphene Quantum Dots for Hydrogen Evolution., Wang, Xiaoyan, Yuan Weiyong, Yu Yanan, and Li Chang Ming , ChemSusChem, 2017 Mar 09, Volume 10, Issue 5, p.1014-1021, (2017)