About Phosphides

solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte cross section by SEM

Phosphides are compounds of phosphorus with one or more less electronegative elements. Most elements less-electronegative than phosphorus form at least one binary phosphide, and most form a number of binary phosphides with different stoichiometries. Notably, potassium is capable of forming nine different binary phosphides: K3P, K4P3, K5P4, KP, K4P6, K3P7, K3P11, KP10.3, KP15. Phosphides may be principally ionic compounds with P3- ions, ionic compounds with polymeric phosphorus ions such as P24- or P113-, or compounds with individual phosphorus atoms incorporated into a metal lattice which may exhibit metal-like or semiconductor-like properties.

Although there are a number of ways to prepare phosphides, the most general method is to heat stoichiometric amounts of the metal and red phosphorus to high temperature in an inert atmosphere or a vacuum. Alkali and alkaline earth metals transition-metal phosphides are inert metallic-looking solids with high melting points and electrical conductivities.

Some metal phosphides have been used as rodenticides, primarily calcium phosphide, zinc phosphide, and aluminum phosphide. Zinc phosphide baits have strong, pungent garlic-like odor characteristic for phosphine liberated by hydrolysis. The odor attracts rodents, but has a repulsive effect on other animals. Aluminum phosphide is also wide band gap semiconductor. Calcium phosphide has uses in incendiary bombs. On contact with acids or water, calcium phosphide releases phosphine, which ignites spontaneously. Calcium phosphide is also used in fireworks, torpedoes, self-igniting naval pyrotechnic flares, and various water-activated ammunition.

Gallium phosphide is an important semiconducting phosphide used in the manufacture of low-cost red, orange, and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with low to medium brightness since the 1960s. It has a relatively short life at higher current and its lifetime is sensitive to temperature. Pure gallium phosphide LEDs emit green light at a wavelength of 555 nm. Nitrogen-doped gallium phosphide emits yellow-green (565 nm) light, zinc oxide doped gallium phosphide emits red (700 nm). Indium phosphide is a semiconductor and is used in high-power and high-frequency electronics because of its superior electron velocity with respect to the more common semiconductors such as gallium arsenide. Indium phosphide also has one of the longest-lived optical phonons of any compound with the zincblende crystal structure.

Sodium phosphide is a source of the highly reactive phosphide anion, and is often employed commercially in conjunction with zinc phosphide and aluminum phosphide as a catalyst in polymer production. Sodium phosphide is highly dangerous, releasing toxic phosphine upon hydrolysis, a process that is so exothermic that it may result in fires.

Recent Research & Development for Phosphides

Construction of carbon-coated nickel phosphide nanoparticle assembled submicrospheres with enhanced electrochemical properties for lithium/sodium-ion batteries., Wang, Jiamei, Wang Beibei, Liu Xiaojie, Wang Gang, Wang Hui, and Bai Jintao , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 Mar 07, Volume 538, p.187-198, (2019)

The deposition of cadmium selenide and cadmium phosphide thin films from cadmium thioselenoimidodiphosphinate by AACVD and the formation of an aromatic species., Oyetunde, Temidayo, Afzaal Mohammad, Vincent Mark A., and O'Brien Paul , Dalton Trans, 2019 Jan 22, Volume 48, Issue 4, p.1436-1442, (2019)

Bi-Metal Phosphide NiCoP: An Enhanced Catalyst for the Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol., Sun, Lijie, Xiang Xia, Wu Juwei, Cai Chao, Ao Dongyi, Luo Jinling, Tian Chengxiang, and Zu Xiaotao , Nanomaterials (Basel), 2019 Jan 18, Volume 9, Issue 1, (2019)

Acyl-Phosphide Anions via an Intermediate with Carbene Character: Reactions of K[PtBu2] and CO., Xu, Maotong, Jupp Andrew R., and Stephan Douglas W. , Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2019 Jan 16, (2019)

Efficacy and nontarget impact of zinc phosphide-coated cabbage as a ground squirrel management tool., Baldwin, Roger A., Halbritter Heather, Meinerz Ryan, Snell Laura K., and Orloff Steve B. , Pest Manag Sci, 2019 Jan 10, (2019)

High-Performance Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation with Phosphorus-Doped and Metal Phosphide Cocatalyst-Modified g-C N Formation Through Gas Treatment., Qin, Dong-Dong, Quan Jing-Jing, Duan Shi-Fang, San Martin Jovan, Lin Yixiong, Zhu Xiaolin, Yao Xiao-Qiang, Su Jin-Zhan, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez Ingrid, Tao Chun-Lan, et al. , ChemSusChem, 2019 Jan 02, (2019)

Various strategies to tune the electrocatalytic performance of molybdenum phosphide supported on reduced graphene oxide for hydrogen evolution reaction., Wu, Zexing, Song Min, Zhang Zijin, Wang Jie, and Liu Xien , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 Feb 15, Volume 536, p.638-645, (2019)

3D hollow nanoflowers assembled by ultrathin molybdenum-nickel phosphide nanosheets as robust electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction., Chen, Sheyun, Dai Jingtao, Ren Fangfang, Xu Hui, and Du Yukou , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 Feb 15, Volume 536, p.71-79, (2019)

Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution from a Mesoporous Hybrid of Nickel Phosphide Nanoparticles Anchored on Cobalt Phosphosulfide/Phosphide Nanosheet Arrays., Sun, Jingying, Ren Muqing, Yu Luo, Yang Ze, Xie Lixin, Tian Fei, Yu Ying, Ren Zhifeng, Chen Shuo, and Zhou Haiqing , Small, 2019 Feb, Volume 15, Issue 6, p.e1804272, (2019)

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy in Self-Catalyzed Indium Phosphide Nanostructures: Morphology and Substrate Effects., Park, Jeung Hun, Kim Richard S., Pozuelo Marta, and Chung Choong-Heui , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2019 Apr 01, Volume 19, Issue 4, p.2285-2290, (2019)

Palladium Phosphide as a Stable and Efficient Electrocatalyst for Overall Water Splitting., Luo, Fang, Zhang Quan, Yu Xinxin, Xiao Shenglin, Ling Ying, Hu Hao, Guo Long, Yang Zehui, Huang Liang, Cai Weiwei, et al. , Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2018 Sep 21, (2018)

High Curie temperature and half-metallicity in an atomically thin main group-based boron phosphide system: long range ferromagnetism., Bhattacharyya, Gargee, Choudhuri Indrani, and Pathak Biswarup , Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2018 Sep 12, Volume 20, Issue 35, p.22877-22889, (2018)

Strained Nickel Phosphide Nanosheet Array., Duan, Jingjing, Chen Sheng, and Zhao Chuan , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018 Sep 12, Volume 10, Issue 36, p.30029-30034, (2018)

A Janus Nickel Cobalt Phosphide Catalyst for High-efficiency Neutral-pH Water Splitting., Yu, Shu-Hong, Wu Rui, Xiao Bing, Gao Qiang, Zheng Yarong, Zheng Xusheng, Zhu Junfa, and Gao Min-Rui , Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2018 Oct 03, (2018)