About Phosphides

solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte cross section by SEM

Phosphides are compounds of phosphorus with one or more less electronegative elements. Most elements less-electronegative than phosphorus form at least one binary phosphide, and most form a number of binary phosphides with different stoichiometries. Notably, potassium is capable of forming nine different binary phosphides: K3P, K4P3, K5P4, KP, K4P6, K3P7, K3P11, KP10.3, KP15. Phosphides may be principally ionic compounds with P3- ions, ionic compounds with polymeric phosphorus ions such as P24- or P113-, or compounds with individual phosphorus atoms incorporated into a metal lattice which may exhibit metal-like or semiconductor-like properties.

Although there are a number of ways to prepare phosphides, the most general method is to heat stoichiometric amounts of the metal and red phosphorus to high temperature in an inert atmosphere or a vacuum. Alkali and alkaline earth metals transition-metal phosphides are inert metallic-looking solids with high melting points and electrical conductivities.

Some metal phosphides have been used as rodenticides, primarily calcium phosphide, zinc phosphide, and aluminum phosphide. Zinc phosphide baits have strong, pungent garlic-like odor characteristic for phosphine liberated by hydrolysis. The odor attracts rodents, but has a repulsive effect on other animals. Aluminum phosphide is also wide band gap semiconductor. Calcium phosphide has uses in incendiary bombs. On contact with acids or water, calcium phosphide releases phosphine, which ignites spontaneously. Calcium phosphide is also used in fireworks, torpedoes, self-igniting naval pyrotechnic flares, and various water-activated ammunition.

Gallium phosphide is an important semiconducting phosphide used in the manufacture of low-cost red, orange, and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with low to medium brightness since the 1960s. It has a relatively short life at higher current and its lifetime is sensitive to temperature. Pure gallium phosphide LEDs emit green light at a wavelength of 555 nm. Nitrogen-doped gallium phosphide emits yellow-green (565 nm) light, zinc oxide doped gallium phosphide emits red (700 nm). Indium phosphide is a semiconductor and is used in high-power and high-frequency electronics because of its superior electron velocity with respect to the more common semiconductors such as gallium arsenide. Indium phosphide also has one of the longest-lived optical phonons of any compound with the zincblende crystal structure.

Sodium phosphide is a source of the highly reactive phosphide anion, and is often employed commercially in conjunction with zinc phosphide and aluminum phosphide as a catalyst in polymer production. Sodium phosphide is highly dangerous, releasing toxic phosphine upon hydrolysis, a process that is so exothermic that it may result in fires.

Recent Research & Development for Phosphides

Novel tungsten phosphide embedded nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes: A portable and renewable monitoring platform for anticancer drug in whole blood., Zhou, Haifeng, Ran Guoxia, Masson Jean-Francois, Wang Chan, Zhao Yuan, and Song Qijun , Biosens Bioelectron, 2018 May 15, Volume 105, p.226-235, (2018)

Atomistic investigations on the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of indium phosphide nanowires., Pial, Turash Haque, Rakib Tawfiqur, Mojumder Satyajit, Motalab Mohammad, and Akanda M A. Salam , Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2018 Mar 28, Volume 20, Issue 13, p.8647-8657, (2018)

Controllable Carrier Type in Boron Phosphide Nanowires Toward Homostructural Optoelectronic Devices., Ding, Nan, Xu Junqi, Zhang Qi, Su Jianwei, Gao Yu, Zhou Xing, and Zhai Tianyou , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018 Mar 28, Volume 10, Issue 12, p.10296-10303, (2018)

Nanohybrid of Carbon Quantum Dots/Molybdenum Phosphide Nanoparticle for Efficient Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution in Alkaline Medium., Zhang, Linjie, Yang Yanmei, Ziaee Muhammad Asad, Lu Kanglong, and Wang Ruihu , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018 Mar 09, (2018)

Phosphorus Dimerization in Gallium Phosphide at High Pressure., Lavina, Barbara, Kim Eunja, Cynn Hyunchae, Weck Philippe F., Seaborg Kelly, Siska Emily, Meng Yue, and Evans William , Inorg Chem, 2018 Mar 05, Volume 57, Issue 5, p.2432-2437, (2018)

Molybdenum Sulphoselenophosphide Spheroids as an Effective Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction., Bose, Ranjith, Jothi Vasanth Rajendiran, Koh Beomsoo, Jung Chiyoung, and Yi Sung Chul , Small, 2018 Jan 10, (2018)

PEDOT coated iron phosphide nanorod arrays as high-performance supercapacitor negative electrodes., Luo, Jinling, Zheng Zhi, Kumamoto Akihito, Unah Winifred Ini, Yan Shuke, Ikuhara Yumi H., Xiang Xia, Zu Xiaotao, and Zhou Weilie , Chem Commun (Camb), 2018 Jan 08, (2018)

Surface Chemistry in Cobalt Phosphide-Stabilized Lithium-Sulfur Batteries., Zhong, Yiren, Yin Lichang, He Peng, Liu Wen, Wu Zishan, and Wang Hailiang , J Am Chem Soc, 2018 Jan 08, (2018)

Molecular Nickel Phosphide Carbonyl Nanoclusters: Synthesis, Structure, and Electrochemistry of [Ni11P(CO)18]3- and [H6-nNi31P4(CO)39]n- (n = 4 and 5)., Capacci, Chiara, Ciabatti Iacopo, Femoni Cristina, Iapalucci Maria Carmela, Funaioli Tiziana, Zacchini Stefano, and Zanotti Valerio , Inorg Chem, 2018 Jan 05, (2018)

Zeolite Y supported nickel phosphide catalysts for the hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline as a proxy for crude bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae., Wagner, Jonathan L., Jones Emyr, Sartbaeva Asel, Davis Sean A., Torrente-Murciano Laura, Chuck Christopher J., and Ting Valeska P. , Dalton Trans, 2018 Jan 02, (2018)

Controllable Surface Reorganization Engineering on Cobalt Phosphide Nanowire Arrays for Efficient Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction., Xu, Kun, Cheng Han, Lv Haifeng, Wang Jingyu, Liu Linqi, Liu Si, Wu Xiaojun, Chu Wangsheng, Wu Changzheng, and Xie Yi , Adv Mater, 2018 Jan, Volume 30, Issue 1, (2018)

Sugar Blowing-Induced Porous Cobalt Phosphide/Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanostructures with Enhanced Electrochemical Oxidation Performance toward Water and Other Small Molecules., Zhu, Chengzhou, Fu Shaofang, Xu Bo Z., Song Junhua, Shi Qiurong, Engelhard Mark H., Li Xiaolin, Beckman Scott P., Sun Junming, Du Dan, et al. , Small, 2017 Sep, Volume 13, Issue 33, (2017)

Heterogeneous Bimetallic Phosphide/Sulfide Nanocomposite for Efficient Solar-Energy-Driven Overall Water Splitting., Xin, Yanmei, Kan Xiang, Gan Li-Yong, and Zhang Zhonghai , ACS Nano, 2017 Oct 24, Volume 11, Issue 10, p.10303-10312, (2017)

Mesoporous Semimetallic Conductors: Structural and Electronic Properties of Cobalt Phosphide Systems., Pramanik, Malay, Tominaka Satoshi, Wang Zhong-Li, Takei Toshiaki, and Yamauchi Yusuke , Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2017 Oct 16, Volume 56, Issue 43, p.13508-13512, (2017)