About Sulfides

Sulfide Ion

Sulfides are compounds derived from the sulfide anion, S2-. As sulfur is a member of group 16 on the periodic table, it is considered a chalcogen, and sulfide compounds belong to a class of compounds known as chalcogenides.

The bonding in transition metal sulfides is highly covalent, a property that is intimately related to their ability to function as semiconductors and pigments . These are the sulfides most often used directly as functional materials; they are found as pigments, catalysts, optical materials, phase change materials, solid electrolytes, or semiconductors. One particularly familiar sulfide is the bright yellow species CdS or "cadmium yellow". This is the color used for school buses in the United States, though the color is now replicated with alternate pigments due to the toxicity of cadmium.

Another familiar transition-metal sulfide is the black tarnish formed on sterling silver: silver sulfide. Cadmium sulfide is an essential component of cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. Calcium polysulfide ("lime sulfur") is a traditional fungicide in gardening. Lead sulfide is used in infra-red sensors. Molybdenum disulfide, found naturally as the mineral molybdenite, is used as a petrochemical catalyst to remove sulfur from fossil fuels and as a solid lubricant for high temperature and high pressure applications. Zinc sulfide is used for lenses and other optical devices in the infrared part of the spectrum. Zinc sulfide with a trace of copper is used for photoluminescent strips for emergency lighting and luminous watch dials. Research into properties of semiconducting sulfides in the form of nanostructured materials such as quantum dots has grown in recent years, and such materials are now coming into use in optoelectronic applications.

Alkali metal and alkaline earth chalcogenides, including the sulfides, have bonds with more ionic character than those found in transition metal sulfides. They are typically colorless, water-soluble compounds, and are used more as chemical reagents than as functional materials. For instance, sodium sulfide is an important industrial chemical, used in paper manufacturing, dyes, leather tanning, crude petroleum processing, treatment of heavy metal pollution, and others.

Recent Research & Development for Sulfides

Manganese oxide at cadmium sulfide (MnOx@CdS) shells encapsulated with graphene: A spatially separated photocatalytic system towards superior hydrogen evolution., Tan, Pengfei, Zhu Anquan, Qiao Lulu, Zeng Weixuan, Cui Hao, and Pan Jun , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 Jan 01, Volume 533, p.452-462, (2019)

Enhancement in mechanical quality factors of poly phenylene sulfide under high-amplitude ultrasonic vibration through thermal annealing., Wu, Jiang, Mizuno Yosuke, and Nakamura Kentaro , Ultrasonics, 2019 Jan, Volume 91, p.52-61, (2019)

High hydrogen sulfide emissions from subtropical forest soils based on field measurements in south China., Yu, Qian, Si Gaoyue, Zong Tianhua, Mulder Jan, and Duan Lei , Sci Total Environ, 2019 Feb 15, Volume 651, Issue Pt 1, p.1302-1309, (2019)

Haloalkaliphilic microorganisms assist sulfide removal in a microbial electrolysis cell., Ni, Gaofeng, Harnawan Pebrianto, Seidel Laura, Heijne Annemiek Ter, Sleutels Tom, Buisman Cees J. N., and Dopson Mark , J Hazard Mater, 2019 Feb 05, Volume 363, p.197-204, (2019)

Iron sulfide formation in young and rapidly-deposited permeable sands at the land-sea transition zone., Seibert, Stephan L., Böttcher Michael E., Schubert Florian, Pollmann Thomas, Giani Luise, Tsukamoto Sumiko, Frechen Manfred, Freund Holger, Waska Hannelore, Simon Heike, et al. , Sci Total Environ, 2019 Feb 01, Volume 649, p.264-283, (2019)

Carbon nanotubes-modified graphitic carbon nitride photocatalysts with synergistic effect of nickel(II) sulfide and molybdenum(II) disulfide co-catalysts for more efficient H evolution., Zhang, Yun-Xiao, Li Kui, Yu Yu-Xiang, and De Zhang Wei- , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Sep 15, Volume 526, p.374-383, (2018)

A turn-on fluorescent probe for simultaneous sensing of cysteine/homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide and its bioimaging applications., Chen, Fengzao, Han Deman, Gao Yuan, Liu Heng, Wang Shengfu, Zhou Fangyu, Li Kaibin, Zhang Siqi, Shao Wujun, and He Yanling , Talanta, 2018 Sep 01, Volume 187, p.19-26, (2018)

A Study on the Formation of 2-Dimensional Tungsten Disulfide Thin Films on Sapphire Substrate by Sputtering and High Temperature Rapid Thermal Processing., Nam, Hanyeob, Kim Hong-Seok, Han Jae-Hee, Kwon Sang Jik, and Cho Eou Sik , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2018 Sep 01, Volume 18, Issue 9, p.6257-6264, (2018)

Hydrogen sulfide attenuates oxidative stress-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation via S-sulfhydrating c-Jun at Cys269 in macrophages., Lin, Zhe, Altaf Naila, Li Chen, Chen Mei, Pan Lihong, Wang Dan, Xie Liping, Zheng Yuan, Fu Heling, Han Yi, et al. , Biochim Biophys Acta, 2018 Sep, Volume 1864, Issue 9 Pt B, p.2890-2900, (2018)

Taxonomic distribution, structure/function relationship and metabolic context of the two families of sulfide dehydrogenases: SQR and FCSD., Sousa, Filipe M., Pereira Juliana G., Marreiros Bruno C., and Pereira Manuela M. , Biochim Biophys Acta, 2018 Sep, Volume 1859, Issue 9, p.742-753, (2018)

Use of MPA-capped CdS quantum dots for sensitive detection and quantification of Co ions in aqueous solution., Mohamed, Naim Bel Haj, Ben Brahim Nassim, Mrad Randa, Haouari Mohamed, Ben Chaâbane Rafik, and Negrerie Michel , Anal Chim Acta, 2018 Oct 22, Volume 1028, p.50-58, (2018)

Spherical Ruthenium Disulfide-Sulfur-Doped Graphene Composite as an Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalyst., Yu, Jie, Guo Yanan, Miao Shuanshuan, Ni Meng, Zhou Wei, and Shao Zongping , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018 Oct 10, Volume 10, Issue 40, p.34098-34107, (2018)

Fabrication of iron-doped titanium dioxide quantum dots/molybdenum disulfide nanoflower for ethanol gas sensing., Wu, Junfeng, Zhang Dongzhi, and Cao Yuhua , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Nov 01, Volume 529, p.556-567, (2018)

Mitigating adverse impacts of varying sulfide/nitrate ratios on denitrifying sulfide removal process performance., Chen, Chuan, Shao Bo, Zhang Ruo-Chen, Xu Xi-Jun, Zhou Xu, Yuan Yuan, Ren Nan-Qi, and Lee Duu-Jong , Bioresour Technol, 2018 Nov, Volume 267, p.782-788, (2018)