About Sulfides

Sulfide Ion

Sulfides are compounds derived from the sulfide anion, S2-. As sulfur is a member of group 16 on the periodic table, it is considered a chalcogen, and sulfide compounds belong to a class of compounds known as chalcogenides.

The bonding in transition metal sulfides is highly covalent, a property that is intimately related to their ability to function as semiconductors and pigments . These are the sulfides most often used directly as functional materials; they are found as pigments, catalysts, optical materials, phase change materials, solid electrolytes, or semiconductors. One particularly familiar sulfide is the bright yellow species CdS or "cadmium yellow". This is the color used for school buses in the United States, though the color is now replicated with alternate pigments due to the toxicity of cadmium.

Another familiar transition-metal sulfide is the black tarnish formed on sterling silver: silver sulfide. Cadmium sulfide is an essential component of cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. Calcium polysulfide ("lime sulfur") is a traditional fungicide in gardening. Lead sulfide is used in infra-red sensors. Molybdenum disulfide, found naturally as the mineral molybdenite, is used as a petrochemical catalyst to remove sulfur from fossil fuels and as a solid lubricant for high temperature and high pressure applications. Zinc sulfide is used for lenses and other optical devices in the infrared part of the spectrum. Zinc sulfide with a trace of copper is used for photoluminescent strips for emergency lighting and luminous watch dials. Research into properties of semiconducting sulfides in the form of nanostructured materials such as quantum dots has grown in recent years, and such materials are now coming into use in optoelectronic applications.

Alkali metal and alkaline earth chalcogenides, including the sulfides, have bonds with more ionic character than those found in transition metal sulfides. They are typically colorless, water-soluble compounds, and are used more as chemical reagents than as functional materials. For instance, sodium sulfide is an important industrial chemical, used in paper manufacturing, dyes, leather tanning, crude petroleum processing, treatment of heavy metal pollution, and others.

Recent Research & Development for Sulfides

Highly selective circular dichroism sensor based on d-penicillamine/cysteamine‑cadmium sulfide quantum dots for copper (II) ion detection., Ngamdee, Kessarin, Chaiendoo Kanokwan, Saiyasombat Chatree, Busayaporn Wutthikrai, Ittisanronnachai Somlak, Promarak Vinich, and Ngeontae Wittaya , Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2019 Mar 15, Volume 211, p.313-321, (2019)

Current and future envision on developing biosensors aided by 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS) productions., N R, Dalila, Arshad M K. Md, Gopinath Subash C. B., Norhaimi W M. W., and Fathil M F. M. , Biosens Bioelectron, 2019 Mar 06, Volume 132, p.248-264, (2019)

Influence of doping ion, capping agent and pH on the fluorescence properties of zinc sulfide quantum dots: Sensing of Cu and Hg ions and their biocompatibility with cancer and fungal cells., Desai, Mittal L., Deshmukh Balaji, Lenka Nibedita, Haran Varun, Jha Sanjay, Basu Hirakendu, Singhal Rakesh Kumar, Sharma P K., Kailasa Suresh Kumar, and Kim Ki-Hyun , Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2019 Mar 05, Volume 210, p.212-221, (2019)

Performance of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Solar Cells on Zinc Sulfide Buffer Layers for Various Power Values of an Intense Pulsed Light System., Cao, Vu Minh Han, Hwang Soohyun, Lin Jian, and Lee Jaehyeong , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2019 Mar 01, Volume 19, Issue 3, p.1635-1639, (2019)

Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide on Kidney Injury in Rat Model of Crush Syndrome., Tekşen, Yasemin, Kadıoğlu Emine, Koçak Cengiz, and Koçak Havva , J Surg Res, 2019 Mar, Volume 235, p.470-478, (2019)

Quaternized chitosan-stabilized copper sulfide nanoparticles for cancer therapy., Huang, Xiujie, Xu Changliang, Li Yichen, Cheng Haibo, Wang Xiaoying, and Sun Runcang , Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Mar, Volume 96, p.129-137, (2019)

Enhanced light absorption and charge recombination control in quantum dot sensitized solar cells using tin doped cadmium sulfide quantum dots., Muthalif, Mohammed Panthakkal, Sunesh Chozhidakath Damodharan, and Choe Youngson , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 Jan 15, Volume 534, p.291-300, (2019)

Manganese oxide at cadmium sulfide (MnOx@CdS) shells encapsulated with graphene: A spatially separated photocatalytic system towards superior hydrogen evolution., Tan, Pengfei, Zhu Anquan, Qiao Lulu, Zeng Weixuan, Cui Hao, and Pan Jun , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 Jan 01, Volume 533, p.452-462, (2019)

Enhancement in mechanical quality factors of poly phenylene sulfide under high-amplitude ultrasonic vibration through thermal annealing., Wu, Jiang, Mizuno Yosuke, and Nakamura Kentaro , Ultrasonics, 2019 Jan, Volume 91, p.52-61, (2019)

Site-Selective and van der Waals Epitaxial Growth of Rhenium Disulfide on Graphene., Seo, Jihyung, Lee Junghyun, Jeong Gyujeong, and Park Hyesung , Small, 2019 Jan, Volume 15, Issue 2, p.e1804133, (2019)

Exploring the sodium ion storage mechanism of gallium sulfide (GaS): a combined experimental and theoretical approach., Wang, Pei, Liu Miao, Mo Fangjie, Long Ziyao, Fang Fang, Sun Dalin, Zhou Yong-Ning, and Song Yun , Nanoscale, 2019 Feb 14, Volume 11, Issue 7, p.3208-3215, (2019)

Revealing the Role of Gold in the Growth of Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Disulfide by Surface Alloy Formation., Song, Intek, and Choi Hee Cheul , Chemistry, 2019 Feb 11, Volume 25, Issue 9, p.2337-2344, (2019)

Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Tungsten Disulfide/Acetylene Black Nanoflower Composite as Efficient Electrocatalyst for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Reaction., Chen, Ning, Wang Shuai, Dong Mingfu, Liu Huanhuan, He Ping, and He Mingqian , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2019 Feb 01, Volume 19, Issue 2, p.819-825, (2019)

Rapid detection of Escherichia coli using fiber optic surface plasmon resonance immunosensor based on biofunctionalized Molybdenum disulfide (MoS) nanosheets., Kaushik, Siddharth, Tiwari Umesh K., Pal Sudipta S., and Sinha Ravindra K. , Biosens Bioelectron, 2019 Feb 01, Volume 126, p.501-509, (2019)

Iron sulfide formation in young and rapidly-deposited permeable sands at the land-sea transition zone., Seibert, Stephan L., Böttcher Michael E., Schubert Florian, Pollmann Thomas, Giani Luise, Tsukamoto Sumiko, Frechen Manfred, Freund Holger, Waska Hannelore, Simon Heike, et al. , Sci Total Environ, 2019 Feb 01, Volume 649, p.264-283, (2019)