About Sulfides

Sulfide Ion

Sulfides are compounds derived from the sulfide anion, S2-. As sulfur is a member of group 16 on the periodic table, it is considered a chalcogen, and sulfide compounds belong to a class of compounds known as chalcogenides.

The bonding in transition metal sulfides is highly covalent, a property that is intimately related to their ability to function as semiconductors and pigments . These are the sulfides most often used directly as functional materials; they are found as pigments, catalysts, optical materials, phase change materials, solid electrolytes, or semiconductors. One particularly familiar sulfide is the bright yellow species CdS or "cadmium yellow". This is the color used for school buses in the United States, though the color is now replicated with alternate pigments due to the toxicity of cadmium.

Another familiar transition-metal sulfide is the black tarnish formed on sterling silver: silver sulfide. Cadmium sulfide is an essential component of cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. Calcium polysulfide ("lime sulfur") is a traditional fungicide in gardening. Lead sulfide is used in infra-red sensors. Molybdenum disulfide, found naturally as the mineral molybdenite, is used as a petrochemical catalyst to remove sulfur from fossil fuels and as a solid lubricant for high temperature and high pressure applications. Zinc sulfide is used for lenses and other optical devices in the infrared part of the spectrum. Zinc sulfide with a trace of copper is used for photoluminescent strips for emergency lighting and luminous watch dials. Research into properties of semiconducting sulfides in the form of nanostructured materials such as quantum dots has grown in recent years, and such materials are now coming into use in optoelectronic applications.

Alkali metal and alkaline earth chalcogenides, including the sulfides, have bonds with more ionic character than those found in transition metal sulfides. They are typically colorless, water-soluble compounds, and are used more as chemical reagents than as functional materials. For instance, sodium sulfide is an important industrial chemical, used in paper manufacturing, dyes, leather tanning, crude petroleum processing, treatment of heavy metal pollution, and others.

Recent Research & Development for Sulfides

Sputtered Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) Buffer Layer for Kesterite and Chalcogenide Thin Film Solar Cell (TFSC) Applications., Nadarajah, Muhunthan, Gour Kuldeep Singh, and Singh Vidya Nand , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2020 Jun 01, Volume 20, Issue 6, p.3909-3912, (2020)

One-step construction of a transition-metal surface decorated with metal sulfide nanoparticles: A high-efficiency electrocatalyst for hydrogen generation., Sun, Yulin, Huang Chuanqi, Shen Junling, Zhong Yijun, Ning Jiqiang, and Hu Yong , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2020 Jan 15, Volume 558, p.1-8, (2020)

The Benefits of Macromolecular/Supramolecular Approaches in Hydrogen Sulfide Delivery: A Review of Polymeric and Self-Assembled Hydrogen Sulfide Donors., Kaur, Kuljeet, Carrazzone Ryan J., and Matson John B. , Antioxid Redox Signal, 2020 Jan 10, Volume 32, Issue 2, p.79-95, (2020)

Highly luminescent Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS core/gradient shell quantum dots prepared from indium sulfide by cation exchange for cell labeling and polymer composites., Yang, Lanlan, Antanovich Artsiom, Prudnikau Anatol, Taniya Olga S., Grzhegorzhevskii Kirill V., Zelenovskiy Pavel, Terpinskaya Tatiana, Tang Jianguo, and Artemyev Mikhail , Nanotechnology, 2019 Sep 27, Volume 30, Issue 39, p.395603, (2019)

Rhenium Sulfide Nanoparticles as a Biosafe Spectral CT Contrast Agent for Gastrointestinal Tract Imaging and Tumor Theranostics in Vivo., Wang, Xiaoyi, Wang Jiaojiao, Pan Jinbin, Zhao Fangshi, Kan Di, Cheng Ran, Zhang Xuening, and Sun Shao-Kai , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2019 Sep 18, Volume 11, Issue 37, p.33650-33658, (2019)

Ultralow Schottky Barrier Height Achieved by Using Molybdenum Disulfide/Dielectric Stack for Source/Drain Contact., Kim, Seung-Hwan, Han Kyu Hyun, Park Euyjin, Kim Seung-Geun, and Yu Hyun-Yong , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2019 Sep 03, (2019)

The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide inhibits transepithelial anion secretion of pregnant mouse endometrial epithelium., Xu, Jia-Wen, Gao Dong-Dong, Peng Lei, Qiu Zhuo-Er, Ke Li-Jiao, Zhu Yun-Xin, Zhang Yi-Lin, and Zhou Wen-Liang , Nitric Oxide, 2019 Sep 01, Volume 90, p.37-46, (2019)

Application of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of as a Potential Photosensitizer in Photodynamic Therapy Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines via the Protein Kinase R-Like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase Pathway., Wen, Yu, Zhang Zi-Jian, Huang Yun-Peng, Wang Kun-Peng, Liu Kai, Zou Heng, Zhou Jiang-Jiao, Zou Zhen-Xing, Luo Shi-Lin, Liu Zhong-Tao, et al. , J Biomed Nanotechnol, 2019 Sep 01, Volume 15, Issue 9, p.1867-1880, (2019)

Fabrication of Cobalt Sulfide/Graphene Sheets Nanocomposite Harvesting Improved Anode Performance for Lithium-Ion Battery., Zhu, Jia, Jin Menghan, and Tang Sheng , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2019 Sep 01, Volume 19, Issue 9, p.5921-5927, (2019)

Fast response near-infrared fluorescent probe for hydrogen sulfide in natural waters., Jin, Yonglei, Liu Rui, Zhan Zixuan, and Lv Yi , Talanta, 2019 Sep 01, Volume 202, p.159-164, (2019)

UV light irradiation improves the aggregation and settling performance of metal sulfide particles in strongly acidic wastewater., Peng, Xianjia, Xia Zhilin, Kong Linghao, Hu Xingyun, and Wang Xianliang , Water Res, 2019 Oct 15, Volume 163, p.114860, (2019)

Ultrafast self-trapping of photoexcited carriers sets the upper limit on antimony trisulfide photovoltaic devices., Yang, Zhaoliang, Wang Xiaomin, Chen Yuzhong, Zheng Zhenfa, Chen Zeng, Xu Wenqi, Liu Weimin, Yang Yang Michael, Zhao Jin, Chen Tao, et al. , Nat Commun, 2019 Oct 04, Volume 10, Issue 1, p.4540, (2019)

Trickle Flow Aided Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Strategy for Ultrathin Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS) Synthesis., Yang, Junjie, and Liu Lei , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2019 Oct 02, Volume 11, Issue 39, p.36270-36277, (2019)

A flexible copper sulfide @ multi-walled carbon nanotubes cathode for advanced magnesium-lithium-ion batteries., Zhang, Yali, Li Yong, Wang Yong, Guo Rui, Liu Wen, Pei Haijuan, Yin Geping, Ye Daixin, Yu Shengxue, and Xie Jingying , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 Oct 01, Volume 553, p.239-246, (2019)

Biocompatible MoS/PDA-RGD coating on titanium implant with antibacterial property via intrinsic ROS-independent oxidative stress and NIR irradiation., Yuan, Zhang, Tao Bailong, He Ye, Liu Ju, Lin Chuanchuan, Shen Xinkun, Ding Yao, Yu Yonglin, Mu Caiyun, Liu Peng, et al. , Biomaterials, 2019 Oct, Volume 217, p.119290, (2019)