About Sulfides

Sulfide Ion

Sulfides are compounds derived from the sulfide anion, S2-. As sulfur is a member of group 16 on the periodic table, it is considered a chalcogen, and sulfide compounds belong to a class of compounds known as chalcogenides.

The bonding in transition metal sulfides is highly covalent, a property that is intimately related to their ability to function as semiconductors and pigments . These are the sulfides most often used directly as functional materials; they are found as pigments, catalysts, optical materials, phase change materials, solid electrolytes, or semiconductors. One particularly familiar sulfide is the bright yellow species CdS or "cadmium yellow". This is the color used for school buses in the United States, though the color is now replicated with alternate pigments due to the toxicity of cadmium.

Another familiar transition-metal sulfide is the black tarnish formed on sterling silver: silver sulfide. Cadmium sulfide is an essential component of cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. Calcium polysulfide ("lime sulfur") is a traditional fungicide in gardening. Lead sulfide is used in infra-red sensors. Molybdenum disulfide, found naturally as the mineral molybdenite, is used as a petrochemical catalyst to remove sulfur from fossil fuels and as a solid lubricant for high temperature and high pressure applications. Zinc sulfide is used for lenses and other optical devices in the infrared part of the spectrum. Zinc sulfide with a trace of copper is used for photoluminescent strips for emergency lighting and luminous watch dials. Research into properties of semiconducting sulfides in the form of nanostructured materials such as quantum dots has grown in recent years, and such materials are now coming into use in optoelectronic applications.

Alkali metal and alkaline earth chalcogenides, including the sulfides, have bonds with more ionic character than those found in transition metal sulfides. They are typically colorless, water-soluble compounds, and are used more as chemical reagents than as functional materials. For instance, sodium sulfide is an important industrial chemical, used in paper manufacturing, dyes, leather tanning, crude petroleum processing, treatment of heavy metal pollution, and others.

Recent Research & Development for Sulfides

Carbon nanotubes-modified graphitic carbon nitride photocatalysts with synergistic effect of nickel(II) sulfide and molybdenum(II) disulfide co-catalysts for more efficient H evolution., Zhang, Yun-Xiao, Li Kui, Yu Yu-Xiang, and De Zhang Wei- , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Sep 15, Volume 526, p.374-383, (2018)

A turn-on fluorescent probe for simultaneous sensing of cysteine/homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide and its bioimaging applications., Chen, Fengzao, Han Deman, Gao Yuan, Liu Heng, Wang Shengfu, Zhou Fangyu, Li Kaibin, Zhang Siqi, Shao Wujun, and He Yanling , Talanta, 2018 Sep 01, Volume 187, p.19-26, (2018)

A Study on the Formation of 2-Dimensional Tungsten Disulfide Thin Films on Sapphire Substrate by Sputtering and High Temperature Rapid Thermal Processing., Nam, Hanyeob, Kim Hong-Seok, Han Jae-Hee, Kwon Sang Jik, and Cho Eou Sik , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2018 Sep 01, Volume 18, Issue 9, p.6257-6264, (2018)

Use of MPA-capped CdS quantum dots for sensitive detection and quantification of Co ions in aqueous solution., Mohamed, Naim Bel Haj, Ben Brahim Nassim, Mrad Randa, Haouari Mohamed, Ben Chaâbane Rafik, and Negrerie Michel , Anal Chim Acta, 2018 Oct 22, Volume 1028, p.50-58, (2018)

Cobalt sulfide aerogel prepared by anion exchange method with enhanced pseudocapacitive and water oxidation performances., Gao, Qiuyue, Shi Zhenyu, Xue Kaiming, Ye Ziran, Hong Zhanglian, Yu Xinyao, and Zhi Mingjia , Nanotechnology, 2018 May 25, Volume 29, Issue 21, p.215601, (2018)

Nickel sulfide/graphitic carbon nitride/strontium titanate (NiS/g-CN/SrTiO) composites with significantly enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity., Luo, Xiu-Li, He Gang-Ling, Fang Yue-Ping, and Xu Yue-Hua , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 May 15, Volume 518, p.184-191, (2018)

A comprehensive study on the photocatalytic activity of coupled copper oxide-cadmium sulfide nanoparticles., Senobari, Samaneh, and Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh Alireza , Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2018 May 05, Volume 196, p.334-343, (2018)

PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles with embedded bismuth sulfide for dual-wavelength fluorescent imaging and photothermal therapy., Wang, Ke, Zhuang Jialang, Liu Yubing, Xu Maosheng, Zhuang Jingyuan, Chen Zuanguang, Wei Yen, and Zhang Yuanqing , Carbohydr Polym, 2018 Mar 15, Volume 184, p.445-452, (2018)

Two-dimensional nickel hydroxide/sulfides nanosheet as an efficient cocatalyst for photocatalytic H2 evolution over CdS nanospheres., Xie, Ying Peng, Zheng Yunhui, Yang Yongqiang, Jiang Renzheng, Wang Guosheng, Zhang Yajing, Zhang Enlei, Zhao Liang, and Duan Chun-Ying , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Mar 15, Volume 514, p.634-641, (2018)

Three-dimensional molybdenum disulfide/graphene hydrogel with tunable heterointerfaces for high selective Hg(II) scavenging., Zhuang, Yu-Ting, Zhang Xiao, Wang Dan-Hua, Yu Yong-Liang, and Wang Jian-Hua , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Mar 15, Volume 514, p.715-722, (2018)

Immobilization of hexavalent chromium in contaminated soils using biochar supported nanoscale iron sulfide composite., Lyu, Honghong, Zhao Hang, Tang Jingchun, Gong Yanyan, Huang Yao, Wu Qihang, and Gao Bin , Chemosphere, 2018 Mar, Volume 194, p.360-369, (2018)

A novel electrochemical sensor based on silver/halloysite nanotube/molybdenum disulfide nanocomposite for efficient nitrite sensing., Ghanei-Motlagh, Masoud, and Taher Mohammad Ali , Biosens Bioelectron, 2018 Jun 30, Volume 109, p.279-285, (2018)

Two colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence probes for hydrogen sulfide based on AIE strategy of α-cyanostilbenes., Zhao, Baoying, Yang Binsheng, Hu Xiangquan, and Liu Bin , Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2018 Jun 15, Volume 199, p.117-122, (2018)

Sulfide alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis plants by altering the chemical form and the subcellular distribution of cadmium., Guan, Mei Yan, Zhang Hai Hua, Pan Wei, Jin Chong Wei, and Lin Xian Yong , Sci Total Environ, 2018 Jun 15, Volume 627, p.663-670, (2018)

Hydrogen sulfide formation control and microbial competition in batch anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater sludge: Effect of initial sludge pH., Yan, Li, Ye Jie, Zhang Panyue, Xu Dong, Wu Yan, Liu Jianbo, Zhang Haibo, Fang Wei, Wang Bei, and Zeng Guangming , Bioresour Technol, 2018 Jul, Volume 259, p.67-74, (2018)