About Sulfides

Sulfide Ion

Sulfides are compounds derived from the sulfide anion, S2-. As sulfur is a member of group 16 on the periodic table, it is considered a chalcogen, and sulfide compounds belong to a class of compounds known as chalcogenides.

The bonding in transition metal sulfides is highly covalent, a property that is intimately related to their ability to function as semiconductors and pigments . These are the sulfides most often used directly as functional materials; they are found as pigments, catalysts, optical materials, phase change materials, solid electrolytes, or semiconductors. One particularly familiar sulfide is the bright yellow species CdS or "cadmium yellow". This is the color used for school buses in the United States, though the color is now replicated with alternate pigments due to the toxicity of cadmium.

Another familiar transition-metal sulfide is the black tarnish formed on sterling silver: silver sulfide. Cadmium sulfide is an essential component of cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. Calcium polysulfide ("lime sulfur") is a traditional fungicide in gardening. Lead sulfide is used in infra-red sensors. Molybdenum disulfide, found naturally as the mineral molybdenite, is used as a petrochemical catalyst to remove sulfur from fossil fuels and as a solid lubricant for high temperature and high pressure applications. Zinc sulfide is used for lenses and other optical devices in the infrared part of the spectrum. Zinc sulfide with a trace of copper is used for photoluminescent strips for emergency lighting and luminous watch dials. Research into properties of semiconducting sulfides in the form of nanostructured materials such as quantum dots has grown in recent years, and such materials are now coming into use in optoelectronic applications.

Alkali metal and alkaline earth chalcogenides, including the sulfides, have bonds with more ionic character than those found in transition metal sulfides. They are typically colorless, water-soluble compounds, and are used more as chemical reagents than as functional materials. For instance, sodium sulfide is an important industrial chemical, used in paper manufacturing, dyes, leather tanning, crude petroleum processing, treatment of heavy metal pollution, and others.

Recent Research & Development for Sulfides

Mercury sulfide-containing Hua-Feng-Dan and 70W (Rannasangpei) protect against LPS plus MPTP-induced neurotoxicity and disturbance of gut microbiota in mice., Hu, An-Ling, Song Sheng, Li Yi, Xu Shang-Fu, Zhang Feng, Li Cen, and Liu Jie , J Ethnopharmacol, 2020 May 23, Volume 254, p.112674, (2020)

Highly Effective Electrochemical Exfoliation of Ultrathin Tantalum Disulfide Nanosheets for Energy-Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalysis., Chen, Hanlin, Si Jincheng, Lyu Siliu, Zhang Tianyu, Li Zhongjian, Lei Chaojun, Lei Lecheng, Yuan Chris, Yang Bin, Gao Liguo, et al. , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2020 May 19, (2020)

Responsive nanosensor for ratiometric luminescence detection of hydrogen sulfide in inflammatory cancer cells., Liu, Jianping, Duan Chengchen, Zhang Wenzhu, Ta Hang Thu, Yuan Jingli, Zhang Run, and Xu Zhi Ping , Anal Chim Acta, 2020 Mar 22, Volume 1103, p.156-163, (2020)

Highly Robust Non-Noble Alkaline Hydrogen-Evolving Electrocatalyst from Se-Doped Molybdenum Disulfide Particles on Interwoven CoSe Nanowire Arrays., Liao, Liling, Sun Jingying, Li Dongyang, Yu Fang, Zhu Yijun, Yang Yi, Wang Jinjian, Zhou Weichang, Tang Dongsheng, Chen Shuo, et al. , Small, 2020 Mar 04, p.e1906629, (2020)

Molybdenum carbide nanostructures for electrocatalytic polysulfide conversion in lithium-polysulfide batteries., Wu, Yunling, Deng Jun, Zhou Yuan, Huang Yang, and Li Yanguang , Nanoscale Horiz, 2020 Mar 01, Volume 5, Issue 3, p.501-506, (2020)

Sulfide-binding to Cu(II) in wine: Impact on oxygen consumption rates., Kontoudakis, Nikolaos, and Clark Andrew C. , Food Chem, 2020 Jun 30, Volume 316, p.126352, (2020)

Exogenously supplied silicon (Si) improves cadmium tolerance in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) by up-regulating the synthesis of nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide., Kaya, Cengiz, Akram Nudrat Aisha, Ashraf Muhammad, Alyemeni Mohammed Nasser, and Ahmad Parvaiz , J Biotechnol, 2020 Jun 10, Volume 316, p.35-45, (2020)

Facile fabrication of CuS/Carbon composites using lignosulfonate for efficient palladium recovery under strong acidic conditions., Liu, Hao, da An Qing-, Kim Jeonghun, Guo Lin, Zhao Yu-Meng, Xiao Zuo-Yi, and Zhai Shang-Ru , J Hazard Mater, 2020 Jun 05, Volume 391, p.122253, (2020)

Sputtered Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) Buffer Layer for Kesterite and Chalcogenide Thin Film Solar Cell (TFSC) Applications., Nadarajah, Muhunthan, Gour Kuldeep Singh, and Singh Vidya Nand , J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2020 Jun 01, Volume 20, Issue 6, p.3909-3912, (2020)

Simple hydrothermal approach for synthesis of fluorescent molybdenum disulfide quantum dots: Sensing of Cr ion and cellular imaging., Desai, Mittal L., Jha Sanjay, Basu Hirakendu, Saha Sudeshna, Singhal Rakesh Kumar, and Kailasa Suresh Kumar , Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Jun, Volume 111, p.110778, (2020)

Layered nanocomposite of zinc sulfide covered reduced graphene oxide and their implications for electrocatalytic applications., Vinoth, Subramaniyan, Govindasamy Mani, Wang Sea-Fue, and Anandaraj Sathiyan , Ultrason Sonochem, 2020 Jun, Volume 64, p.105036, (2020)

Entropy optimized Darcy-Forchheimer nanofluid (Silicon dioxide, Molybdenum disulfide) subject to temperature dependent viscosity., Abbas, S Z., Khan W A., Kadry S, M Khan Ijaz, Waqas M, and M Khan Imran , Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2020 Jan 28, Volume 190, p.105363, (2020)

Defect-Assisted Contact Property Enhancement in a Molybdenum Disulfide Monolayer., Chee, Sang-Soo, Lee Joo-Hyoung, Lee Kayoung, and Ham Moon-Ho , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2020 Jan 22, Volume 12, Issue 3, p.4129-4134, (2020)

C-H activations of methanol and ethanol and C-C couplings into diols by zinc-indium-sulfide under visible light., Zhang, Haikun, Xie Shunji, Hu Jinyuan, Wu Xuejiao, Zhang Qinghong, Cheng Jun, and Wang Ye , Chem Commun (Camb), 2020 Jan 21, (2020)

One-step construction of a transition-metal surface decorated with metal sulfide nanoparticles: A high-efficiency electrocatalyst for hydrogen generation., Sun, Yulin, Huang Chuanqi, Shen Junling, Zhong Yijun, Ning Jiqiang, and Hu Yong , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2020 Jan 15, Volume 558, p.1-8, (2020)