About Sulfides

Sulfide Ion

Sulfides are compounds derived from the sulfide anion, S2-. As sulfur is a member of group 16 on the periodic table, it is considered a chalcogen, and sulfide compounds belong to a class of compounds known as chalcogenides.

The bonding in transition metal sulfides is highly covalent, a property that is intimately related to their ability to function as semiconductors and pigments . These are the sulfides most often used directly as functional materials; they are found as pigments, catalysts, optical materials, phase change materials, solid electrolytes, or semiconductors. One particularly familiar sulfide is the bright yellow species CdS or "cadmium yellow". This is the color used for school buses in the United States, though the color is now replicated with alternate pigments due to the toxicity of cadmium.

Another familiar transition-metal sulfide is the black tarnish formed on sterling silver: silver sulfide. Cadmium sulfide is an essential component of cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. Calcium polysulfide ("lime sulfur") is a traditional fungicide in gardening. Lead sulfide is used in infra-red sensors. Molybdenum disulfide, found naturally as the mineral molybdenite, is used as a petrochemical catalyst to remove sulfur from fossil fuels and as a solid lubricant for high temperature and high pressure applications. Zinc sulfide is used for lenses and other optical devices in the infrared part of the spectrum. Zinc sulfide with a trace of copper is used for photoluminescent strips for emergency lighting and luminous watch dials. Research into properties of semiconducting sulfides in the form of nanostructured materials such as quantum dots has grown in recent years, and such materials are now coming into use in optoelectronic applications.

Alkali metal and alkaline earth chalcogenides, including the sulfides, have bonds with more ionic character than those found in transition metal sulfides. They are typically colorless, water-soluble compounds, and are used more as chemical reagents than as functional materials. For instance, sodium sulfide is an important industrial chemical, used in paper manufacturing, dyes, leather tanning, crude petroleum processing, treatment of heavy metal pollution, and others.

Recent Research & Development for Sulfides

A comprehensive study on the photocatalytic activity of coupled copper oxide-cadmium sulfide nanoparticles., Senobari, Samaneh, and Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh Alireza , Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2018 May 05, Volume 196, p.334-343, (2018)

Metabolism of hydrogen sulfide (HS) and Production of Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS) by superoxide dismutase., Olson, Kenneth R., Gao Yan, Arif Faihaan, Arora Kanika, Patel Shivali, DeLeon Eric R., Sutton Thomas R., Feelisch Martin, Cortese-Krott Miriam M., and Straub Karl D. , Redox Biol, 2018 May, Volume 15, p.74-85, (2018)

Two-dimensional nickel hydroxide/sulfides nanosheet as an efficient cocatalyst for photocatalytic H2 evolution over CdS nanospheres., Xie, Ying Peng, Zheng Yunhui, Yang Yongqiang, Jiang Renzheng, Wang Guosheng, Zhang Yajing, Zhang Enlei, Zhao Liang, and Duan Chun-Ying , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Mar 15, Volume 514, p.634-641, (2018)

Immobilization of hexavalent chromium in contaminated soils using biochar supported nanoscale iron sulfide composite., Lyu, Honghong, Zhao Hang, Tang Jingchun, Gong Yanyan, Huang Yao, Wu Qihang, and Gao Bin , Chemosphere, 2018 Mar, Volume 194, p.360-369, (2018)

A solid composite microbial inoculant for the simultaneous removal of volatile organic sulfide compounds: Preparation, characterization, and its bioaugmentation of a biotrickling filter., Chen, Dong-Zhi, Zhao Xiang-Yu, Miao Xiao-Ping, Chen Jing, Ye Jie-Xu, Cheng Zhuo-Wei, Zhang Shi-Han, and Chen Jian-Meng , J Hazard Mater, 2018 Jan 15, Volume 342, p.589-596, (2018)

Intramolecular Thioether Migration in the Rhodium-Catalyzed Ene-Cycloisomerization of Alkenylidenecyclopropanes by a Metal-Mediated β-Sulfide Elimination., Su, Yu, Inglesby Phillip A., and P Evans Andrew , Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2018 Jan 15, Volume 57, Issue 3, p.673-677, (2018)

Epitaxial Synthesis of Molybdenum Carbide and Formation of a Mo2C/MoS2 Hybrid Structure via Chemical Conversion of Molybdenum Disulfide., Jeon, Jaeho, Park Yereum, Choi Seunghyuk, Lee Jinhee, Lim Sung Soo, Lee Byoung Hun, Song Young Jae, Cho Jeong Ho, Jang Yun Hee, and Lee Sungjoo , ACS Nano, 2018 Jan 11, (2018)

α-C-H Alkylation of Methyl Sulfides with Alkenes by a Scandium Catalyst., Luo, Yong, Ma Yuanhong, and Hou Zhaomin , J Am Chem Soc, 2018 Jan 10, Volume 140, Issue 1, p.114-117, (2018)

Mo-Terminated Edge Reconstructions in Nanoporous Molybdenum Disulfide Film., Zhao, Xiaoxu, Fu Deyi, Ding Zijing, Zhang Yu-Yang, Wan Dongyang, Tan Sherman J. R., Chen Zhongxin, Leng Kai, Dan Jiadong, Fu Wei, et al. , Nano Lett, 2018 Jan 10, Volume 18, Issue 1, p.482-490, (2018)

Sulphur and nitrogen dual-doped mesoporous carbon hybrid coupling with graphite coated cobalt and cobalt sulfide nanoparticles: Rational synthesis and advanced multifunctional electrochemical properties., Zhu, Anquan, Tan Pengfei, Qiao Lulu, Liu Yi, Ma Yongjin, and Pan Jun , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Jan 01, Volume 509, p.254-264, (2018)

Electrochemical co-preparation of cobalt sulfide/reduced graphene oxide composite for electrocatalytic activity and determination of H2O2 in biological samples., Kubendhiran, Subbiramaniyan, Thirumalraj Balamurugan, Chen Shen-Ming, and Karuppiah Chelladurai , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Jan 01, Volume 509, p.153-162, (2018)

Isotherms and kinetic study of ultrasound-assisted adsorption of malachite green and Pb(2+) ions from aqueous samples by copper sulfide nanorods loaded on activated carbon: Experimental design optimization., Sharifpour, Ebrahim, Khafri Hossein Zare, Ghaedi Mehrorang, Asfaram Arash, and Jannesar Ramin , Ultrason Sonochem, 2018 Jan, Volume 40, Issue Pt A, p.373-382, (2018)

Construction of organic-inorganic cadmium sulfide/diethylenetriamine hybrids for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production., Lv, Jiali, Liu Jun, Zhang Jinfeng, Dai Kai, Liang Changhao, Wang Zhongliao, and Zhu Guangping , J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Feb 15, Volume 512, p.77-85, (2018)

Copper sulfide nanoplates as nanosensors for fast, sensitive and selective detection of DNA., Wang, Dewen, Li Qun, Xing Zhicai, and Yang Xiurong , Talanta, 2018 Feb 01, Volume 178, p.905-909, (2018)

Biogenesis of Hydrogen Sulfide and Thioethers by Cystathionine Beta-Synthase., Majtan, Tomas, Krijt Jakub, Sokolová Jitka, Křížková Michaela, Ralat Maria A., Kent Jana, Gregory Jesse F., Kožich Viktor, and Kraus Jan P. , Antioxid Redox Signal, 2018 Feb 01, Volume 28, Issue 4, p.311-323, (2018)