INTRODUCTION TO 2D MATERIALS


Two-dimensional (2D) materials are one of the most exciting discoveries in cutting-edge materials science in the last two decades. Also known as monolayer materials, these materials are composed of a single layer of atoms (between 1-10) arranged in a lattice structure, making them single dimension in the nanoscale or smaller. 2D materials exhibit a massive ratio of surface area to volume, making them more reactive and efficient than their bulk counterparts, and can be layered to impart additional novel properties. Applications for American Elements 2D materials are nearly endless, including thin-film photovoltaics, microlectronics, advanced battery and supercapacitor technology, optics, bioengineering, environmental remediation, and plasmonics/metamaterials. Below is an overview of the most important 2D materials discovered so far.

2D Graphene

Graphene

Graphene was the first 2D material discovered. Graphene is structured as a single plane of sp2-bonded carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice, with each atom bonded to 3 others. Graphene is notable for its extreme properties: it is 100-300 times stronger than steel and exhibits excellent electrical conductivity, approaching that of a superconductor at room temperature; it is optically transparent, absorbing only 2% of visible light; it is ultralight, flexible and stretchable, and possesses the highest tensile strength of any known material. Since its discovery, numerous other forms of graphene have been synthesized including graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and doped forms with elements such as nitrogen and sulfur. Researchers have also discovered numerous "Xenes," structural analogs of graphene composed other elements such as Silicene (silicon), Stanene (tin), Germanene (germanium), Phosphorene (black phosphorus), Plumbene (tin), Borophene (boron), Antimonene (antimony), and Bismuthene (bismuth). American Elements offers a comprehensive catalog of standard and custom-synthesized graphene products; dopants and fuctionalized forms are available by request.

Hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN)

2D Hexagonal boron nitride is an isomorph of graphene, possessing the same crystal structure, though it exhibits different properties. h-BN is a wide-band gap (~ 5.9 eV) insulator with excellent thermal conductivity and mechanical robustness, making it a useful gate dielectric with applications in field effect transistors (FETs), tunneling devices, deep UV emitters and detectors, photoelectric devices, and nanofillers. Layering graphene on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate (Boron Nitride Nanosheets, BNNS), enhances electron mobility and improves thermal stability. American Elements h-BN products include thin films, single crystals, nanopowder, and other custom forms.

Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs) & Trichalcogenides (TMTCs)

Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have the chemical formula MX2, where M is a transition metal (such as molybdenum or tungsten) and X is a chalcogen (such as sulfur, selenium, or tellurium). Examples include molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2), tungsten disulfide (WS2), and tungsten diselenide (WSe2). Similarly, molecules of transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) possess three chalcogen atoms. Examples include as bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3), bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3), and zirconium triselenide (ZrSe3). Bulk TMDCs and TMTCs are van der Waals materials consisting of metallic atom layers sandwiched between chalcogenide atom layers. These materials are semiconductors with tunable band gaps, and layering different materials yields hybrid heterostructures that opens the field of materials science to hundreds of new types of metamaterials with tightly controlled properties.

MXenes

MXenes are a novel type of two-dimensional (2D) ceramic composed of layered nitrides, carbides, or carbonitrides of transition metals. MXenes are notable for their properties that combine aspects of both metals and ceramics. These include excellent thermal and electrical conductivity, heat resistance, easy machinability, and excellent volumetric capacitance, having the highest EMI shielding effectiveness of all similar synthetic 2D materials, and hydrophobic natures due to various surface functional groups. For more information on the AE MXenes™ catalog of products, click here.

American Elements offers a full catalog of high purity and ultra high purity (up to 99.9999%) 2D materials and bulk precursors for the synthesis of novel 2D materials. Materials are produced via mechanical or liquid exfoliation, solution-based wet chemical synthesis, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and can be manufactured to customer specifications. Forms include single crystals, powders, flakes, and monolayer thin films. American Elements engineers can provide guidance on materials selection, properties, and applications. For more information on American Elements 2D materials, contact 2d-materials@americanelements.com.

PRODUCTS

2D Materials

2D Tellurene Crystals 2D Tellurene Solution AgCrSe2 Crystal
AgInP2S6 Crystal AgInP2Se6 Crystal AgTaS3 Crystal
Allyl Germanane Antimony Arsenic Sulfide Antimony Oxysulfide
Bi2O2Se Crystal Bi2O2Te Crystal Bi4Pb7Se13 Crystal
BiInTe3 Crystal BiSbTe3 Crystal BiSbTeSe Crystal
Bismuth Selenide BiSe Bismuth Selenide Crystal Bismuth Sulfide
Bismuth Telluride BiTe Bismuth Telluride Sulfide Bismuth Tellurium Selenide
Bismuth Thallium Telluride Crystal Bismuth(III) Selenide BiTeI Crystal
Boron Nitride Boron Nitride Crystal Boron Nitride Flakes
CdPS3 Crystal Chromium Aluminum Carbide Co2Bi2Te5 Crystal
CoBi2Te4 Crystal CoBi4Se7 Crystal CoBi4Te7 Crystal
CoPS3 Crystal Cr2Ge2Te6 Crystal Cr2Si2Te6 Crystal
CrBi2Te4 Crystal CrBi4Te7 Crystal CrGeTe3 Crystal
CrPS4 Crystal CrSiTe3 Crystal CrTe2 Crystal
Cu2Se3 Crystal CuBi3PbS6 Crystal CuCrP2S6 Crystal
CuFeTe Crystal CuIn7Se11 Crystal CuInP2S6 Crystal
CuInP2Se6 Crystal Fe3GeTe2 Crystal GaGeTe Crystal
Gallium Selenide Single Crystal Gallium Selenide Telluride GaSeTe Crystal Gallium Sulfide Selenide GaSSe Crystal
Gallium Sulfide Telluride GaSTe Crystal Gallium(II) Selenide Gallium(II) Sulfide
GaPS4 Crystal GeBi2Te4 Crystal GeBi4Te7 Crystal
Germanane Germanium(II) Sulfide Hafnium Selenide
Hafnium Sulfide HfS3 Crystal HfTe5 Crystal
HgPSe3 Crystal Holmium Selenide In2GaBi2S6 Crystal
In2P3S9 Crystal In2P3Se9 Crystal In2Te5 Crystal
In3SbTe2 Crystal Indium Selenide Crystal Indium(II) Selenide
InSeBr Crystal InSiTe3 Crystal Iron Phosphorus Triselenide
Iron Phosphorus Trisulfide Lead Tin Disulfide Lead Tin Selenide
Manganese Aluminum Carbide Mn2AlC Methyl Germanane MnBiSe Crystal
MnPS3 Crystal MnPSe3 Crystal MnSbTe Crystal
Molybdenum Diselenide Crystal Molybdenum Disulfide Flakes Molybdenum Disulfide Single Crystal
Molybdenum Gallium Carbide Molybdenum Rhenium Disulfide Molybdenum Selenide Flakes
Molybdenum Sulfide Molybdenum Sulfide Selenide Molybdenum Tungsten Diselenide
Molybdenum Tungsten Disulfide Molybdenum Tungsten Ditelluride Molybdenum(IV) Diselenide, Lithium Intercalated
Molybdenum(IV) Disulfide, Iodine Intercalated Molybdenum(IV) Disulfide, Lithium Intercalated Molybdenum(IV) Selenide
Nb2SiTe4 Crystal Nb3GeTe6 Crystal NbReS2 Crystal
NbReS4 Crystal NbReSe2 Crystal NbTe4 Crystal
Ni2SiTe4 Crystal NiCoSe2 Crystal Niobium Diselenide Crystal
Niobium Selenide NiPS3 Crystal Palladium Selenide
Pb2Bi2Se5 Crystal Pb2Bi2Te5 Crystal PbBi4Te7 Crystal
PbBi6Te10 Crystal PbGa2Se4 Crystal PbSb2Te4 Crystal
Phosphorus-Arsenic Alloy Platinum Ditelluride ReSSe Crystal
Rhenium Disulfide Crystal Rhenium Selenide Rhenium(IV) Sulfide
Sb16Te3 Crystal Sb2Te Crystal Sb2Te2Se Crystal
Sb2TeSe2 Crystal SbTe Crystal Si2CuP3 Crystal
SiTe2 Crystal SnBi2Te4 Crystal SnBi4Te7 Crystal
SnPS3 Crystal SnPSe3 Crystal Ta2NiS5 Crystal
Ta2NiSe5 Crystal Ta2NiTe5 Crystal TaCo2Te2 Crystal
TaNi2Te2 Crystal TaNi2Te3 Crystal TaNiS5 Crystal
Tantalum Diselenide Crystal Tantalum Selenide TaS3 Crystals
TaWSe2 Crystal Thallium Gallium Selenide TlGaSe2 Crystal Thallium Gallium Sulfide TlGaS2 Crystal
Thallium Selenide TlSe Crystal Tin(II) Selenide Tin(II) Sulfide
Tin(IV) Selenide Titanium Disulfide Crystal Titanium Selenide
Titanium Trisulfide Crystal Titanium(III) Bromide TiBr3 Titanium(IV) Sulfide
TlGaTe2 Crystal TlInS2 Crystal Tungsten Diselenide
Tungsten Diselenide Crystal Tungsten Disulfide Crystal Tungsten Disulfide Flakes
Tungsten Rhenium Diselenide Tungsten Selenide Flakes Tungsten Sulfide
Tungsten(IV) Diselenide, Lithium Intercalated Tungsten(IV) Disulfide, Iodine Intercalated Tungsten(IV) Disulfide, Lithium Intercalated
V2NiSe4 Crystal Vanadium Selenide WNbTe2 Crystal
WTaSe4 Crystal Zirconium Pentatelluride Zirconium Selenide
Zirconium Silicon Sulfide Crystal Zirconium Sulfide Zirconium Triselenide
Zirconium Trisulfide Zirconium Tritelluride Zr5Te4 Crystal
ZrGeTe4 Crystal