INTRODUCTION TO 2D MATERIALS


Two-dimensional (2D) materials are one of the most exciting discoveries in cutting-edge materials science in the last two decades. Also known as monolayer materials, these materials are composed of a single layer of atoms (between 1-10) arranged in a lattice structure, making them single dimension in the nanoscale or smaller. 2D materials exhibit a massive ratio of surface area to volume, making them more reactive and efficient than their bulk counterparts, and can be layered to impart additional novel properties. Applications for American Elements 2D materials are nearly endless, including thin-film photovoltaics, microlectronics, advanced battery and supercapacitor technology, optics, bioengineering, environmental remediation, and plasmonics/metamaterials. Below is an overview of the most important 2D materials discovered so far.

2D Graphene

Graphene

Graphene was the first 2D material discovered. Graphene is structured as a single plane of sp2-bonded carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice, with each atom bonded to 3 others. Graphene is notable for its extreme properties: it is 100-300 times stronger than steel and exhibits excellent electrical conductivity, approaching that of a superconductor at room temperature; it is optically transparent, absorbing only 2% of visible light; it is ultralight, flexible and stretchable, and possesses the highest tensile strength of any known material. Since its discovery, numerous other forms of graphene have been synthesized including graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and doped forms with elements such as nitrogen and sulfur. Researchers have also discovered numerous "Xenes," structural analogs of graphene composed other elements such as Silicene (silicon), Stanene (tin), Germanene (germanium), Phosphorene (black phosphorus), Plumbene (tin), Borophene (boron), Antimonene (antimony), and Bismuthene (bismuth). American Elements offers a comprehensive catalog of standard and custom-synthesized graphene products; dopants and fuctionalized forms are available by request.

Hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN)

2D Hexagonal boron nitride is an isomorph of graphene, possessing the same crystal structure, though it exhibits different properties. h-BN is a wide-band gap (~ 5.9 eV) insulator with excellent thermal conductivity and mechanical robustness, making it a useful gate dielectric with applications in field effect transistors (FETs), tunneling devices, deep UV emitters and detectors, photoelectric devices, and nanofillers. Layering graphene on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate (Boron Nitride Nanosheets, BNNS), enhances electron mobility and improves thermal stability. American Elements h-BN products include thin films, single crystals, nanopowder, and other custom forms.

Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs) & Trichalcogenides (TMTCs)

Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have the chemical formula MX2, where M is a transition metal (such as molybdenum or tungsten) and X is a chalcogen (such as sulfur, selenium, or tellurium). Examples include molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2), tungsten disulfide (WS2), and tungsten diselenide (WSe2). Similarly, molecules of transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) possess three chalcogen atoms. Examples include as bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3), bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3), and zirconium triselenide (ZrSe3). Bulk TMDCs and TMTCs are van der Waals materials consisting of metallic atom layers sandwiched between chalcogenide atom layers. These materials are semiconductors with tunable band gaps, and layering different materials yields hybrid heterostructures that opens the field of materials science to hundreds of new types of metamaterials with tightly controlled properties.

MXenes

MXenes are a novel type of two-dimensional (2D) ceramic composed of layered nitrides, carbides, or carbonitrides of transition metals. MXenes are notable for their properties that combine aspects of both metals and ceramics. These include excellent thermal and electrical conductivity, heat resistance, easy machinability, and excellent volumetric capacitance, having the highest EMI shielding effectiveness of all similar synthetic 2D materials, and hydrophobic natures due to various surface functional groups. For more information on the AE MXenes™ catalog of products, click here.

American Elements offers a full catalog of high purity and ultra high purity (up to 99.9999%) 2D materials and bulk precursors for the synthesis of novel 2D materials. Materials are produced via mechanical or liquid exfoliation, solution-based wet chemical synthesis, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and can be manufactured to customer specifications. Forms include single crystals, powders, flakes, and monolayer thin films. American Elements engineers can provide guidance on materials selection, properties, and applications. For more information on American Elements 2D materials, contact 2d-materials@americanelements.com.

PRODUCTS

2D Materials

2D Tellurene Crystals 2D Tellurene Solution AgCrSe2 Crystal
AgInP2S6 Crystal AgInP2Se6 Crystal AgTaS3 Crystal
Allyl Germanane Antimony Arsenic Sulfide Antimony Oxysulfide
Bi2O2Se Crystal Bi2O2Te Crystal Bi4Pb7Se13 Crystal
BiInTe3 Crystal BiSbTe3 Crystal BiSbTeSe Crystal
Bismuth Selenide BiSe Bismuth Selenide Crystal Bismuth Sulfide
Bismuth Telluride BiTe Bismuth Telluride Sulfide Bismuth Tellurium Selenide
Bismuth Thallium Telluride Crystal Bismuth(III) Selenide BiTeI Crystal
Black Arsenic Crystal Black Phosphorus Boron Nitride
Boron Nitride Crystal Boron Nitride Flakes CdPS3 Crystal
Chromium Aluminum Carbide Co2Bi2Te5 Crystal CoBi2Te4 Crystal
CoBi4Se7 Crystal CoBi4Te7 Crystal CoPS3 Crystal
Cr2Ge2Te6 Crystal Cr2Si2Te6 Crystal CrBi2Te4 Crystal
CrBi4Te7 Crystal CrGeTe3 Crystal CrPS4 Crystal
CrSiTe3 Crystal CrTe2 Crystal Cu2Se3 Crystal
CuBi3PbS6 Crystal CuCrP2S6 Crystal CuFeTe Crystal
CuIn7Se11 Crystal CuInP2S6 Crystal CuInP2Se6 Crystal
Fe3GeTe2 Crystal GaGeTe Crystal Gallium Selenide Single Crystal
Gallium Selenide Telluride GaSeTe Crystal Gallium Sulfide Selenide GaSSe Crystal Gallium Sulfide Telluride GaSTe Crystal
Gallium(II) Selenide Gallium(II) Sulfide GaPS4 Crystal
GeBi2Te4 Crystal GeBi4Te7 Crystal Germanane
Germanium(II) Sulfide Hafnium Selenide Hafnium Sulfide
HfS3 Crystal HfTe5 Crystal HgPSe3 Crystal
Holmium Selenide In2GaBi2S6 Crystal In2P3S9 Crystal
In2P3Se9 Crystal In2Te5 Crystal In3SbTe2 Crystal
Indium Selenide Crystal Indium(II) Selenide InSeBr Crystal
InSiTe3 Crystal Iron Phosphorus Triselenide Iron Phosphorus Trisulfide
Lead Tin Disulfide Lead Tin Selenide Manganese Aluminum Carbide Mn2AlC
Methyl Germanane MnBiSe Crystal MnPS3 Crystal
MnPSe3 Crystal MnSbTe Crystal Molybdenum Diselenide Crystal
Molybdenum Disulfide Flakes Molybdenum Disulfide Single Crystal Molybdenum Gallium Carbide
Molybdenum Rhenium Disulfide Molybdenum Selenide Flakes Molybdenum Sulfide
Molybdenum Sulfide Selenide Molybdenum Tungsten Diselenide Molybdenum Tungsten Disulfide
Molybdenum Tungsten Ditelluride Molybdenum(IV) Diselenide, Lithium Intercalated Molybdenum(IV) Disulfide, Iodine Intercalated
Molybdenum(IV) Disulfide, Lithium Intercalated Molybdenum(IV) Selenide Nb2SiTe4 Crystal
Nb3GeTe6 Crystal NbReS2 Crystal NbReS4 Crystal
NbReSe2 Crystal NbTe4 Crystal Ni2SiTe4 Crystal
NiCoSe2 Crystal Niobium Diselenide Crystal Niobium Selenide
NiPS3 Crystal Palladium Selenide Pb2Bi2Se5 Crystal
Pb2Bi2Te5 Crystal PbBi4Te7 Crystal PbBi6Te10 Crystal
PbGa2Se4 Crystal PbSb2Te4 Crystal Phosphorus-Arsenic Alloy
Platinum Ditelluride ReSSe Crystal Rhenium Disulfide Crystal
Rhenium Selenide Rhenium(IV) Sulfide Sb16Te3 Crystal
Sb2Te Crystal Sb2Te2Se Crystal Sb2TeSe2 Crystal
SbTe Crystal Si2CuP3 Crystal SiTe2 Crystal
SnBi2Te4 Crystal SnBi4Te7 Crystal SnPS3 Crystal
SnPSe3 Crystal Ta2NiS5 Crystal Ta2NiSe5 Crystal
Ta2NiTe5 Crystal TaCo2Te2 Crystal TaNi2Te2 Crystal
TaNi2Te3 Crystal TaNiS5 Crystal Tantalum Diselenide Crystal
Tantalum Selenide TaS3 Crystals TaWSe2 Crystal
Thallium Gallium Selenide TlGaSe2 Crystal Thallium Gallium Sulfide TlGaS2 Crystal Thallium Selenide TlSe Crystal
Tin(II) Selenide Tin(II) Sulfide Tin(IV) Selenide
Titanium Disulfide Crystal Titanium Selenide Titanium Trisulfide Crystal
Titanium(III) Bromide TiBr3 Titanium(IV) Sulfide TlGaTe2 Crystal
TlInS2 Crystal Tungsten Diselenide Tungsten Diselenide Crystal
Tungsten Disulfide Crystal Tungsten Disulfide Flakes Tungsten Rhenium Diselenide
Tungsten Selenide Flakes Tungsten Sulfide Tungsten(IV) Diselenide, Lithium Intercalated
Tungsten(IV) Disulfide, Iodine Intercalated Tungsten(IV) Disulfide, Lithium Intercalated V2NiSe4 Crystal
Vanadium Selenide WNbTe2 Crystal WTaSe4 Crystal
Zirconium Pentatelluride Zirconium Selenide Zirconium Silicon Sulfide Crystal
Zirconium Sulfide Zirconium Triselenide Zirconium Trisulfide
Zirconium Tritelluride Zr5Te4 Crystal ZrGeTe4 Crystal