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About Tin

Tin Bohr Model

Tin, an element known since antiquity, is a nontoxic metal that can appear either silvery and malleable or dull grey and brittle, depending on its crystalline form. Its chemical symbol Sn is derived from the latin stannum, which originally referred to a mixture of silver and lead, but came to refer to tin by the 4th century BCE. The English “tin” has Germanic roots, but its origins are otherwise unknown.

As a key component of the first intentionally produced alloy, bronze, tin played a key role in the development of human civilization. As tin ore deposits are distributed unevenly throughout the world, widespread use of the metal necessitated the development of trade networks connecting distant tin sources to tin-poor regions. Prior to the development of bronze-making techniques, copper had been used widely in decorative and functional applications, but its utility was limited by its softness. Pure tin, likewise, did not have ideal properties for metalworking. Adding tin to copper produces an alloy more workable than tin but harder than copper, that additionally is easier to melt and cast. This technological development enabled the production of stronger tools and weapons, and was therefore so revolutionary that we now regard its discovery in any given human society as ushering them into the “Bronze Age”.

Though the “Bronze Age” was followed by the “Iron Age” and the eventual rise of steel and aluminum as the most commonly used metals, copper-tin alloys have retained a significant place in industry. They are valued for their resistance to corrosion, particularly in uses where they are exposed to salt water, as in ship propellers and submerged bearings. Unlike many other metals, bronze does not produce sparks when struck against a hard surface, and is used to produce tools for use in the presence of flammable gasses. Additionally, the alloy has notable acoustic properties and low metal-on-metal friction, lending it to use in musical instruments such as bells and cymbals and in springs and bearings respectively.

Tin has also been used in other alloys such as pewter, and in soft solders either with lead or, more recently, silver and copper. It can also be used in almost pure form for punched tin art and as a low-toxicity and corrosion-resistant plating for steel, as seen in tin cans. Commercial tin is almost never entirely pure, as intentionally added trace impurities are necessary to prevent “tin-pest”, the conversion of metallic tin to brittle crystalline form at low temperatures. Molten tin is necessary for the process used in making most window glass, termed “float glass” as the extremely smooth, flat surface is produced by forming the glass on the surface of molten tin. Additionally, tin-nickel electrodes are used in some types of lithium ion batteries.

The novel material stanene which, analogous to the carbon material graphene, is composed simply of tin atoms arranged in a single layer, exhibits the unique property of acting as a topological insulator, conducting electricity without energy loss like a superconductor, but only at the edges of the material. Materials that exhibit this property are of interest for use in next-generation integrated circuits enabling the production of smaller, faster, and more energy efficient computers.

Several tin compounds also have important applications. indium tin oxide is a conductor that can be applied by physical vapor deposition in a transparent film, and is used in liquid crystal displays, touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and defrosting coatings for airplane windshields. Tin dioxide is a white powder used to opacify or impart white color to ceramic glazes, polish multiple types of hard surfaces, and as a protective coating on glass. Additionally, it may be used in detectors for carbon monoxide or other gasses. Organotin compounds are important in industrial chemistry, where they are especially noteworthy for acting as PVC stabilizers less toxic than the cadmium-based alternatives, and in laboratory organic synthesis. These compounds may also be used as biocides or preservatives. Finally, niobium tin is a superconducting compound that can withstand higher temperatures and greater magnetic field strengths than comparable materials, and therefore finds use in superconducting materials.

Tin metal is produced mostly from its primary ore cassiterite. This tin oxide is reduced to tin metal in the presence of a carbon source, and subsequently purified as necessary for a given application. Increasingly, recycled scrap metal is also a notable source of tin.

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Sputtering Targets

Tin compounds sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings. These have been used for panel lighting and for frost-free windshields. Most window glass is now made by floating molten glass on molten tin (float glass) to produce a flat surface. High Purity (99.999%) Tin Oxide (SnO) PowderCrystalline tin-niobium alloy is superconductive at very low temperatures. This promises to be important in the construction of superconductive magnets that generate enormous field strengths but use practically no power. Tin is the basis for many eutectic alloys. The discovery by early man that copper could be better formed and crafted if tin were added produced the first bronze and launched what we refer to as the "Bronze Age". An important tin compound is the chloride, which is used as a reducing agent and as a mordant in calico printing. High Purity (99.9999%) Tin (Sn) Sputtering TargetTin is also used in various metal alloys (See AE Alloys). Tin is available in many specific states, forms and shapes including pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Tin oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Tin fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Tin is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

American Elements assists our Tin customers with fulfilling the due diligence reporting requirements of the Conflict Mineral Provision (Section 1502) of the Dodd-Frank Act.

Tin Properties

Tin (Sn) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolTin Bohr ModelTin is a Block P, Group 14, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of Tin's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 4 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. The tin atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7440-31-5, tin has a silvery or gray appearance. Tin is commonly extracted from the mineral cassiterite, SnO2.High Purity (99.9999%) Tin (Sn) Metal The origin of the word tin comes from the Latin word Stannum which translates to the Anglo-Saxon word tin. Tin information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

Symbol: Sn
Atomic Number: 50
Atomic Weight: 118.71
Element Category: post-transition metal
Group, Period, Block: 14, 5, p
Color: silvery lustrous gray/ silvery-white
Other Names: N/A
Melting Point: 231.93°C, 449.474°F, 505.08 K
Boiling Point: 2586°C, 4686.8°F, 2859.15 K
Density: 7285
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.99 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 7.30 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 7310 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.21 (kJ/kg K)
Superconductivity Temperature: 3.72 [or -269.43 °C (-452.97 °F)] K
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 7.2
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 296.2
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 302
Thermal Conductivity: 66.8 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 22.0 µm·m-1·K-1
Electrical Resistivity: (0 °C) 115 nΩ·m
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 26.99
Young's Modulus: 46.9
Shear Modulus: 18.4
Bulk Modulus: 58.2
Poisson Ratio: 0.36
Mohs Hardness: 1.5
Vickers Hardness: VHN10=7 - 9 kg/mm2
Brinell Hardness: -350 MPa
Speed of Sound: 2730 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.96
Sanderson Electronegativity: 1.49
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.72
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: 2.21 (sp3 orbital)
Allen Electronegativity: 1.824
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.04
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 50
Protons: 50
Neutrons: 69
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Atomic Radius: 2.17
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 139±4 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.4
Van der Waals Radius:
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1, -4 (amphoteric oxide)
Phase: solid
Crystal Structure: tetragonal
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 107.26
1st Ionization Energy: 708.58 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1411.81 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2943.07 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-31-5 
EC Number: 231-141-8
MDL Number: MFCD00133862 
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Sn]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Sn
PubChem CID: 5352426
ChemSpider ID: 4509318
Earth - Total: 390 ppb
Mercury - Total: 64 ppb
Venus - Total: 430 ppb
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 0.01
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.00052
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 2200
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 380
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 9
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 0.1
Stream, ppb by weight: 0.06
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.0005
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 1200
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 170
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: 200
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: 11
Universe, ppb by weight: 4
Universe, ppb by atom: 0.04
Discovered By: N/A
Discovery Date: Ancient
First Isolation: N/A

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Tin

Safety data for tin metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. Tin salts and organometallic compounds of tin are very toxic, but pure tin is not toxic. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific tin material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Tin.

Safety Data
Signal Word Warning
Hazard Statements H319-H335
Hazard Codes Xi
Risk Codes 36/37
Safety Precautions 26
RTECS Number XP7320000
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity
Review and Print SDS for Tin Metal


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: Tin Metal

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. SN-M-02, SN-M-03, SN-M-04, SN-M-05, SN-M-06

CAS #: 7440-31-5

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture
Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
The substance is not classified as hazardous to health or the environment according to the CLP regulation.
Classification according to Directive 67/548/EEC or Directive 1999/45/EC
Not applicable
Information concerning particular hazards for human and environment:
No information known.
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
Labelling according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
Not applicable
Hazard pictograms
Not applicable
Signal word
Not applicable
Hazard statements
Not applicable
WHMIS classification
Not controlled
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)

Health (acute effects) = 0
Flammability = 0
Physical Hazard = 0
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.


Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7440-31-5 Tin
Identification number(s):
EC number: 231-141-8


Description of first aid measures
General information
No special measures required.
After inhalation
Seek medical treatment in case of complaints.
After skin contact
Generally the product does not irritate the skin.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.
After swallowing
If symptoms persist consult doctor.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
Special powder for metal fires. Do not use water.
For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Metal oxide fume
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
No special measures required.


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Not required.
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow product to reach sewage system or any water course.
Do not allow to penetrate the ground/soil.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Pick up mechanically.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
No special measures required.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Do not store together with acids.
Store away from oxidizing agents.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available.


Additional information about design of technical systems:
No further data; see section 7.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace: 7440-31-5 Tin (100.0%)
PEL (USA) Long-term value: 2 mg/m³ metal
REL (USA) Long-term value: 2 mg/m³
TLV (USA) Long-term value: 2 mg/m³ metal
EL (Canada) Long-term value: 2 mg/m³ metal
EV (Canada) Long-term value: 2* 0.1** mg/m³ *metal, oxide, inorg. compds.;**org. compds.: Skin
Additional information: No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment: Not required.
Protection of hands: Not required.
Penetration time of glove material (in minutes): Not determined
Eye protection: Safety glasses
Body protection: Protective work clothing.


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Silver grey
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 231.9 °C (449 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 2270 °C (4118 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flammability (solid, gaseous): Not determined.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion: Not determined.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure: Not applicable.
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 7.31 g/cm³ (61.002 lbs/gal)
Relative density: Not determined.
Vapor density: Not applicable.
Evaporation rate: Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Insoluble
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available


No information known.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
Reacts with strong oxidizing agents
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
Oxidizing agents
Hazardous decomposition products:
Metal oxide fume


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains acute toxicity data for components in this product.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: No data
Skin irritation or corrosion: May cause irritation
Eye irritation or corrosion: May cause irritation
Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity: No effects known.
Carcinogenicity: No classification data on carcinogenic properties of this material is available from the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains tumorigenic and/or carcinogenic and/or neoplastic data for this substance.
Reproductive toxicity: No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure: No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure: No effects known.
Aspiration hazard: No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity: The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains multiple dose toxicity data for this substance.
Additional toxicological information: To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.


Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.
Other adverse effects
No further relevant information available.


Waste treatment methods
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations


Not applicable
UN proper shipping name
Not applicable
Transport hazard class(es)
Not applicable
Packing group
Not applicable
Environmental hazards:
Not applicable.
Special precautions for user
Not applicable.
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information:
Marine Pollutant (DOT):
UN "Model Regulation":


Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL).
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
Substance is not listed.
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on themarket and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
REACH - Pre-registered substances
Substance is listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Tin Isotopes

Thirty-nine isotopes of tin are known. Ten of those are stable and have a wide variety of commercial applications. Tin has more stable isotopes than any other element.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
99Sn 98.94933(64)# 5# ms Unknown 9/2+# N/A 791.2 -
100Sn 99.93904(76) 1.1(4) s [0.94(+54-27) s] ß+ to 100In; ß+ + p to 99Cd 0+ N/A 808.6 -
101Sn 100.93606(32)# 3(1) s ß+ to 101In 5/2+# N/A 825.06 -
102Sn 101.93030(14) 4.5(7) s ß+ to 102In 0+ N/A 833.14 -
103Sn 102.92810(32)# 7.0(6) s ß+ to 103In 5/2+# N/A 850.53 -
104Sn 103.92314(11) 20.8(5) s ß+ to 104In 0+ N/A 858.61 -
105Sn 104.92135(9) 34(1) s ß+ to 105In (5/2+) N/A 866.69 -
106Sn 105.91688(5) 115(5) s ß+ to 106In 0+ N/A 884.09 -
107Sn 106.91564(9) 2.90(5) min ß+ to 107In (5/2+) N/A 892.17 -
108Sn 107.911925(21) 10.30(8) min ß+ to 108In 0+ N/A 900.24 -
109Sn 108.911283(11) 18.0(2) min ß+ to 109In 5/2(+) N/A 908.32 -
110Sn 109.907843(15) 4.11(10) h EC to 110In 0+ N/A 925.72 -
111Sn 110.907734(7) 35.3(6) min EC to 111In 7/2+ 0.61 933.8 -
112Sn 111.904818(5) STABLE - 0+ N/A 941.88 0.97
113Sn 112.905171(4) 115.09(3) d EC to 113In 1/2+ -0.879 949.95 -
114Sn 113.902779(3) STABLE - 0+ N/A 958.03 0.66
115Sn 114.903342(3) STABLE - 1/2+ -0.91884 966.11 0.34
116Sn 115.901741(3) STABLE - 0+ N/A 974.19 14.54
117Sn 116.902952(3) STABLE - 1/2+ -1.00105 982.27 7.68
118Sn 117.901603(3) STABLE - 0+ N/A 990.35 24.22
119Sn 118.903308(3) STABLE - 1/2+ -1.04729 998.43 8.59
120Sn 119.9021947(27) STABLE - 0+ N/A 1006.5 32.58
121Sn 120.9042355(27) 27.03(4) h ß- to 121Sb 3/2+ 0.698 1014.58 -
122Sn 121.9034390(29) STABLE - 0+ N/A 1022.66 4.63
123Sn 122.9057208(29) 129.2(4) d ß- to 123Sb 11/2- -1.37 1030.74 -
124Sn 123.9052739(15) STABLE - 0+ N/A 1038.82 5.79
125Sn 124.9077841(16) 9.64(3) d ß- to 125Sb 11/2- -1.35 1046.9 -
126Sn 125.907653(11) 2.30(14)E+5 y ß- to 126Sb 0+ N/A 1054.98 -
127Sn 126.910360(26) 2.10(4) h ß- to 127Sb (11/2-) N/A 1053.74 -
128Sn 127.910537(29) 59.07(14) min ß- to 128Sb 0+ N/A 1061.82 -
129Sn 128.91348(3) 2.23(4) min ß- to 129Sb (3/2+)# N/A 1069.9 -
130Sn 129.913967(11) 3.72(7) min ß- to 130Sb 0+ N/A 1077.98 -
131Sn 130.917000(23) 56.0(5) s ß- to 131Sb (3/2+) N/A 1086.05 -
132Sn 131.917816(15) 39.7(8) s ß- to 132Sb 0+ N/A 1094.13 -
133Sn 132.92383(4) 1.45(3) s ß- to 133Sb; ß- + n to 132Cd (7/2-)# N/A 1092.9 -
134Sn 133.92829(11) 1.050(11) s ß- to 134Sb; ß- + n to 133Cd 0+ N/A 1100.97 -
135Sn 134.93473(43)# 530(20) ms ß- to 135Sb; ß- + n to 134Cd (7/2-) N/A 1099.74 -
136Sn 135.93934(54)# 0.25(3) s ß- to 136Sb; ß- + n to 135Cd 0+ N/A 1107.82 -
137Sn 136.94599(64)# 190(60) ms ß- to 137Sb 5/2-# N/A 1106.58 -