Californium Elemental Symbol
Californium



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Californium Californium Californio Califórnio Californium Californium

Californium Bohr ModelCalifornium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 7 element. The number of electrons in each of californium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Rn] 5f10 7s2. The californium atom has a radius of 186.pm. In its elemental form, californium's CAS number is 7440-71-3. Californium is radioactive and therefore harmful. Californium's f electrons are further removed from the valence electrons than those of the lighter actinides so it resembles the behavior of the lanthanide elements by exhibiting divalent, trivalent, and tetravalent oxidation states in solid-state compounds. Because it's a very efficient source of neutrons, many new uses are expected for it. Californium was discovered by Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street Jr. and Albert Ghiorso at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1950. The element was named in honor of the state of California and for the University of California, Berkeley, USA. It was the sixth transuranium element of the actinide series to be discovered.

Californium information, including technical data, safety data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included.


  • Properties
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Californium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Cf Melting Point: 900 oC, 1652 oF, 1173.15 K
Atomic Number: 98 Boiling Point: 1470 °C, 2678 °F, 1743 K (est.)
Atomic Weight: 251 Density: 15.1 g·cm−3
Element Category: Actinide Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 7, f Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization N/A
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion N/A
Electrons: 98 Thermal Conductivity: N/A
Protons: 98 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 153 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [Rn] 5f107s2 Electronegativity: 1.3 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: pm (estimated) Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: pm (estimated) Molar Heat Capacity: N/A
Van der Waals radius: N/A Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 2, 3, 4 Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: hexagonal Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: N/A Mohs Hardness: 3-4
1st Ionization Energy: 608 kJ·mol−1 (estimated) Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: N/A Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-71-3 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22433 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23997 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: N/A Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Lawrence Berkeley Nat'l Laboratory
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1950
SMILES Identifier: [Cf]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Cf Other Names: Californio
InChI Key: HGLDOAKPQXAFKI-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Californium

  • Taco Tacev, Grigor Grigorov, Tomáš Papírek, Vladimír Kolarík, Remote afterloading for intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy with californium-252, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 213, January 2004
  • Taco Tacev, Vratislav Strnad, Blanka Ptácková, Californium-252 versus conventional gamma radiation in the brachytherapy of advanced cervical carcinoma: comparative treatment results of a 10-year, randomized study, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 213, January 2004
  • J.B. Burns, R.G. Haire, J.R. Peterson, Enthalpy of solution of californium oxychloride; calculation of the standard enthalpy of formation of CfOCl, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volumes 271–273, 12 June 1998
  • B.G. Belen'kii, P.V. Bondarenko, E.S. Gankina, R.A. Zubarev, A.N. Knysh, O.A. Kol'tsova, Thin-layer chromatography-mass spectrometry with ionization by californium-252 fission products used for studying molecular mass distribution of oligomeric polystyrenes, Polymer Science U.S.S.R., Volume 33, Issue 9, 1991
  • J Fuger, R.G Haire, W.R Wilmarth, J.R Peterson, Molar enthalpy of formation of californium tribromide, Journal of the Less Common Metals, Volume 158, Issue 1, 15 February 1990
  • W.R Wilmarth, J.P Young, R.G Haire, J.R Peterson, Spectrophotometric studies of californium(III) ions in selected lanthanide trihalide hosts, Journal of the Less Common Metals, Volume 143, Issues 1–2, October 1988
  • Melvin Reier, An experimental measurement of the energy loss of californium fission fragments in air — a comparison with calculations, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 30, Issue 4, 1 April 1988
  • Gerard F. Payne, Joseph R. Peterson, Possible stabilization of the tetravalent oxidation state of berkelium and californium in acetonitrile with triphenylarsine oxide, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 139, Issues 1–2, 1 December 1987
  • Lester R. Morss, J. Fuger, J. Goffart, N. Edelstein, G.V. Shalimoff, Enthalpy of formation and magnetic susceptibility of californium sesquioxide, Cf2O3, Journal of the Less Common Metals, Volume 127, January 1987
  • J.K Gibson, R.G Haire, Preparation and X-ray diffraction studies of hydrides of curium, berkelium and californium, Journal of the Less Common Metals, Volume 127, January 1987


Californium Isotopes


Trace quantities of californium are found in nature from neutron capture by uranium atoms; however, the element is mainly produced artificially and has no stable isotopes.