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RARE EARTHS INFORMATION CENTER
AE Rare Earths™

32.4 (A)/00.022


Hydrogen                                 Helium  
Lithium Beryllium                     Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium                     Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Cesium Barium Lanthanum Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Ununquadium Ununpentium Ununhexium Ununseptium Ununoctium
                                   
    Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium    
    Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawerencium    

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What are the rare earths? The lanthanide or rare earth metals include lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium. scandium and yttrium are also sometimes included in this group in that they share many properties. They appear much like the transition metals, silvery metallic, and find many similar applications. Lanthanum and cerium are used in many solar energy, alloying, electronic, glass, fuel cell, nanotechnology and ceramic applications. Neodymium, praseodymium, erbium and dysprosium ions emit and absorb wave lengths within the visual light range making them useful in applications as varied as welding goggles to fiber optics to medical lasers. Promethium is the one lanthanide that does not naturally occur. Safety Information, properties and technical data for each of the rare earth elements and their many forms are provided.

 

Lanthanum Bohr ModelLanthanum is the first element in the rare earth or lanthanide series. It is the model for all the other trivalent rare earths. After cerium, it is the second most abundant of the rare earths. Lanthanum is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder.Lanthanum-rich lanthanide compositions have been used extensively for cracking reactions in FCC catalysts, especially to manufacture low-octane fuel for heavy crude oil. Lantahanum is found in monazite and bastnasite. The name Lanthanum originates from the Greek word Lanthaneia which means 'To lie hidden'. It is utilized in green phosphors based on the aluminate (La0.4Ce0.45Tb0.15)PO4. Lanthanide zirconates and lanthanum strontium manganites are used for their catalytic and conductivity properties and lanthanum stabilized zirconia has useful electrical and mechanical properties. Lanthanum's ability to bind with phosphates in water creates numerous uses in water treatment. It is utilized in laser crystals based on the yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride (YLF) composition.

 

Cerium Bohr ModelCerium is the most abundant of the rare earths. It is characterized chemically by having two valence states , the +3 cerous and +4 ceric states. Cerium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. The ceric state is the only non-trivalent rare earth ion stable in aqueous solutions.It is, therefore, strongly acidic and moderately toxic. It is also a strong oxidizer.The cerous state closely resembles the other trivalent rare earths. The numerous commercial applications for cerium include metallurgy, glass and glass polishing, ceramics, catalysts, and in phosphors. In steel manufacturing it is used to remove free oxygen and sulfur by forming stable oxysulfides and by tying up undesirable trace elements, such as lead and antimony. It is considered to be the most efficient glass polishing agent for precision optical polishing. It is also used to decolor glass by keeping iron in its ferrous state. The ability of cerium-doped glass to block out ultra violet light is utilized in the manufacturing of medical glassware and aerospace windows. It is also used to prevent polymers from darkening in sunlight and to suppress discoloration of television glass. It is applied to optical components to improve performance. Cerium is also used in a variety of ceramics, including dental compositions and as a phase stabilizer in zirconia-based products. Ceria plays several catalytic roles. In catalytic converters it acts as a stabilizer for the high surface area alumina, as a promoter of the water-gas shift reaction, as an oxygen storage component and as an enhancer of the NOX reduction capability of Rhodium. Cerium is added to the dominant catalyst for the production of styrene from ethylbenezene to improve styrene formation. It is used in FCC catalysts containing zeolites to provide both catalytic reactivity in the reactor and thermal stability in the regenerator.



Praseodymium Bohr ModelPraseodymium resembles the typical trivalent rare earths, however, it will exhibit a +4 state when stabilized in a zirconia host. Praseodymium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. The element is found in most all light rare earth derivatives. It is highly valued in glass and ceramic production as a bright yellow pigment because of its optimum reflectance at 560 nm. Much research is being done on its optical properties for use in amplification of telecommunication systems, including as a doping agent in fluoride fibers. Praseodymium doped zirconia is a potential cathode for low temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell applications. It is also used in the scintillator for medical CAT scans.

 

Neodymium Bohr ModelNeodymium is the most abundant of the rare earths after cerium and lanthanum. Neodymium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Neodymium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Neodymium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f4 6s2. In its elemental form neodymium's CAS number is 7440-00-8. The neodymium atom has a radius of 181.4.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 181.pm. Neodymium is the most abundant of the rare earths after cerium and lanthanum. Neodymium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Primary applications include lasers, glass coloring and tinting, dielectrics and, most importantly, as the fundamental basis for neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets. Neodymium has a strong absorption band centered at 580 nm, which is very close to the human eye's maximum level of sensitivity making it useful in protective lenses for welding goggles. It is also used in CRT displays to enhance contrast between reds and greens and highly valued in glass manufacturing for its attractive purple coloring. Neodymium is included in many formulations of barium titanate, used as dielectric coatings and in multi-layer capacitors essential to electronic equipment. Neodymium is found in monazite and bastnäsite ores. Neodymium was first discovered by Carl Aer von Welsbach in 1885. Neodymium is found in monazite and bastnäsite ores. Neodymium was first discovered by Carl Aer von Welsbach in 1885.  It is also used in CRT displays to enhance contrast between reds and greens and highly valued in glass manufacturing for its attractive purple coloring. Neodymium is included in many formulations of barium titanate, used as dielectric coatings and in multi-layer capacitors essential to electronic equipment.

 

Promethium Bohr ModelPromethium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Promethium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f5 6s2. In its elemental form promethium's CAS number is 7440-12-2. The promethium atom has a radius of 183.4.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 200.pm.

 

 

Samarium Bohr ModelSamarium is primarily utilized in the production of samarium-cobalt (Sm2Co17) permanent magnets. Samarium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. It is also used in laser applications and for its dielectric properties. Samarium-cobalt magnets replaced the more expensive platinum-cobalt magnets in the early 1970s. While now overshadowed by the less expensive neodymium-iron-boron magnet, they are still valued for their ability to function at high temperatures. They are utilized in lightweight electronic equipment where size or space is a limiting factor and where functionality at high temperature is a concern. Applications include electronic watches, aeospace equipment, microwave technology and servomotors. Because of its weak spectral absorption band samarium is used in the filter glass on Nd:YAG solid state lasers to surround the laser rod to improve efficiency by absorbing stray emissions. Samarium forms stable titanate compounds with useful dielectric properties suitable for coatings and in capacitors at microwave frequencies.

Europium Bohr ModelEuropium is utilized primarily for its unique luminescent behavior. Europium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Excitation of the Europium atom by absorption of ultra violet radiation can result in specific energy level transitions within the atom creating an emission of visible radiation.In energy efficient fluorescent lighting, Europium provides not only the necessary red, but also the blue. Several commercial blue phosphors are based on Europium. Its luminesence is also valuable in medical, surgical and biochemical applications.

 

Gadolinium Bohr ModelGadolinium is utilized for both its high magnetic moment (7.94µB) and in phosphors and scintillator material. When complexed with EDTA ligands, it is used as an injectable contrast agent for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Gadolinium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. With its high magnetic moment, gadolinium can reduce relaxation times and thereby enhance signal intensity. The extra stable half-full 4f electron shell with no low lying energy levels creates applications as an inert phosphor host. Gadolinium can therefore act as hosts for x-ray cassettes and in scintillator materials for computer

tomography.

Terbium Bohr ModelTerbium is primarily used in phosphors, particularly in fluorescent lamps and as the high intensity green emitter used in projection televisions, such as the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Tb:YAG) variety. Terbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Terbium responds efficiently in x-ray excitation and is, therefore, used as an x-ray phosphor. Terbium alloys are also used in magneto-optic recording films, such as Tb-Fe-Co.

 

Dysprosium Bohr ModelDysprosium is most commonly used in neodymium-iron-boron high strength permanent magnets. Dysprosium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. While it has one of the highest magnetic moments of any of the rare earths (10.6µB), this has not resulted in an ability to perform on its own as a practical alternative to neodymium compositions. It is however now an essential additive in NdFeB production. It is also used in special ceramic compositions based on BaTiO formulations. Recent research has examined the use of dysprosium in dysprosium-iron-garnet (DyIG) and silicon implanted with dysprosium and holmium to form donor centers. Dysprosium is added to various advanced optical formulations due to the fact that it emits in the 470-500 and 570-600 nm wavelengths.

 

Holmium Bohr ModelHolmium has the highest magnetic moment (10.6µB) of any naturally occurring element. Because of this it has been used to create the highest known magnetic fields by placing it within high strength magnets as a pole piece or magnetic flux concentrator. This magnetic property also has value in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) lasers for microwave equipment. Holmium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Holmium lases at a human eye safe 2.08 microns allowing its use in a variety of medical and dental applications in both yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) and yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride (YLF) solid state lasers. The wavelength allows for use in silica fibers designed for shorter wavelengths while still providing the cutting strength of longer wave length equipment.

 

Erbium Bohr ModelErbium has application in glass coloring, as an amplifier in fiber optics, and in lasers for medical and dental use. Erbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. The ion has a very narrow absorption band coloring erbium salts pink. It is therefore used in eyeware and decorative glassware. It can neutralize discoloring impurities such as ferric ions and produce a neutral gray shade. It is used in a variety of glass products for this purpose. It is particularly useful as an amplifier for fiber optic data transfer. Erbium lases at the wavelength required to provide an efficient optical method of amplification, 1.55 microns. Lasers based on Er:YAG are ideally suited for surgical applications because of its ability to deliver energy without thermal build-up in tissue.



Thulium Bohr ModelThulium is representative of the other lanthanides (rare earths) similar in chemistry to Yttrium. Thulium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Tm emits blue upon excitation. Flat panel screens depend critically on bright blue emitters. Also, under X-ray bombardment emissions are in both the 375 nm (ultra violet) and 465 (visible blue) wave lengths. This gives the material useful applications in low radiation detection for detection badges and similar uses. It is also used in other luminescence applications, such as halide discharge lamps. Flat panel screens depend critically on bright blue emitters.



Ytterbium Bohr ModelYtterbium is being applied to numerous fiber amplifier and fiber optic technologies and in various lasing applications. Ytterbium is found in monazite sand as well as the ores euxenite and xenotime and is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. It has a single dominant absorption band at 985 in the infra-red making it useful in silicon photocells to directly convert radiant energy to electricity. Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistance when subjected to very high stresses. This property is used in stress gauges for monitoring ground deformations from earthquakes and nuclear explosions. It is also used in thermal barrier system bond coatings on nickel, iron and other transitional metal alloy substrates. The name Ytterbium originates after the name for the Swedish village of Ytterby.

 

Lutetium Bohr ModelLutetium is the last member of the rare earth series. Lutetium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Unlike most rare earths it lacks a magnetic moment. It also has the smallest metallic radius of any rare earth. It is perhaps the least naturally abundant of the lanthanides. It is the ideal host for x-ray phosphors because it produces the densest known white material, lutetium tantalate (LuTaO4). It is utilized as a dopant in matching lattice parameters of certain substrate garnet crystals, such as indium-gallium-garnet (IGG) crystals due its lack of a magnetic moment.

 

Building A of Plant--LaboratoryHow are rare earths produced? The 14 elements that make up the rare earth or lanthanide series are produced through the separation of certain rare earth oxide bearing minerals, including Bastnazite, Monazite and Ionic Clays. Mined Bastnazite is processed to a rare earth concentrate which is separated by solvent extraction into individual rare earth chlorides or nitrates depending on the system. These rare earth chloride or nitrate concentrates are subsequently refined to a variety of rare earth compounds, such as oxides, carbonates and fluorides. Rare Earth metal is produced through the thermic reduction of that element's oxide or fluoride powder. 


Building A of Plant--Laboratory
What are the global locations of rare earths deposits? Essentially the entire world's producing reserves of rare earth minerals is located in Northern and Southern China where American Elements operates a rare earth separations plant. In China, an oft quoted statement of Deng Xiao Ping is that "the Middle East has oil and Baotou has rare earths" In fact, 80% of Chinese production is concentrated in Northern China (Baotou, Inner Mongolia). Proven Bastnazite reserves are estimated to be 48 million metric tons with prospective reserves estimated to be another 120 million metric tons. 

Annual Chinese rare earth oxide production presently stands at between 70,000-90,000 metric tons, so the availability of rare earth supplies, from the standpoint of rare earth reserves, is not an issue. However recent changes in limitations placed by the Chinese government on rare earth production and export will limit their availability in the future.

Production quality has also benefited from China's proximity to Japan, a major innovator in rare earth applications in the electronics and automotive industries. As stated, China has two production regions. In the north, "ceric" or "light rare earths" are produced from Bastnazite resources from Baotou. In the south, "yttric" or "heavy rare earths" are mined from ion adsorption clays located in the provinces of Jiangxi and Guangdong.

Additionally, globally outside of China there are a few rare earth sources including Bastnazite (USA), monazite (Australia, India and South Africa), ioparite and apatite (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine) and ion adsorption clays (Southern China). As described below, most of these regions are not exploiting their reserves. For example, we estimate that current world neodymium oxide production as a percentage basis is as follows:

 
REGION % OF GLOBAL PRODUCTION
China 86%
Russia and Former USSR States 8%
India 4%
Other 2%

 

Australia has monozite deposits in Western Australia as a bi-product of their zirconium and titanium production from heavy mineral sands. In the early 1990's Australia produced a substantial quantity of monozite for export to rare earth separation plants in Asia and Europe. However, production essentially stopped in 1994 due to the problems associated with the disposal of radioactive thorium (a monozite bi-product). There have been several proposals to develop deposits in Western Australia, such as the Mt. Weld deposit in Pinjarra. There are currently not any large commercial producers in Australia, other than in 2009, Lynas corporation at Mount Weld began to develop its deposit with hopes to go into full production in 2014.

Brazil also has large monozite deposits in beach sands on the northeast coast of the country. Brazil has several facilities that produce relatively small quantities of separated rare earths. Since 1997, there has been a plan to separate rare earths from a stockpile of monozite at Industrias Nucleares do Brasil's former mining and milling complex with the intent to store the extracted thorium as fuel for nuclear power plants. There are no current large commercial producers in Brazil.

India is currently the largest monozite producer from beach sands along the coast of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Producers export monozite concentrate, mixed rare earth Chlorides and oxides. 

Russia. Several small rare earth processing facilities exist in Russia which process from loparite and apatite deposits in Kazakstan, Uzebekistan and Ukraine. Operations are sporadic and production is usually available only on a spot sale basis. 

South Africa has been planning since 1998 to start up production of monozite from the Steenkampskaal mine in the Western Cape province. Estimated reserves are 250,000 metric tons.

United States. Until 1998, the United States was the second largest producer of rare earths from the Molycorp mine in Mountain Pass, California. The facility was closed in December 1998 due to certain environmental concerns. Several monozite deposits were mined in the past in Florida. These operations were forced to close due to the high cost associated with disposing of the radioactive thorium waste products. In 2000, Unocal sold the Molycorp Mine to Chevron, who spun it off into a subsidiary corporation called "Chevron Mining". This company was taken public in 2008 as Molycorp. In 2011, the mine re-opened and began producing in small quantity. Molycorp first purchased the metal reduction operations owned by Santoku in Arizona to execute on its new "Mines to Magnets" strategy to completely control the process of producing NdFeB magnet alloy from the mine. Molycorp then purchased Boulder Wind Power which requires NdFeB magnets in their assembly. In March of 2012, Molycorp announced it had acquired Neo Technologies, the holder of the Magnequench patent for producing NdFeB alloy. Other junior mines are set to open in the future in Bear Lodge Mountain, Wyoming and the Ucore mine at Bokan Mountain, Alaska.

American Elements' Rare Earth Production.  American Elements maintains the world's largest catalogue of rare earth materials, including metals, compounds, nanoparticles and ultra high purity forms. American Elements' Chinese production facility is one of only a few major rare earth separations plants in Baotou with warehouse and shipping facilities at the port in Tianjin. The facility produces under ISO 9002 certification. 

As a major Baotou-based producer, American Elements maintains close working relationships with the key city, state and national Chinese government officials controlling both mineral availability and separated rare earth exportation. Our quota allocation is timely granted and more than sufficient to allow for required sales. We will often have early information on the intentions of government officials and some limited ability to provide input in these areas. By producing close to the mineral source, transportation costs are minimized.

Rare Earth History and Historical Pricing. The history of rare earth use in industry began in the 1950's with the invention of the television which required europium as the phosphor. In the 1960's discoveries were made which created applications for the two rare earth elements that make up over 50% of the Bastnazite ore body; cerium and lanthanum. These elements found uses primarily in glass production and production of various catalysts.

The rare earths began to achieve global commoditized pricing in 1987 when large scale prices were first established as a result of the initial commercialization of the NdFeB magnet. Prices steadily rose until around Q2 1989. Stimulated by these relatively high prices and forecasts of 100%+ annual growth, Chinese rare earth separation plants rapidly expanded output capacity resulting in over capacity and price declines through 1992, which was also influenced by a concurrent recession in the global computer market. By Q4 1992 a combination of (1) plants closing that could not compete in this market environment and (2) exponential growth in NdFeB alloy demand, caused a supply shortage. Prices again recovered, steadily rising from Q1 1993 through Q1 1996. However, as early as the end of 1994, Chinese rare earth producers again rapidly increased capacity with, in our estimate, supply actually exceeding demand as early as Q3 1995. 

As prices began to again fall at the beginning of 1996, an effort was initiated by Chinese government agencies to cause producers to voluntarily reduce production to within the projected demand with the stated goal of Chinese officials to establish a continuing "reasonable price" range. This voluntary program was under the threat that China would take a direct hand to control production output and exportation, if voluntary measures were insufficient. However, prices continued to fall through Q3 1999 when Chinese officials announced that export licenses would soon be required for all rare earth product exports. First to respond to this was Japanese buyers who purchased substantial inventories commencing Q4 1999 causing prices to steadily increase.

Prices were additionally impacted by the 1999 closure of the only large scale rare earth mine outside of China; the Mountain Pass mine owned by Molycorp (see above).

In Q2 of 2000, China in fact implemented its export license system granting each producer and certain Chinese import/export companies with quarterly export quota limits based somewhat arbitrarily on a combination of historical volume and a government desire to close many small facilities and reduce the number of ionic clay processors in Southern China in favor of production from Baotou. Additionally, China ordered a production stoppage at many ionic clay mines in Southern China, such that now substantially all rare earth mineral supplies for both exportation and domestic consumption come from Baotou

Current and Projected Rare Earth Trends and Pricing. The forgoing efforts by China to increase and stabilize rare earth prices had only marginal effect. The desire of the central government to continue to collect U.S. currency acted as a countervailing balance. However, in 2005 China first indicated that it was placing a greater emphasize on retaining its raw material resources than continuing to build its cash reserves. This lead to a serious effort to restrict rare earth exports and thereby increase prices.

In 2006, the government issued its first of currently two 10% export tariffs on rare earths. A third 10% tariff is expected before the end of 2007. Additionally, it began to strict the amount of quarterly export quota granted to producers to a very small percentage of the quotas first issued in 2005. In 2008, these factors forced rare earth prices even higher with lower grade forms potentially becoming scarce further in the future. In 2009 and 2010, China continued to close down facilities and consolidate production. The tariffs were further increased. In 2010, China refused to ship rare earths to Japan in response to the arrest of a shipping captain in the East China Sea. Since then, the world has become much more focused on rare earths. Conferences in March 2012 in Europe (Euromines) and Washington DC (TREM12) discussed the world response. In March 2012, the U.S., Japan and EU also filed a WTO action against China for violating its WTO agreement for handling commodity production.

Forms of Rare Earths. As stated, American Elements is the world's largest catalogue of rare earth materials with forms including metals, oxides, nanoparticles and nanopowders, compound powders and compound solutions and organometallics.

Rare Earth Metal can be purchased in numerous forms for alloying, for use in coating and thin film Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation, Low Temperature Organic Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Organometallic and Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) for specific applications such as fuel cells and solar energy.

Metals Pellets Pieces Powder Granules Nanoparticles
Lutetium Pellets Lutetium Pieces Lutetium Nanoparticles
  Ingot   Disc   Sputtering Target     Foils Rod Wire
Cerium Ingot
Lutetium Ingot
Cerium Disc
Lutetium Disc

 

Aluminum Dysprosium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Erbium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Neodymium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Samarium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Ytterbium Sputtering Target
Cerium Silver Sputtering Target
Cerium Copper Sputtering Target
Cerium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Cerium Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Cerium Sputtering Target
Cerium Samarium Sputtering Target
Cerium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Cerium Titanium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Iron Gadolinium SputteringTarget
Cobalt Gadolinium SputteringTarget
Cobalt Terbium SputteringTarget
Dysprosium Cobalt Sputtering Target
Dysprosium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Dysprosium Iron Sputtering Target
Dysprosium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Dysprosium Sputtering Target
Dysprosium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Erbium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Erbium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Europium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Europium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Iron Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Cerium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Erbium Silicon Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Iron Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Terbium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Titanium Sputtering Target
Holmium Copper Sputtering Target
Holmium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Holmium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Magnesium Dysprosium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Neodymium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Neodymium Zirconium Yttrium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Samarium Sputtering Target
Neodymium Silver Sputtering Target
Neodymium Iron Boron Sputtering Target
Neodymium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Neodymium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Nickel Ytterbium Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Samarium Cobalt Sputtering Target
Samarium Iron Sputtering Target
Samarium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Samarium Sputtering Target
Samarium Rotatable Sputtering Targets
Samarium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Terbium Dysprosium Iron Sputtering Target
Terbium Dysprosium Sputtering Target
Terbium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Terbium Iron Sputtering Target
Terbium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Terbium Gadolinium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Terbium Sputtering Target
Terbium Rotatable Sputtering Targets
Thulium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Thulium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Ytterbium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Ytterbium Sputtering Target
Ytterbium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Zirconium Cerium Sputtering Target
Zirconium Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Cerium Foil
Lutetium Foil
Lutetium Rod  

 

Lutetium Wire

Rare Earth Oxide is available in many forms including pellets and targets for coating and thin film Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation and powders for ceramic applications.

Oxides Oxide Pellets Oxide Pieces Oxide Powder Oxide Tablets Oxide Sputtering Targets Oxide Nanopowder
Lutetium Oxide Pieces Cerium Oxide Polishing Powders
Lutetium Oxide Powder
Lutetium Oxide Tablets Lutetium Oxide Sputtering Target Lutetium Oxide Nanopowder

   

Rare Earth Compounds are available as powders in all of the standard compound forms for uses were a soluble form of the rare earth is needed or in the case of the fluorides (which are insoluble) in situations where oxygen is not desirable, such in metal alloy production and certain optical applications.

Acetate Powder
Arsenide Powder
Bromide Powder
Carbide Powder Carbonate Powder Chloride Powder Fluoride Powder Nitrate Powder
Nitride Powder
Oxalate Powder
Phosphide Powder
Sulfate Powder
Sulfide Powder

Rare Earth Solutions of each of the forgoing rare earth compounds are produced by American Elements' AE Solutions division in both research and commercial (bulk) quantities.

Acetate Solutions 
 
Chloride Solutions Nitrate Solutions 
 
Sulfate Solutions 
 
Bromide Solutions 
 
Lutetium Chloride Solution Lutetium Nitrate Solution Lutetium Sulfate Solution

Cerium Bromide

Rare Earth Organometallics provide a rare earth source that is soluble in non-aqueous (organic) solvents. A brief list of the organometallic rare earths produced by American Elements are listed below.

Acetylacetonate  2-Ethylhexanoate Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Cerium Acetylacetonate
Dysprosium Acetylacetonate
Gadolinium Acetylacetonate
Samarium Acetylacetonate
Ytterbium Acetylacetonate
Yttrium Acetylacetonate


Cerium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Dysprosium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Erbium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Europium 2 - Ethylhexanoate
Gadolinium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Gallium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Holmium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Lutetium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Praseodmium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Samarium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Terbium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Ytterbium 2-Ethylhexanoate


Cerium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Dysprosium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Erbium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Europium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Gadolinium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Gallium Trifluoromethanesulfonateate
Holmium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Lutetium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Praseodymium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Samarium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Terbium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Ytterbium Trifluoromethanesulfonate






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Recent Research & Development for Rare Earths



  • Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of LaOF:Eu(3+) Nanocrystals Prepared by the Sol-Gel Pechini Method. Grzyb T, Lis S. Inorg Chem. 2011 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21805994 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

  • Structural investigation of the negative thermal expansion in yttrium and rare earth molybdates. Guzmán-Afonso C, González-Silgo C, González-Platas J, Torres ME, Lozano-Gorrín AD, Sabalisck N, Sánchez-Fajardo V, Campo J, Rodríguez-Carvajal J. J Phys Condens Matter. 2011 Aug 17;23(32):325402. Epub 2011 Jul 28. PMID: 21795779 [PubMed - in process]

  • High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa. Samudrala GK, Thomas SA, Montgomery JM, Vohra YK. J Phys Condens Matter. 2011 Aug 10;23(31):315701. Epub 2011 Jul 14. PMID: 21753243 [PubMed - in process]

  • Chemiluminescence of the Reaction System Ce(IV) - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Containing Europium(III) Ions and its Application to the Determination of Naproxen in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Urine. Kaczmarek M. J Fluoresc. 2011 Jul 13. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21750890 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

  • Radioisotopes for metastatic bone pain. Roqué I Figuls M, Martinez-Zapata MJ, Scott-Brown M, Alonso-Coello P. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jul 6;(7):CD003347. Review. PMID: 21735393 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Molecular Nitrides with Titanium and Rare-Earth Metals. Caballo J, Garci´a-Castro M, Marti´n A, Mena M, Pe´rez-Redondo A, Ye´lamos C. Inorg Chem. 2011 Jul 18;50(14):6798-6808. Epub 2011 Jun 16. PMID: 21678931 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

  • Carbon-Silicon and Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation by Elimination Reactions at Metal N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes. Arnold PL, Turner ZR, Bellabarba R, Tooze RP. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Aug 3;133(30):11744-11756. Epub 2011 Jul 7. PMID: 21657266 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

  • Restoration of maxillary anterior esthetics using lava all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses. Madan N, Pannu K. Int J Comput Dent. 2011;14(1):47-53. English, German. PMID: 21657125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Determination of carvedilol by its quenching effect on the luminescence of terbium complex in dosage form. Leonenko I, Aleksandrova D, Yegorova A. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011 May-Jun;68(3):325-30. PMID: 21648186 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Accumulation and Distribution Pattern of Macro- and Microelements and Trace Elements in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Berries. Bertoldi D, Larcher R, Bertamini M, Otto S, Concheri G, Nicolini G. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jul 13;59(13):7224-36. Epub 2011 Jun 16. PMID: 21639148 [PubMed - in process]

  • [Risk-group patients due to the administration of iodine and gadolinium preparations for diagnostic clinical study]. Napolov IuK, Korobkova IZ, Maslennikov MA. Vestn Rentgenol Radiol. 2011 Jan-Feb;(1):29-40. Russian. PMID: 21598470 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Phonons of the anomalous element cerium. Krisch M, Farber DL, Xu R, Antonangeli D, Aracne CM, Beraud A, Chiang TC, Zarestky J, Kim DY, Isaev EI, Ahuja R, Johansson B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jun 7;108(23):9342-5. Epub 2011 May 19. PMID: 21597000 [PubMed - in process]

  • Assessment of radionuclide and metal contamination in a thorium rich area in Norway. Popic JM, Salbu B, Strand T, Skipperud L. J Environ Monit. 2011 Jun;13(6):1730-8. Epub 2011 May 10. PMID: 21556423 [PubMed - in process]

  • Ocular pathologic features and gadolinium deposition in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Barker-Griffith A, Goldberg J, Abraham JL. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 May;129(5):661-3. No abstract available. PMID: 21555622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Contrast-enhanced portal magnetic resonance angiography in dogs with suspected congenital portal vascular anomalies. Mai W, Weisse C. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2011 May-Jun;52(3):284-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8261.2010.01771.x. Epub 2010 Dec 13. PMID: 21554476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Single-cell mass cytometry of differential immune and drug responses across a human hematopoietic continuum. Bendall SC, Simonds EF, Qiu P, Amir el-AD, Krutzik PO, Finck R, Bruggner RV, Melamed R, Trejo A, Ornatsky OI, Balderas RS, Plevritis SK, Sachs K, Pe'er D, Tanner SD, Nolan GP. Science. 2011 May 6;332(6030):687-96. PMID: 21551058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Immunology. Flow cytometry, amped up. Benoist C, Hacohen N. Science. 2011 May 6;332(6030):677-8. No abstract available. PMID: 21551055 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Assessment of drinking water quality using ICP-MS and microbiological methods in the Bholakpur area, Hyderabad, India. Abdul RM, Mutnuri L, Dattatreya PJ, Mohan DA. Environ Monit Assess. 2011 May 5. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 21544503 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

  • Mechanical coupling between myofibroblasts and cardiomyocytes slows electric conduction in fibrotic cell monolayers. Thompson SA, Copeland CR, Reich DH, Tung L. Circulation. 2011 May 17;123(19):2083-93. Epub 2011 May 2. PMID: 21537003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • A concise approach for the total synthesis of pseudolaric acid A. Xu T, Li CC, Yang Z. Org Lett. 2011 May 20;13(10):2630-3. Epub 2011 Apr 27. PMID: 21524082 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

PRODUCT LIST

  • Aluminum: Al
    • Scandium-aluminum alloy: Sc-Al
    • Yttrium-aluminum alloy: Y-Al
    • Aluminum Metal: Al2O3
    • Aluminum metal: Al
    • Aluminum ammonium sulfate: NH4Al2(SO4)12·2H2O
    • Aluminum chloride: Al2Cl6·3H2O
    • Aluminum fluoride: AlF3·3H2O
    • Aluminum isopropMetal: (CH3)2CHO3Al
    • Aluminum nitrate : Al2(NO3)9·3H2O
    • Aluminum phosphate: AlPO4
    • Aluminum potassium sulfate: AlK(SO4)12·2H2O
    • Aluminum sulfate: Al2(SO4)3
  • Antimony: Sb
    • Antimony metal: Sb
    • Antimony Metal: Sb2O3
    • Antimony sulfide: Sb2S3
    • Antimony Iodide: SbI3
    • Potassium Antimonyl Tartrate: K(SbO)C4H4O1/2·6H2O
    • Antimony Polycrystalline Ingot: Sb
    • Antimony Polycrystalline Chunk: Sb
    • Antimony Targets: Sb
    • Antimony Shaped Charge: Sb
    • Antimony Selenide Polycrystalline Ingot: Sb2Se3
    • Antimony Selenide Polycrystalline Chunk: Sb2Se3
    • Antimony Selenide Targets: Sb2Se3
    • Antimony Selenide Shaped Charge: Sb2Se3
    • Antimony Telluride Polycrystalline Ingot: Sb2Te3
    • Antimony Telluride Polycrystalline Chunk: Sb2Te3
    • Antimony Telluride Targets: Sb2Te3
    • Antimony Telluride Shaped Charge: Sb2Te3
  • Arsenic: As
    • Arsenic metal: As
    • Arsenic Metal: As2O3
  • Barium: Ba
    • Barium acetate: Ba(C2H3O2)2
    • Barium bromide: BaBr2
    • Barium carbonate: BaCO3
    • Barium chloride: BaCl2
    • Barium fluoride: BaF2
    • Barium hydrMetal: Ba(OH8)2·2H2O
    • Barium nitrate: Ba(NO3)2
    • Barium sulfate: BaSO4
  • Beryllium: Be
    • Beryllium metal: Be
    • Beryllium-copper alloy: Be-Cu
    • Beryllium Metal: BeO
    • Beryllium acetate basic: Be4O(C2H3O2)6
    • Beryllium nitrate: Be(NO3)2
    • Beryllium sulfate: BeSO4·4H2O
  • Bismuth: Bi
    • Bismuth metal: Bi
    • Bismuth fluoride: BiF3
    • Bismuth iodide: BiI3
    • Bismuth nitrate: Bi(NO3)3·5H2O
    • Bismuth Metal: Bi2O3
    • Bismuth oxychloride: BiOCL
    • Bismuth oxynitrate: BiONO3
    • Bismuth Polycrystalline Ingot: Bi
    • Bismuth Polycrystalline Chunk: Bi
    • Bismuth Targets: Bi
    • Bismuth Shaped Charge: Bi
    • Bismuth Selenide Polycrystalline Ingot: Bi2Se3
    • Bismuth Selenide Polycrystalline Chunk: Bi2Se3
    • Bismuth Selenide Targets: Bi2Se3
    • Bismuth Selenide Shaped Charge: Bi2Se3
    • Bismuth Telluride Polycrystalline Ingot: Bi2Te3
    • Bismuth Telluride Polycrystalline Chunk: Bi2Te3
    • Bismuth Telluride Targets: Bi2Te3
    • Bismuth Telluride Shaped Charge: Bi2Te3
  • Boron: B
    • Ferroboron: Fe-B
    • Boron carbide: B4C
    • Boron nitride: BN
    • Boric Acid: H3BO3
    • Boron Phosphate: BPO4
    • Potassium Tetrafluoroborate: KBF4
  • Cadmium: Cd
    • Cadmium metal: Cd
    • Cadmium Acetate: Cd(C2H3O2)2·xH2O
    • Cadmium Bromide: CdBr2
    • Cadmium Chloride: CdCl2
    • Cadmium Fluoride: CdF2
    • Cadmium Iodide: CdI2
    • Cadmium Nitrate: Cd(NO3)2·4H2O
    • Cadmium Metal: CdO
    • Cadmium Sulfate: CdSO4·xH2O
    • Cadmium Polycrystalline Ingot: Cd
    • Cadmium Polycrystalline Chunk: Cd
    • Cadmium Targets: Cd
    • Cadmium Shaped Charge: Cd
    • Cadmium Telluride Polycrystalline Ingot: CdTe
    • Cadmium Telluride Polycrystalline Chunk: CdTe
    • Cadmium Telluride Targets: CdTe
    • Cadmium Telluride Shaped Charge: CdTe
  • Calcium: Ca
    • Calcium metal: Ca
    • Calcium-magnesium alloy: Ca-Mg
    • Calcium-aluminum alloy: Ca-Al
    • Calcium-silicon alloy: Ca-Si
    • Calcium hydrade: CaH2
    • Calcium stabilized zirconia: CaO + ZrO2
    • Calcium acetate: Ca(C2H3O2)2·xH2O
    • Calcium bromide: CaBr2·xH2O
    • Calcium carbonate: CaCO3
    • Calcium chloride: CaCl2·6H2O
    • Calcium fluoride: CaF2
    • Calcium nitrate: Ca(NO3)2·4H2O
    • Calcium oxalate: CaC2O4
    • Calcium Metal: CaO
    • Calcium sulfate: CaSO4
  • Carbon: C
    • Graphite: C (Electrode, Powder Crystalline Flake, Amorphous)
    • Boron carbide: B4C
    • Silicon carbide: SiC
    • Tungsten carbide: WC
  • Cerium: Ce
    • Cerium metal: Ce
    • Ce-rich mischmetal:
    • Cerium Metal: CeO2
    • Cerium acetate: Ce(C2H3O2)3
    • Cerium carbonate: Ce)2 CO3)3
    • Cerium hydrate: Ce(OH)4
    • Cerium nitrate: Ce(NO3)3
    • Cerium ammonium nitrate: (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6
    • Cerium chloride: CeCl3
    • Cerium fluoride: CeF3
    • Cerium 55 concentrate: CeO2
    • Cerium-Rich rare earth carbonate: (Ce,La,Nd,Pr)2(CO3)3
    • Cerium bromide: CeBr3
    • Cerium oxalate: Ce(C2O4)3·xH2O
    • Cerium sulfate: Ce(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Cesium: Cs
    • Cesium acetate: CsC2H3O2
    • Cesium bromide: CsBr
    • Cesium carbonate: Cs2CO3
    • Cesium chloride: CsCl
    • Cesium fluoride: CsF
    • Cesium iodide: CsI
    • Cesium nitrate: CsNO3
    • Cesium sulfate: Cs2SO4
  • Chromium: Cr
    • Chromium metal: Cr
    • Feerochromium: Fe-Cr
    • Chromium silicon alloy: Cr-Si
    • Ammonium dichromate: (NH4)2Cr2O7
    • Chromium chloride: [Cr(H2O)4Cl2]Cl2·2H2O
    • Chromium nitrate: Cr(NO3)3·9H2O
    • Chromium Metal: Cr2O3
    • Chromium potassium sulfate: CrK(SO4)2·12H2O
    • Potassium dichromate: K2Cr2O7
  • Cobalt: Co
    • Cobalt metal: Co
    • Samarium-Cobalt Alloys: Co
    • Cobalt Metal: Co2O3
    • Cobalt oxalate: CoC2O4·2H2O
    • Samarium-Cobalt Magnets
    • Cobalt acetate: Co(C2H3O2)2
    • Cobalt bromide: CoBr2
    • Cobalt carbonate: CoCO3·xH2O
    • Cobalt chloride: CoCl2
    • Cobalt fluoride: CoF2·4H2O
    • Cobalt nitrate: Co(NO3)2·6H2O
    • Sodium hexanitrocobaltate: Na3Co(NO2)6
  • Dysprosium: Dy
    • Dysprosium metal: Dy
    • Dysprosium Metal: Dy2O3
    • Dysprosium fluoride: DyF3
    • Dysprosium acetate: Dy(C2H3O2)3·4H2O
    • Dysprosium bromide: DyBr3·xH2O
    • Dysprosium carbonate: Dy2(CO3)3·xH2O
    • Dysprosium chloride: DyCl3·6H2O
    • Dysprosium nitrate: Dy(NO3)3·5H2O
    • Dysprosium oxalate: Dy2(C2O4)3·xH2O
    • Dysprosium sulfate: Dy2(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Erbium: Er
    • Erbium metal: Er
    • Erbium Metal: Er2O3
    • Erbium fluoride: ErF3
    • Erbium acetate: Er(C2H3O2)3·xH2O
    • Erbium carbonate: Er(CO3)3·xH2O
    • Erbium chloride: ErCl3·6H2O
    • Erbium nitrate: Er(NO3)3·5H2O
    • Erbium oxalate: Er(C2O4)3·xH2O
    • Erbium sulfate: Er(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Europium: Eu
    • Europium metal: Eu
    • Europium Metal: Eu2O3
    • Europium acetate: Eu(C2H3O2)3·xH2O
    • Europium carbonate: Eu2(CO3)3·xH2O
    • Europium chloride: EuCl3·6H2O
    • Europium chloride: EuCl2
    • Europium fluoride: EuF3
    • Europium nitrate: Eu(NO3)3·5H2O
    • Europium oxalate: Eu2(C2O4)3·xH2O
    • Europium sulfate: Eu2(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Gallium: Ga
    • Gallium metal: Ga
    • Gallium chloride: GaCl3
    • Gallium fluoride: GaF3
    • Gallium nitrate: Ga(NO3)3·xH2O
    • Gallium Metal: Ga2O3
    • Gallium sulfate: Ga2(SO4)3·xH2O
    • Gallium Polyethylene Bottles: GaSb
    • Gallium Antimonide Polycrystalline Ingot: GaSb
    • Gallium Antimonide Polycrystalline Chunk: GaSb
    • Gallium Antimonide Targets: GaSb
    • Gallium Antimonide Shaped Charge: GaSb
    • Gallium Antimonide Single Crystal: GaSb
    • Gallium Arsenide Polycrystalline Ingot: GaAs
    • Gallium Arsenide Polycrystalline Chunk: GaAs
    • Gallium Arsenide Targets: GaAs
    • Gallium Arsenide Shaped Charge: GaAs
    • Gallium Arsenide Single Crystal: GaAs
    • Gallium Arsenide Test Grade Wafers: GaAs
    • Gallium Indium Antimonide Twinned/Single Crystal
    • Gallium Indium Arsenide Twinned/Single Crystal
    • Gallium Phosphide Polycrystalline Chunk: GaP
    • Gallium(II) Telluride Polycrystalline Ingot: GaTe
    • Gallium(II) Telluride Polycrystalline Chunk: GaTe
    • Gallium(II) Telluride Targets: GaTe
    • Gallium(II) Telluride Shaped Charge: GaTe
    • Gallium(II) Telluride Single Crystal: GaTe
    • Gallium(III) Telluride Polycrystalline Ingot: Ga2Te3
    • Gallium(III) Telluride Polycrystalline Chunk: Ga2Te3
    • Gallium(III) Telluride Targets: Ga2Te3
    • Gallium(III) Telluride Shaped Charge: Ga2Te3
    • Gallium(III) Telluride Single Crystal: Ga2Te3
  • Gadolinium: Gd
    • Gadolinium metal: Gd
    • Gadolinium Metal: Gd2O3
    • Gadolinium acetate: Gd(C2H3O2)3·xH2O
    • Gadolinium bromide: GdBr3·xH2O
    • Gadolinium carbonate: Gd2(CO3)3·xH2O
    • Gadolinium chloride: GdCl3·6H2O
    • Gadolinium fluoride: GdF3
    • Gadolinium nitrate: Gd(NO3)3·6H2O
    • Gadolinium oxalate: Gd2(C2O4)3·xH2O
    • Gadolinium sulfate: Gd2(SO4)3·xH2O
  • Germanium Ge
    • Germanium metal: Ge
    • Germanium Metal: GeO2
    • Germanium chloride: GeCl4
    • Ammonium hexafluorogerminate: (NH4)2GeF6
    • Germanium Polycrystalline Ingot: Ge
    • Germanium Polycrystalline Chunk: Ge
    • Germanium Targets: Ge
    • Germanium Shaped Charge: Ge
    • Germanium Single Crystal: Ge
    • Germanium Telluride Polycrystalline Ingot: GeTe
    • Germanium Telluride Polycrystalline Chunk: GeTe
    • Germanium Telluride Targets: GeTe
    • Germanium Telluride Shaped Charge: GeTe
  • Gold: Au
    • Gold metal: Au
    • Barium ammonium tetrachloroaurate: NH4AuCl4·xH2O
    • Gold chloride: AuCl3
    • Gold cyanide: AuCN
    • Gold hydrMetal: Au(OH)3
    • Gold iodide: AuI
    • Gold sulfide: Au2S3
    • Hydrogentetrachloroaurate: HAuCl4·xH2O
    • Potassium dicyanoaurate: KAu(CN)2
    • Potassium tetrabromoaurate: KAuBr4
    • Potassium tetrachloroaurate: KAuCl4
    • Sodium tetrachloroaurate: NaAuCl4·xH2O
    • Gold Shaped Charge: Au
    • Gold Foil: Au
    • Gold Sputtering Target: Au
  • Hafnium: Hf
    • Hafnium Metal: HfO2
    • Hafnium oxychloride: HfOCl2·8H2O
    • Hafnium sulfate: Hf(SO4)2
  • Holmium: Ho
    • Holmium metal: Ho
    • Holmium Metal: Ho2O3
    • Holmium chloride: HoCl3
    • Holmium nitrate: Ho(NO3)3
    • Holmium acetate: Ho(C2H3O2)3·xH2O
    • Holmium bromide: HoBr3·xH2O
    • Holmium carbonate: Ho(CO3)3·xH2O
    • Holmium fluoride: HoF3
    • Holmium oxalate: Ho(C2O4)3·xH2O
    • Holmium sulfate: Ho2(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Indium: In
    • Indium metal: In
    • Indium Metal: In2O3
    • Indium acetate: In2(C2H3O2)2·xH2O
    • Indium bromide: InBr3
    • Indium chloride: InCl3
    • Indium fluoride: InF3
    • Indium nitrate: In(NO3)3·5H2O
    • Indium sulfate: In2(SO4)3·xH2O
    • Indium Ingot: In
    • Indium Targets: In
    • Indium Shaped Charge: In
    • Indium Foil: In
    • Indium Antimonide Polycrystalline Ingot: InSb
    • Indium Antimonide Polycrystalline Chunk: InSb
    • Indium Antimonide Targets: InSb
    • Indium Antimonide Shaped Charge: InSb
    • Indium Antimonide Single Crystal: InSb
    • Indium Arsenide Polycrystalline Ingot: InAs
    • Indium Arsenide Polycrystalline Chunk: InAs
    • Indium Arsenide Targets: InAs
    • Indium Arsenide Shaped Charge: InAs
    • Indium Arsenide Single Crystal Ingot: InAs
    • Indium Phosphide Polycrystalline Ingot: InP
    • Indium Phosphide Polycrystalline Chunk: InP
    • Indium Phosphide Targets: InP
    • Indium Phosphide Shaped Charge: InP
    • Indium Phosphide Single Crystal Ingot: InP
    • Indium Phosphide Wafers: InP
    • Indium Phosphide Arsenide Twinned/Single
    • Indium Phosphide Arsenide Crystal
    • Indium Selenide Polycrystalline Ingot: In2Se3
    • Indium Selenide Polycrystalline Chunk: In2Se3
    • Indium Selenide Targets: In2Se3
    • Indium Selenide Shaped Charge: In2Se3
    • Indium Sulfide Polycrystalline Ingot: In2S3
    • Indium Sulfide Polycrystalline Chunk: In2S3
    • Indium Sulfide Targets: In2S3
    • Indium Sulfide Shaped Charge: In2S3
    • Indium Telluride Polycrystalline Ingot: In2Te3
    • Indium Telluride Polycrystalline Chunk: In2Te3
    • Indium Telluride Targets: In2Te3
    • Indium Telluride Shaped Charge: In2Te3
  • Iodine: I
    • Iodine acid: HIO3
    • Iodine Metal: I2O5
    • Periodic acid: H5IO3
  • Iridium: Ir
    • Iridium metal: Ir
    • Ammonium hexachloroiridate: (NH4)3IrCl6
    • Iridium chloride: IrCl3·xH2O
    • Iridium Metal: IrO2
    • Potassium hexachloroiridate: K2IrCl6
  • Iron: Fe
    • Iron metal: Fe
    • Ammonium trisoxaltoferrate: (NH4)3Fe(C2O4)3·3H2O
    • Ammonium iron sulfate: (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2·6H2O
    • Iron chloride: FeCl2·4H2O
    • Iron fluoride: FeF2·4H2O
    • Iron nitrate: Fe(NO3)3·9H2O
    • Iron Metal: Fe2O3
    • Iron sulfate: FeSO4·7H2O
    • Potassium ferrocyanide hydrate: K4Fe(CN)6·xH2O
    • Ferroboron: Fe-B
    • Ferrochromium: Fe-Cr
    • Ferromanganese: Fe-Mn
    • Ferromolybdenum: Fe-Mo
    • Ferrosilicon: Fe-Si
    • Ferrovanadium: Fe-V
    • Ferrotungsten: Fe-W
  • Lanthanum: La
    • Lanthanum metal: La
    • La-rich mischmetal
    • Lanthanum Metal: La2O3
    • Lanthanum acetate: La(C2H3O2)3
    • Lanthanum bromide: LaBr3·xH20
    • Lanthanum carbonate: La2(CO3)3
    • La-rich rare earth carbonate
    • Lanthanum nitrate La(NO3)3
    • Lanthanum chloride: LaCl3
    • Lanthanum fluoride: LaF3
    • Lanthunum-rich lanthanide chloride: (Ln,La)Cl3
    • Lanthanum-rich lanthanide nitrate: (Ln,La)(NO3)3
    • Lanthanum sulfate: La2(SO4)3·xH20
  • Lithium: Li
    • Lithium metal: Li
    • Lithium chloride: LiCl
    • Lithium carbonate: Li2CO3
    • Lithium hydrMetal: LiOH·H2O
    • Lithium acetate: Li2C2H3O2·2H2O
    • Lithium bromide: LiBr
    • Lithium fluoride: LiF
    • Lithium nitrate: LiNO3
    • Lithium sulfate: Li2SO4
  • Lutetium: Lu
    • Lutetium metal: Lu
    • Lutetium Metal: Lu2O3
    • Lutetium acetate: Lu(C2H3O2)3·xH2O
    • Lutetium carbonate: Lu2(CO3)3·xH2O
    • Lutetium chloride: LuCl3·6H2O
    • Lutetium fluoride: LuF3
    • Lutetium nitrate: Lu(NO3)3·xH2O
    • Lutetium sulfate: Lu(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Magnesium: Mg
    • Magnesium metals: Mg
    • Magnesium Metal: MgO
    • Fused magnesite
    • Caustic calcined magnesite
    • Dead burned magnesite
    • Magnesium aluminate spinel
    • Magnesium acetate: Mg(C2H3O2)2·4H2O
    • Magnesium bromide: MgBr2·6H2O
    • Magnesium chloride: MgCl2·6H2O
    • Magnesium fluoride: MgF2
    • Magnesium nitrate: Mg(NO3)2·6H2O
    • Magnesium sulfate: MgSO4
  • Manganese: Mn
    • Manganese metal: Mn
    • Ferromanganese: Fe-Mn
    • Manganese Metal: MnO2
    • Manganese carbonate: MnCO3
    • Manganese acetate: Mn(CH3COO)2·4H2O
    • Manganese nitrate: Mn(NO3)2
    • Manganese bromide: MnBr2·4H2O
    • Manganese chloride: MnCl2·4H2O
    • Manganese sulfate: MnSO4·xH2O
  • Molybdenum: Mo
    • Molybdenum metal: Mo
    • Molybdenum Metal: MoO3
    • Ferromolybdenum: Fe-Mo
    • Sodium molybdenum Metal: Na2MoO4·2H2O
    • Ammonium molybdate: (NH4)2Mo2O7
    • Sodium molybdenum: NaMoO4·2H2O
  • Neodymium: Nd
    • Neodymium metal: Nd
    • Neodymium Metal: Nd2O3
    • Neodymium acetate: Nd(C2H3O2)3
    • Neodymium carbonate: Nd2(CO3)3
    • Neodymium hydrate: Nd(OH)3
    • Neodymium nitrate: Nd(NO3)3
    • Neodymium chloride: NdCl3
    • Neodymium fluoride: NdF3
    • Neodymium oxalate: Nd2(C2O4)3·xH2O
    • Neodymium sulfate: Nd2(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Nickel: Ni
    • Nickel metal: Ni
    • Nickel Metal: NiO
    • Ammonium nickel sulfate: (NH4)2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O
    • Hexaamminenickel bromide: {Ni(NH3)6}Br2
    • Hexaamminenickel chloride: {Ni(NH3)6}Cl2
    • Hexaamminenickel iodide: {Ni(NH3)6}I2
    • Nickel acetate: Ni(C2H3O2)2·4H2O
    • Nickel bromide anhydrous: NiBr2
    • Nickel carbonate: NiCO3
    • Nickel chloride: NiCl2
    • Nickel nitrate: Ni(NO3)2·6H2O
    • Nickel oxalate: NiC2O4·2H2O
    • Nickel sulfate: NiSO4·7H2O
    • Potassium tetracyanonickelate: K2Ni(CN)4·xH2O
  • Niobium: Nb
    • Niobium metal: Nb
    • Niobium Metal: Nb2O5
    • Ammonium hexafluoroniobate: NH4Nb2F5
  • Osmium: Os
    • Ammonium hexachloroosmate: (NH4)2OsCl6
  • Palladium: Pd
    • Pallidium metal: Pd
    • Ammonium hexachloropalladate: (NH4)2PdCl6
    • Trans-Diamminedichloropalladium: Pd(NH3)2Cl2
    • Trans-Diamminedinitropalladium: Pd(NH3)2(NO2)2
    • Palladium bromide: PdBr2
    • Palladium chloride: PdCl2
    • Palladium iodide: PdI2
    • Palladium nitrate: Pd(NO3)2
    • Palladium Metal: PdO
    • Potassium hexachloropalladate: K2PdCl6
    • Potassium tetrabromopalladate: K2PdBr4
    • Potassium tetranitropalladate: K2Pd(NO2)4
    • Tetraamminepalladium chloride: [Pd(NH3)]4Cl2·H2O
    • Tetraamminepalladium nitrate: [Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2
  • Phosphor also see Y2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, and Tb2O3.
    • Phosphor for trichromatic lamp: (Blue, Red, Green)
    • Phosphor for color TV screen: (Blue, Red, Green)
  • Platinum: Pt
    • Platinum metal: Pt
    • Ammonium hexabromoplatinate: (NH4)2PtBr6
    • Ammonium hexachloroplatinate: (NH4)2PtCl6
    • Cis-diaamminedichloroplatinum: Pt(NH3)2Cl2
    • Trans-diaamminedichloroplatinum: Pt(NH3)2Cl2
    • Trans-diaamminedinitroplatinum: Pt(NH3)2(NO2)2
    • Platinum chloride: PtCl2
    • Platinum Metal hydrate: PtO2
    • Platinum sulfide: PtS2
    • Tetraammineplatinum chloride: [Pt(NH3)4]Cl2·xH2O
    • Tetraammineplatinum nitrate: Pt(NH3)4(NO3)2·xH2O
    • Tetraammineplatinum tetrachloroplatinate: [Pt(NH3)4][PtCl4]
  • Potassium: K
    • Potassium hexabromoplatinate: K2PtBr6
    • Potassium hexachloroplatinate: K2PtCl6
    • Potassium tetrabromoplatinate: K2PtBr4
    • Potassium tetrachloroplatinate: K2PtCl4
    • Potassium tetracyanoplatinate: K2Pt(CN)4
    • Potassium acetate: KC2H3O2
    • Potassium bromide: KBr
    • Potassium carbonate: K2CO
    • Potassium chloride: KCl
    • Potassium dihydrogen phosphate: KH2PO4
    • Potassium fluoride: KF
    • Potassium iodide: KI
    • Potassium nitrate: KNO3
    • Potassium oxalate: K2C2O4·H2O
    • Potassium perchlorate: KClO4
    • Potassium periodate: KIO4
    • Potassium persulfate: K2S2O8
    • Potassium sulfate: K2SO4
  • Praseodymium: Pr
    • Praseodymium metal: Pr
    • Praseodymium Metal: Pr6O11
    • Praseodymium fluoride: PrF3
    • Praseodymium acetate: Pr(C2H3O2)3·3H2O
    • Praseodymium bromide: PrB3
    • Praseodymium carbonate: Pr2(CO3)3·8H2O
    • Praseodymium chloride: PrCl3·7H2O
    • Praseodymium nitrate: Pr(NO3)3·6H2O
    • Praseodymium oxalate: Pr2(C2O4)3·xH2O
    • Praseodymium sulfate: Pr2(SO4)3·xH2O
  • Rhenium: Re
    • Rhenium metal: Re
    • Ammonium perrhenate: NH4ReO4
    • Perrhenic acid: HReO4
    • Potassium hexabromorhenate: K2ReBr6
    • Potassium hexachlororhenate: K2ReCl6
    • Rhenium sulfide: Re2S7
  • Rhodium: Rh
    • Rhodium metal: Rh
    • Ammonium hexachlororhodate: (NH4)3RhCl6
    • Chlorocarbonylbis(triphenylphosphine)rhodium: [RhCl(CO)((C6H5)3P)2]
    • Chlorotris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium: [RhCl(C6H5)3P)3]
    • Chloropentaamminerhodium chloride: [Rh(NH3)5Cl]Cl2
    • Potassium hexachlororhodate: K3RhCl6
    • Rhodium acetylacetonate: Rh(C5H7O2)3
    • Rhodium chloride: RhCl3·xH2O
    • Rhodium Metal: Rh2O3
    • Sodium hexachlororhodate: Na3RhCl6
  • Rubidium: Rb
    • Rubidium bromide: RbBr
    • Rubidium chloride: RbCl
    • Rubidium nitrate: RbNO3
    • Rubidium perchlorate: RbClO4
    • Rubidium sulfate: Rb2SO4
  • Ruthenium: Ru
    • Ruthenium metal: Ru
    • Ammonium hexachlororuthenate: (NH4)2RuCl6
    • Dichlorotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium: [RuCl2((C6H5)3P)3]
    • Hexaammineruthenium chloride: {Ru(NH3)6}Cl2
    • Potassium hexachlororuthenate: K2RuCl6
    • Ruthenium chloride: RuCl3·xH2O
    • Ruthenium Metal: RuO2·xH2O
  • Samarium: Sm
    • Samarium metal: Sm
    • Samarium-cobalt alloy: Sm-Co
    • Samarium Metal: Sm2O3
    • Samarium acetate: Sm(C2H3O2)3·3H2O
    • Samarium bromide: SmBr3·6H2O
    • Samarium carbonate: Sm2(CO3)2·xH2O
    • Samarium chloride: SmCl3·6H2O
    • Samarium fluoride: SmF3
    • Samarium nitrate: Sm(NO3)3·6H2O
    • Samarium oxalate: Sm2(C2O3)3·xH2O
    • Samarium sulfate: Sm2(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Scandium: Sc
    • Scandium metal: Sc
    • Scandium-aluminum alloy: Al-Sc
    • Scandium Metal: Sc2O3
    • Scandium acetate: Sc(C2H3O2)3·xH2O
    • Scandium chloride: ScCl3·xH2O
    • Scandium fluoride: ScF3
    • Scandium nitrate: Sc(NO3)3·5H2O
    • Scandium oxalate: Sc(C2O4)3·5H2O
    • Scandium sulfate: Sc2(SO4)3·5H2O
  • Selenium: Se
    • Selenium metal: Se
    • Selenious acid: H2SeO3
    • Selenium diMetal: SeO2
  • Silicon: Si
    • Silicon metal: Si (monocrystal, polycrystal)
    • Silicon Carbide: SiC
    • Ferrosilicon: Fe-Si
    • Calcium-silicon alloy: Ca-Si
    • Chromium-silicon alloy: Cr-Si
    • Silicon Metal: SiO2
    • Silicon Polycrystalline Ingot: Si
    • Silicon Polycrystalline Chunk: Si
    • Silicon Targets: Si
    • Silicon Shaped Charge: Si
    • Silicon Cylinders: Si
    • Silicon Wafers: Si
    • Silicon Arsenide Polycrystalline Ingot: SiAs
    • Silicon Arsenide Polycrystalline Chunk: SiAs
    • Silicon Phosphide Polycrystalline Ingot: SiP
    • Silicon Phosphide Polycrystalline Chunk: SiP
  • Silver: Ag
    • Silver acetate: AgC2H3O2
    • Silver bromide: AgBr
    • Silver carbonate: Ag2CO3
    • Silver chloride: AgCl
    • Silver fluoride: AgF
    • Silver iodide: AgI
    • Silver nitrate: AgNO3
    • Silver Metal: Ag2O
    • Silver perrhenate: AgReO4
    • Silver phosphate: Ag3PO4
    • Silver sulfate: Ag2SO4
    • Silver triocyanate: AgSCN
    • Potassium dicyanoargentate: KAg(CN)2
  • Sodium: Na
    • Sodium acetate: NaC2H3O2
    • Sodium bromide: NaBr
    • Sodium carbonate: Na2CO3
    • Sodium chloride: NaCl
    • Sodium dihydrogen phosphate: NaH2PO4
    • Sodium fluoride: NaF
    • Sodium hydrogen sulfate: NaHSO4
    • Sodium nitrate: NaNO3
    • Sodium oxalate: Na2CO4
    • Sodium sulfate: NaSO4
  • Strontium: Sr
    • Strontium acetate: Sr(C2H3O2)2
    • Strontium bromide: SrBr2
    • Strontium carbonate: SrCO3
    • Strontium chloride: SrCl2·6H2O
    • Strontium fluoride: SrF2
    • Strontium nitrate: Sr(NO3)2
    • Strontium sulfate: SrSO4
  • Tantalum: Ta
    • Tantalum metal: Ta
    • Tantalum Metal: Ta2O5
    • Potassium tantalfluoride: K2TaF7
  • Tellurium: Te
    • Tellurium metal: Te
    • Tellurium Metal: TeO2
    • Tellurium Polycrystalline Chunk: Te
    • Tellurium Shaped Charge: Te
  • Terbium: Tb
    • Terbium metal: Tb
    • Terbium Metal: Tb4O7
    • Terbium acetate: Tb(C2H3O2)3·xH2O
    • Terbium bromide: TbBr2·xH2O
    • Terbium carbonate: Tb2(CO3)3·xH2O
    • Terbium chloride: TbCl3·6H2O
    • Terbium fluoride: TbF3
    • Terbium nitrate: Tb(NO3)3·6H2O
    • Terbium oxalate: Tb(C2O4)3·10H2O
    • Terbium sulfate: Tb2(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Thallium: Tl
    • Thallium acetate: TlC2H3O2
    • Thallium bromide: TlBr
    • Thallium chloride: TlCl
    • Thallium iodide: TlI
    • Thallium nitrate: TlNO3
    • Thallium sulfate: Tl2SO4
  • Thorium: Th
    • Thorium metal: Th
    • Thorium nitrate: Th(NO3)4·xH2O
    • Thorium Metal: ThO2
  • Thulium: Tm
    • Thulium metal: Tm
    • Thulium Metal: Tm2O3
    • Thulium acetate: Tm(C2H3O2)3·xH2O
    • Thulium bromide: TmBr3
    • Thulium carbonate: Tm2(CO3)3·xH2O
    • Thulium chloride: TmCl3·6H2O
    • Thulium fluoride: TmF3
    • Thulium nitrate: Tm(NO3)3·5H2O
    • Thulium oxalate: Tm(C2O4)3·6H2O
    • Thulium sulfate: Tm(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Tin: Sn
    • Tin metal: Sn (Ingot, Solder)
    • Tin oxide: SnO2
    • Tin chloride: SnCl2
    • Ammonium hexafluorostannate: (NH4)2SnF6
    • Tin Ingot: Sn
    • Tin Chunk: Sn
    • Tin Shaped Charge: Sn
    • Tin Arsenide Polycrystalline Chunk: SnAs
    • Tin Selenide Polycrystalline Ingot: SnSe
    • Tin Selenide Polycrystalline Chunk: SnSe
    • Tin Selenide Targets: SnSe
    • Tin Selenide Shaped Charge: SnSe
    • Tin Telluride Polycrystalline Ingot: SnTe
    • Tin Telluride Polycrystalline Chunk: SnTe
    • Tin Telluride Targets: SnTe
    • Tin Telluride Shaped Charge: SnTe
    •  
  • Titanium: Ti
    • Titanium metal: Ti
    • Titanium oxide: TiO2
    • Ammonium hexafluorotitanate: (NH4)2TiF6
    • Ammonium titanyl oxalate: (NH4)2TiO(C2O4)2·H2O
  • Tungsten: W
    • Tungsten metal: W
    • Ferrotungsten: Fe-W
    • Tungsten carbide: WC
    • Tungsten Oxide: WO3
    • Ammonium tetrathiotungstate: (NH4)2WS4
    • Ammonium tungstate: (NH4)2WO4
    • Sodium tungstate: NH2WO4·2H2O
  • Vanadium: V
    • Ferrovanadium: Fe-V
    • Vanadium Oxide: V2O5
    • Ammonium metavanadate: NH4VO3
    • Potassium metavanadate: KVO3
    • Vanadyl sulfate: VOSO4·xH2O
  • Ytterbium: Yb
    • Ytterbium metal: Yb
    • Ytterbium Oxide: Yb2O3
    • Ytterbium acetate: Yb(C2H3O2)2·4H2O
    • Ytterbium bromide: YbBr3·6H2O
    • Ytterbium carbonate: Yb2(CO3)3·xH2O
    • Ytterbium chloride: YbCl3·6H2O
    • Ytterbium fluoride: YbF3
    • Ytterbium nitrate: Yb2(NO3)3·5H2O
    • Ytterbium oxalate: Yb2(C2O4)3·10H2O
    • Ytterbium sulfate: Yb2(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Yttrium: Y
    • Yttrium metal: Y
    • Yttrium-aluminum alloy: Y-Al
    • Yttrium Metal: Y2O3
    • Yttrium stabilized zirconia: Y2O3 + ZrO2
    • Yttrium nitrate
    • Yttrium chloride
    • Yttrium acetate: Y(C2H3O2)3·4H2O
    • Yttrium carbonate: Y2(CO3)3·3H2O
    • Yttrium fluoride: YF3
    • Yttrium oxalate: Y2(C2O4)3·9H2O
    • Yttrium sulfate: Y(SO4)3·8H2O
  • Zinc: Zn
    • Zinc metal: Zn
    • Zinc Oxide: ZnO
    • Zinc acetate: Zn(OAC)2·xH2O
    • Zinc bromide: ZnBr2
    • Zinc chloride: ZnCl2
    • Zinc fluoride: ZnF2
    • Zinc iodide: ZnI2
    • Zinc nitrate: Zn(NO3)2·6H2O
    • Zinc sulfate: ZnSO4
    • Zinc Ingot: Zn
    • Zinc Chunk: Zn
    • Zinc Shaped Charge: Zn
    • Zinc Telluride Polycrystalline Ingot: ZnTe
    • Zinc Telluride Polycrystalline Chunk: ZnTe
    • Zinc Telluride Targets: ZnTe
    • Zinc Telluride Shaped Charge: ZnT

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