(2N) 99%  •  (3N) 99.9%  •  (4N) 99.99%  •  (5N) 99.999%  •  (6N) 99.9999%

RARE EARTHS INFORMATION CENTER

AE Rare Earths™

32.4 (A)/00.023


  Hydrogen                                 Helium
  Lithium Beryllium                     Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
  Sodium Magnesium                     Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
  Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
  Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
  Cesium Barium Lanthanum Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
  Francium Radium Actinium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
                                     
      Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium    
      Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawerencium    
What are the rare earths?

The rare earth or lanthanide elements (REEs) are a group of 17 metals with unique properties composed of lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium, and promethium. Scandium and yttrium are also sometimes included in this group in that they share many properties. They appear similar to the transition metals (silvery metallic), and find many diverse applications.

Despite their name, rare earths are actually abundant in the earth's crust, though the extraction and refining process is complicated and costly. Rare earths are divided into two categories based on their weight and atomic numbers: Light rare earth elements (LREEs, or ceric rare earths) include lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium and samarium, along with scandium; heavy rare earth elements (HREEs, or yttric rare earths) include europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium, as well as yttrium. HREEs are more abundant than LREEs and more complex to mine.

Lanthanum Bohr ModelLanthanum is the first element in the rare earth or lanthanide series. It is the model for all the other trivalent rare earths. After cerium, it is the second most abundant of the rare earths. Lanthanum is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder.Lanthanum-rich lanthanide compositions have been used extensively for cracking reactions in FCC catalysts, especially to manufacture low-octane fuel for heavy crude oil. Lantahanum is found in monazite and bastnasite. The name Lanthanum originates from the Greek word Lanthaneia which means 'To lie hidden'. It is utilized in green phosphors based on the aluminate (La0.4Ce0.45Tb0.15)PO4. Lanthanide zirconates and lanthanum strontium manganites are used for their catalytic and conductivity properties and lanthanum stabilized zirconia has useful electrical and mechanical properties. Lanthanum's ability to bind with phosphates in water creates numerous uses in water treatment. It is utilized in laser crystals based on the yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride (YLF) composition.

Cerium Bohr ModelCerium is the most abundant of the rare earths. It is characterized chemically by having two valence states , the +3 cerous and +4 ceric states. Cerium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. The ceric state is the only non-trivalent rare earth ion stable in aqueous solutions.It is, therefore, strongly acidic and moderately toxic. It is also a strong oxidizer.The cerous state closely resembles the other trivalent rare earths. The numerous commercial applications for cerium include metallurgy, glass and glass polishing, ceramics, catalysts, and in phosphors. In steel manufacturing it is used to remove free oxygen and sulfur by forming stable oxysulfides and by tying up undesirable trace elements, such as lead and antimony. It is considered to be the most efficient glass polishing agent for precision optical polishing. It is also used to decolor glass by keeping iron in its ferrous state. The ability of cerium-doped glass to block out ultra violet light is utilized in the manufacturing of medical glassware and aerospace windows. It is also used to prevent polymers from darkening in sunlight and to suppress discoloration of television glass. It is applied to optical components to improve performance. Cerium is also used in a variety of ceramics, including dental compositions and as a phase stabilizer in zirconia-based products. Ceria plays several catalytic roles. In catalytic converters it acts as a stabilizer for the high surface area alumina, as a promoter of the water-gas shift reaction, as an oxygen storage component and as an enhancer of the NOX reduction capability of Rhodium. Cerium is added to the dominant catalyst for the production of styrene from ethylbenezene to improve styrene formation. It is used in FCC catalysts containing zeolites to provide both catalytic reactivity in the reactor and thermal stability in the regenerator.

Praseodymium Bohr ModelPraseodymium resembles the typical trivalent rare earths, however, it will exhibit a +4 state when stabilized in a zirconia host. Praseodymium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. The element is found in most all light rare earth derivatives. It is highly valued in glass and ceramic production as a bright yellow pigment because of its optimum reflectance at 560 nm. Much research is being done on its optical properties for use in amplification of telecommunication systems, including as a doping agent in fluoride fibers. Praseodymium doped zirconia is a potential cathode for low temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell applications. It is also used in the scintillator for medical CAT scans.

Neodymium Bohr ModelNeodymium is the most abundant of the rare earths after cerium and lanthanum. Neodymium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Neodymium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Neodymium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f4 6s2. In its elemental form neodymium's CAS number is 7440-00-8. The neodymium atom has a radius of 181.4.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 181.pm. Neodymium is the most abundant of the rare earths after cerium and lanthanum. Neodymium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Primary applications include lasers, glass coloring and tinting, dielectrics and, most importantly, as the fundamental basis for neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets. Neodymium has a strong absorption band centered at 580 nm, which is very close to the human eye's maximum level of sensitivity making it useful in protective lenses for welding goggles. It is also used in CRT displays to enhance contrast between reds and greens and highly valued in glass manufacturing for its attractive purple coloring. Neodymium is included in many formulations of barium titanate, used as dielectric coatings and in multi-layer capacitors essential to electronic equipment. Neodymium is found in monazite and bastnäsite ores. Neodymium was first discovered by Carl Aer von Welsbach in 1885. Neodymium is found in monazite and bastnäsite ores. Neodymium was first discovered by Carl Aer von Welsbach in 1885.  It is also used in CRT displays to enhance contrast between reds and greens and highly valued in glass manufacturing for its attractive purple coloring. Neodymium is included in many formulations of barium titanate, used as dielectric coatings and in multi-layer capacitors essential to electronic equipment.

Promethium Bohr Model

Promethium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Promethium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f5 6s2. In its elemental form promethium's CAS number is 7440-12-2. The promethium atom has a radius of 183.4.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 200.pm.

Samarium Bohr ModelSamarium is primarily utilized in the production of samarium-cobalt (Sm2Co17) permanent magnets. Samarium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. It is also used in laser applications and for its dielectric properties. Samarium-cobalt magnets replaced the more expensive platinum-cobalt magnets in the early 1970s. While now overshadowed by the less expensive neodymium-iron-boron magnet, they are still valued for their ability to function at high temperatures. They are utilized in lightweight electronic equipment where size or space is a limiting factor and where functionality at high temperature is a concern. Applications include electronic watches, aeospace equipment, microwave technology and servomotors. Because of its weak spectral absorption band samarium is used in the filter glass on Nd:YAG solid state lasers to surround the laser rod to improve efficiency by absorbing stray emissions. Samarium forms stable titanate compounds with useful dielectric properties suitable for coatings and in capacitors at microwave frequencies.

Europium Bohr ModelEuropium is utilized primarily for its unique luminescent behavior. Europium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Excitation of the Europium atom by absorption of ultra violet radiation can result in specific energy level transitions within the atom creating an emission of visible radiation.In energy efficient fluorescent lighting, Europium provides not only the necessary red, but also the blue. Several commercial blue phosphors are based on Europium. Its luminesence is also valuable in medical, surgical and biochemical applications.

Gadolinium Bohr ModelGadolinium is utilized for both its high magnetic moment (7.94µB) and in phosphors and scintillator material. When complexed with EDTA ligands, it is used as an injectable contrast agent for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Gadolinium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. With its high magnetic moment, gadolinium can reduce relaxation times and thereby enhance signal intensity. The extra stable half-full 4f electron shell with no low lying energy levels creates applications as an inert phosphor host. Gadolinium can therefore act as hosts for x-ray cassettes and in scintillator materials for computer tomography.

Terbium Bohr Model

Terbium is primarily used in phosphors, particularly in fluorescent lamps and as the high intensity green emitter used in projection televisions, such as the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Tb:YAG) variety. Terbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Terbium responds efficiently in x-ray excitation and is, therefore, used as an x-ray phosphor. Terbium alloys are also used in magneto-optic recording films, such as Tb-Fe-Co.

Dysprosium Bohr ModelDysprosium is most commonly used in neodymium-iron-boron high strength permanent magnets. Dysprosium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. While it has one of the highest magnetic moments of any of the rare earths (10.6µB), this has not resulted in an ability to perform on its own as a practical alternative to neodymium compositions. It is however now an essential additive in NdFeB production. It is also used in special ceramic compositions based on BaTiO formulations. Recent research has examined the use of dysprosium in dysprosium-iron-garnet (DyIG) and silicon implanted with dysprosium and holmium to form donor centers. Dysprosium is added to various advanced optical formulations due to the fact that it emits in the 470-500 and 570-600 nm wavelengths.

Holmium Bohr ModelHolmium has the highest magnetic moment (10.6µB) of any naturally occurring element. Because of this it has been used to create the highest known magnetic fields by placing it within high strength magnets as a pole piece or magnetic flux concentrator. This magnetic property also has value in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) lasers for microwave equipment. Holmium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Holmium lases at a human eye safe 2.08 microns allowing its use in a variety of medical and dental applications in both yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) and yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride (YLF) solid state lasers. The wavelength allows for use in silica fibers designed for shorter wavelengths while still providing the cutting strength of longer wave length equipment.

Erbium Bohr ModelErbium has application in glass coloring, as an amplifier in fiber optics, and in lasers for medical and dental use. Erbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. The ion has a very narrow absorption band coloring erbium salts pink. It is therefore used in eyeware and decorative glassware. It can neutralize discoloring impurities such as ferric ions and produce a neutral gray shade. It is used in a variety of glass products for this purpose. It is particularly useful as an amplifier for fiber optic data transfer. Erbium lases at the wavelength required to provide an efficient optical method of amplification, 1.55 microns. Lasers based on Er:YAG are ideally suited for surgical applications because of its ability to deliver energy without thermal build-up in tissue.

Thulium Bohr ModelThulium is representative of the other lanthanides (rare earths) similar in chemistry to Yttrium. Thulium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Tm emits blue upon excitation. Flat panel screens depend critically on bright blue emitters. Also, under X-ray bombardment emissions are in both the 375 nm (ultra violet) and 465 (visible blue) wave lengths. This gives the material useful applications in low radiation detection for detection badges and similar uses. It is also used in other luminescence applications, such as halide discharge lamps. Flat panel screens depend critically on bright blue emitters.

Ytterbium Bohr ModelYtterbium is being applied to numerous fiber amplifier and fiber optic technologies and in various lasing applications. Ytterbium is found in monazite sand as well as the ores euxenite and xenotime and is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. It has a single dominant absorption band at 985 in the infra-red making it useful in silicon photocells to directly convert radiant energy to electricity. Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistance when subjected to very high stresses. This property is used in stress gauges for monitoring ground deformations from earthquakes and nuclear explosions. It is also used in thermal barrier system bond coatings on nickel, iron and other transitional metal alloy substrates. The name Ytterbium originates after the name for the Swedish village of Ytterby.

Lutetium Bohr ModelLutetium is the last member of the rare earth series. Lutetium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. Unlike most rare earths it lacks a magnetic moment. It also has the smallest metallic radius of any rare earth. It is perhaps the least naturally abundant of the lanthanides. It is the ideal host for x-ray phosphors because it produces the densest known white material, lutetium tantalate (LuTaO4). It is utilized as a dopant in matching lattice parameters of certain substrate garnet crystals, such as indium-gallium-garnet (IGG) crystals due its lack of a magnetic moment.


Building A of Plant--Laboratory
How are the rare earths produced? Elemental rare earths are produced through the separation of certain rare earth oxide (REO)-bearing minerals, including bastnazite, monazite and ionic clays. Mined bastnazite is processed to a rare earth concentrate, which is separated by solvent extraction into individual rare earth chlorides or nitrates depending on the system. These rare earth chloride or nitrate concentrates are subsequently refined to a variety of rare earth compounds such as oxides, carbonates and fluorides. Rare Earth metal is produced through the thermic reduction of that element's oxide or fluoride powder.



Building A of Plant--LaboratoryWhere are the global locations of rare earths deposits? A vast majority of the world's producing reserves of rare earth minerals are located in Northern and Southern China, where American Elements operates a rare earth separations plant. In China, an oft quoted statement of former Communist leader Deng Xiao Ping is that "the Middle East has oil, and Baotou has rare earths." 80% of Chinese production is concentrated in Northern China (Baotou, Inner Mongolia), which yields light rare earth elements; proven bastnazite reserves in the north have been estimated to be 48 million metric tons, with prospective reserves estimated to be another 120 million metric tons. In the south, heavy rare earths are mined from ion adsorption clays located in the provinces of Jiangxi and Guangdong.

Outside of China, other rare earth deposits are located in the United States (bastnazite), Australia (monazite, carbonatites, and and xenotime), India and South Africa, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine (ioparite and apatite), Canada (apatite and allamite). Historically, most of these regions have not exploited their reserves; this is increasingly no longer the case, for reasons discussed further below.

Australia has monozite deposits in Western Australia as a byproduct of their zirconium and titanium production from heavy mineral sands. In the early 1990's Australia produced a substantial quantity of monozite for export to rare earth separation plants in Asia and Europe. However, production essentially stopped in 1994 due to the problems associated with the disposal of radioactive thorium (a monozite bi-product). There have been several proposals to develop deposits in Western Australia, such as the Mt. Weld deposit in Pinjarra.

Brazil also has large monozite deposits in beach sands on the northeast coast of the country. Brazil has several facilities that produce relatively small quantities of separated rare earths. Since 1997, there has been a plan to separate rare earths from a stockpile of monozite at Industrias Nucleares do Brasil's former mining and milling complex with the intent to store the extracted thorium as fuel for nuclear power plants. There are no current large commercial producers in Brazil.

India is currently the largest monozite producer from beach sands along the coast of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Producers export monozite concentrate, mixed rare earth Chlorides and oxides. 

Russia. Several small rare earth processing facilities exist in Russia which process from loparite and apatite deposits in Kazakstan, Uzebekistan and Ukraine. Operations are sporadic and production is usually available only on a spot sale basis. 

South Africa has been planning since 1998 to start up production of monozite from the Steenkampskaal mine in the Western Cape province. Estimated reserves are 250,000 metric tons.

United States. Until 1998, the United States was the second largest producer of rare earths from the Molycorp mine in Mountain Pass, California. The facility was closed in December 1998 due to certain environmental concerns. In 2000, Unocal sold the Molycorp Mine to Chevron, who spun it off into a subsidiary corporation called "Chevron Mining". This company was taken public in 2008 as Molycorp. In 2011, the mine re-opened and began producing in small quantity. Molycorp first purchased the metal reduction operations owned by Santoku in Arizona to execute on its new "Mines to Magnets" strategy to completely control the process of producing NdFeB magnet alloy from the mine. Molycorp then purchased Boulder Wind Power which requires NdFeB magnets in their assembly. In March of 2012, Molycorp announced it had acquired Neo Technologies, the holder of the Magnequench patent for producing NdFeB alloy.


American Elements' Rare Earth Production.  American Elements maintains the world's largest catalogue of rare earth materials, including metals, compounds, nanoparticles and ultra high purity forms. American Elements' Chinese production facility is one of only a few major rare earth separations plants in Baotou with warehouse and shipping facilities at the port in Tianjin. The facility produces under ISO 9002 certification.

As a major Baotou-based producer, American Elements maintains close working relationships with the key city, state and national Chinese government officials controlling both mineral availability and separated rare earth exportation. Our quota allocation is timely granted and more than sufficient to allow for required sales. We will often have early information on the intentions of government officials and some limited ability to provide input in these areas. By producing close to the mineral source, transportation costs are minimized.

Rare Earth History and Historical Pricing. The history of rare earth use in industry began in the 1950's with the invention of the television which required europium as the phosphor. In the 1960's discoveries were made which created applications for the two rare earth elements that make up over 50% of the bastnazite ore body; cerium and lanthanum. These elements found uses primarily in glass production and production of various catalysts.

The rare earths began to achieve global commoditized pricing in 1987 when large scale prices were first established as a result of the initial commercialization of the NdFeB magnet. Prices steadily rose until around Q2 1989. Stimulated by these relatively high prices and forecasts of 100%+ annual growth, Chinese rare earth separation plants rapidly expanded output capacity resulting in over capacity and price declines through 1992, which was also influenced by a concurrent recession in the global computer market. By Q4 1992 a combination of (1) plants closing that could not compete in this market environment and (2) exponential growth in NdFeB alloy demand, caused a supply shortage. Prices again recovered, steadily rising from Q1 1993 through Q1 1996. However, as early as the end of 1994, Chinese rare earth producers again rapidly increased capacity with, in our estimate, supply actually exceeding demand as early as Q3 1995.

As prices began to again fall at the beginning of 1996, an effort was initiated by Chinese government agencies to cause producers to voluntarily reduce production to within the projected demand with the stated goal of Chinese officials to establish a continuing "reasonable price" range. This voluntary program was under the threat that China would take a direct hand to control production output and exportation, if voluntary measures were insufficient. However, prices continued to fall through Q3 1999 when Chinese officials announced that export licenses would soon be required for all rare earth product exports. First to respond to this was Japanese buyers who purchased substantial inventories commencing Q4 1999 causing prices to steadily increase.

Prices were additionally impacted by the 1999 closure of the only large scale rare earth mine outside of China; the Mountain Pass mine owned by Molycorp (see above).

In Q2 of 2000, China in fact implemented its export license system granting each producer and certain Chinese import/export companies with quarterly export quota limits based somewhat arbitrarily on a combination of historical volume and a government desire to close many small facilities and reduce the number of ionic clay processors in Southern China in favor of production from Baotou. Additionally, China ordered a production stoppage at many ionic clay mines in Southern China, such that now substantially all rare earth mineral supplies for both exportation and domestic consumption come from Baotou.

Rare Earth Trends and Pricing. The forgoing efforts by China to increase and stabilize rare earth prices had only marginal effect. The desire of the central government to continue to collect U.S. currency acted as a countervailing balance. However, in 2005 China first indicated that it was placing a greater emphasize on retaining its raw material resources than continuing to build its cash reserves. This lead to a serious effort to restrict rare earth exports and thereby increase prices.

In 2006, the government issued its first of currently two 10% export tariffs on rare earths. Additionally, it began to strict the amount of quarterly export quota granted to producers to a very small percentage of the quotas first issued in 2005. In 2008, these factors forced rare earth prices even higher with lower grade forms potentially becoming scarce further in the future. In 2009 and 2010, China continued to close down facilities and consolidate production. The tariffs were further increased. In 2010, China refused to ship rare earths to Japan in response to the arrest of a shipping captain in the East China Sea. Since then, the world has become much more focused on rare earths. Conferences in March 2012 in Europe (Euromines) and Washington DC (TREM12) discussed the world response. In March 2012, the U.S., Japan and EU also filed a WTO action against China for violating its WTO agreement for handling commodity production.

Forms of Rare Earths. American Elements manufactures the world's largest catalogue of rare earth materials in forms including metals, oxides, nanoparticles and nanopowders, compound powders and solutions, and organometallics.


Rare Earth Metals can be purchased in numerous forms for alloying, for use in coating and thin film Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation, Low Temperature Organic Evaporation, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), Organometallic and Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) for specific applications such as fuel cells and solar energy.

Metals Pellets Pieces Powder Granules Nanoparticles
Cerium Metal Cerium Pellets Cerium Pieces Cerium Powder Cerium Granules Cerium Nanoparticles
Dysprosium Metal Dysprosium Pellets Dysprosium Pieces Dysprosium Powder Dysprosium Granules Dysprosium Nanoparticles
Erbium Metal Erbium Pellets Erbium Pieces Erbium Powder Erbium Granules Erbium Nanoparticles
Europium Metal Europium Pellets Europium Pieces Europium Powder Europium Granules Europium Nanoparticles
Gadolinium Metal Gadolinium Pellets Gadolinium Pieces Gadolinium Powder Gadolinium Granules Gadolinium Nanoparticles
Holmium Metal Holmium Pellets Holmium Pieces Holmium Powder Holmium Granules Holmium Nanoparticles
Lanthanum Metal Lanthanum Pellets Lanthanum Pieces Lanthanum Powder Lanthanum Granules Lanthanum Nanoparticles
Lutetium Metal Lutetium Pellets Lutetium Pieces Lutetium Powder Lutetium Granules Lutetium Nanoparticles
Neodymium Metal Neodymium Pellets Neodymium Pieces Neodymium Powder Neodymium Granules Neodymium Nanoparticles
Praseodymium Metal Praseodymium Pellets Praseodymium Pieces Praseodymium Powder Praseodymium Granules Praseodymium Nanoparticles
Samarium Metal Samarium Pellets Samarium Pieces Samarium Powder Samarium Granules Samarium Nanoparticles
Scandium Metal Scandium Pellets Scandium Pieces Scandium Powder Scandium Granules Scandium Nanoparticles
Terbium Metal Terbium Pellets Terbium Pieces Terbium Powder Terbium Granules Terbium Nanoparticles
Thulium Metal Thulium Pellets Thulium Pieces Thulium Powder Thulium Granules Thulium Nanoparticles
Ytterbium Metal Ytterbium Pellets Ytterbium Pieces Ytterbium Powder Ytterbium Granules Ytterbium Nanoparticles
Yttrium Metal Yttrium Pellets Yttrium Pieces Yttrium Powder Yttrium Granules Yttrium Nanoparticles

Ingot Disc Foils Rod Wire
Cerium Ingot Cerium Disc Cerium Foil Cerium Rod Cerium Wire
Dysprosium Ingot Dysprosium Disc Dysprosium Foil Dysprosium Rod Dysprosium Wire
Erbium Ingot Erbium Disc Erbium Foil Erbium Rod Erbium Wire
Europium Ingot Europium Disc Europium Foil Europium Rod Europium Wire
Gadolinium Ingot Gadolinium Disc Gadolinium Foil Gadolinium Rod Gadolinium Wire
Holmium Ingot Holmium Disc Holmium Foil Holmium Rod Holmium Wire
Lanthanum Ingot Lanthanum Disc Lanthanum Foil Lanthanum Rod Lanthanum Wire
Lutetium Ingot Lutetium Disc Lutetium Foil Lutetium Rod Lutetium Wire
Neodymium Ingot Neodymium Disc Neodymium Foil Neodymium Rod Neodymium Wire
Praseodymium Ingot Praseodymium Disc Praseodymium Foil Praseodymium Rod Praseodymium Wire
Samarium Ingot Samarium Disc Samarium Foil Samarium Rod Samarium Wire
Scandium Ingot Scandium Disc Scandium Foil Scandium Rod Scandium Wire
Terbium Ingot Terbium Disc Terbium Foil Terbium Rod Terbium Wire
Thulium Ingot Thulium Disc Thulium Foil Thulium Rod Thulium Wire
Yttrium Ingot Yttrium Disc Yttrium Foil Yttrium Rod Yttrium Wire
Ytterbium Ingot Ytterbium Disc Ytterbium Foil Ytterbium Rod Ytterbium Wire

Sputtering Targets

Rare Earth Sputtering Targets Fluoride Sputtering Targets Alloy Sputtering Targets  
Cerium Sputtering Target Cerium Fluoride Sputtering Target Aluminum Dysprosium Sputtering Target Lanthanum Strontium Manganite Sputtering Target
Cerium Rotatable Sputtering Target Dysprosium Fluoride Sputtering Target Aluminum Erbium Sputtering Target Lanthanum Telluride Sputtering Target
Dysprosium Sputtering Target Erbium Fluoride Sputtering Target Aluminum Gadolinium Sputtering Target Lutetium Telluride Sputtering Target
Dysprosium Rotatable Sputtering Target Europium Fluoride Sputtering Target Aluminum Neodymium Sputtering Target Magnesium Dysprosium Sputtering Target
Erbium Sputtering Target Gadolinium Fluoride Sputtering Target Aluminum Samarium Sputtering Target Magnesium Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Erbium Sputtering Target Holmium Fluoride Sputtering Target Aluminum Ytterbium Sputtering Target Magnesium Neodymium Sputtering Target
Europium Rotatable Sputtering Target Lanthanum Fluoride Sputtering Target Cerium Silver Sputtering Target Magnesium Neodymium Zirconium Yttrium
   Sputtering Target
Europium Rotatable Sputtering Target Lutetium Fluoride Sputtering Target Cerium Copper Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Sputtering Target Neodymium Sputtering Target Cerium Gadolinium Sputtering Target Magnesium Samarium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Rotatable Sputtering Target Praseodymium Fluoride Sputtering Target Cerium Samarium Sputtering Target Neodymium Iron Boron Sputtering Target
Holmium Sputtering Target Samarium Fluoride Sputtering Target Cerium Titanium Sputtering Target Neodymium Silver Sputtering Target
Holmium Rotatable Sputtering Target Scandium Fluoride Sputtering Target Cobalt Iron Gadolinium Sputtering Target Nickel Ytterbium Sputtering Target
Lutetium Sputtering Target Terbium Fluoride Sputtering Target Cobalt Gadolinium Sputtering Target Praseodymium Telluride Sputtering Target
Lutetium Rotatable Sputtering Target Thulium Fluoride Sputtering Target Cobalt Terbium Sputtering Target + Scandium, Yb, Y
Neodymium Sputtering Target Ytterbium Fluoride Sputtering Target Dysprosium Cobalt Sputtering Target  
Neodymium Rotatable Sputtering Target Yttrium Fluoride Sputtering Target Dysprosium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target Samarium Cobalt Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Sputtering Target   Dysprosium Iron Sputtering Target Samarium Iron Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Rotatable Sputtering Target   Iron Gadolinium Sputtering Target Samarium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Samarium Sputtering Target   Gadolinium Cerium Sputtering Target Samarium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Samarium Rotatable Sputtering Target   Europium Telluride Sputtering Target Terbium Dysprosium Iron Sputtering Target
Scandium Sputtering Target   Gadolinium Erbium Silicon Sputtering Target Terbium Dysprosium Sputtering Target
Scandium Rotatable Sputtering Target   Gadolinium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target Terbium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Terbium Sputtering Target   Gadolinium Iron Sputtering Target Terbium Iron Sputtering Target
Terbium Rotatable Sputtering Target   Gadolinium Terbium Sputtering Target Terbium Gadolinium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Thulium Sputtering Target   Gadolinium Titanium Sputtering Target Zirconium Cerium Sputtering Target
Thulium Rotatable Sputtering Target   Holmium Copper Sputtering Target Zirconium Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Ytterbium Sputtering Target   Holmium Telluride Sputtering Target  
Ytterbium Rotatable Sputtering Target   Iron Gadolinium Sputtering Target  
Yttrium Sputtering Target   Lanthanum Aluminum Sputtering Target
Yttrium Rotatable Sputtering Target   Lanthanum Nickel Sputtering Target
 


Rare Earth Oxides are available in many forms including pellets and targets for coating and thin film Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes including Thermal and Electron Beam (E-Beam) Evaporation and powders for ceramic applications.

Oxides Oxide Pellets Oxide Pieces Oxide Powder Oxide Tablets Oxide Nanoparticles
Cerium Oxide Cerium Oxide Pellets Cerium Oxide Pieces Cerium Oxide Powder Cerium Oxide Tablets Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles
Dysprosium Oxide Dysprosium Oxide Pellets Dysprosium Oxide Pieces Dysprosium Oxide Powder Dysprosium Oxide Tablets Dysprosium Oxide Nanoparticles
Erbium Oxide Erbium Oxide Pellets Erbium Oxide Pieces Erbium Oxide Powder Erbium Oxide Tablets Erbium Oxide Nanoparticles
Europium Oxide Europium Oxide Pellets Europium Oxide Pieces Europium Oxide Powder Europium Oxide Tablets
Gadolinium Oxide Gadolinium Oxide Pellets Gadolinium Oxide Pieces Gadolinium Oxide Powder Gadolinium Oxide Tablets Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles
Holmium Oxide Holmium Oxide Pellets Holmium Oxide Pieces Holmium Oxide Powder Holmium Oxide Tablets Holmium Oxide Nanoparticles
Lanthanum Oxide Lanthanum Oxide Pellets Lanthanum Oxide Pieces Lanthanum Oxide Powder Lanthanum Oxide Tablets Lanthanum Oxide Nanoparticles
Lutetium Oxide Lutetium Oxide Pellets Lutetium Oxide Pieces Lutetium Oxide Powder Lutetium Oxide Tablets Lutetium Oxide Nanoparticles
Praseodymium Oxide Praseodymium Oxide Pellets Praseodymium Oxide Pieces Praseodymium Oxide Powder Praseodymium Oxide Tablets Praseodymium Oxide Nanoparticles
Samarium Oxide Samarium Oxide Pellets Samarium Oxide Pieces Samarium Oxide Powder Samarium Oxide Tablets Samarium Oxide Nanoparticles
Scandium Oxide Scandium Oxide Pellets Scandium Oxide Pieces Scandium Oxide Powder Scandium Oxide Tablets Scandium Oxide Nanoparticles
Terbium Oxide Terbium Oxide Pellets Terbium Oxide Pieces Terbium Oxide Powder Terbium Oxide Tablets Terbium Oxide Nanoparticles
Thulium Oxide Thulium Oxide Pellets Thulium Oxide Pieces Thulium Oxide Powder Thulium Oxide Tablets Thulium Oxide Nanoparticles
Ytterbium Oxide Ytterbium Oxide Pellets Ytterbium Oxide Pieces Ytterbium Oxide Powder Ytterbium Oxide Tablets Ytterbium Oxide Nanoparticles
Yttrium Oxide Yttrium Oxide Pellets Yttrium Oxide Pieces Yttrium Oxide Powder Yttrium Oxide Tablets Yttrium Oxide Nanoparticles

Oxide Sputtering Targets Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Targets
Cerium Oxide Sputtering Target Cerium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Dysprosium Oxide Sputtering Target Dysprosium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Erbium Oxide Sputtering Target Erbium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Europium Oxide Sputtering Target Europium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Oxide Sputtering Target Gadolinium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Holmium Oxide Sputtering Target Holmium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lanthanum Oxide Sputtering Target Lanthanum Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lutetium Oxide Sputtering Target Lutetium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Oxide Sputtering Target Praseodymium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Samarium Oxide Sputtering Target Samarium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Scandium Oxide Sputtering Target Scandium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Terbium Oxide Sputtering Target Terbium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Thulium Oxide Sputtering Target Thulium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Ytterbium Oxide Sputtering Target Ytterbium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Yttrium Oxide Sputtering Target Yttrium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target

Rare Earth Compounds are available as powders in all of the standard compound forms for uses were a soluble form of the rare earth is needed or in the case of the fluorides (which are insoluble) in situations where oxygen is not desirable, such in metal alloy production and certain optical applications.

Acetate Powder Arsenide Powder Bromide Powder Carbide Powder Carbonate Powder
Cerium Acetate Dysprosium Arsenide Cerium Bromide Cerium Carbide Cerium Carbonate
Dysprosium Acetate Erbium Arsenide Dysprosium Bromide Dysprosium Carbide Dysprosium Carbonate
Erbium Acetate Europium Arsenide Erbium Bromide Erbium Carbide Erbium Carbonate
Europium Acetate Gadolinium Arsenide Europium Bromide Europium Carbide Europium Carbonate
Gadolinium Acetate Holmium Arsenide Gadolinium Bromide Gadolinium Carbide Gadolinium Carbonate
Holmium Acetate Lutetium Arsenide Holmium Bromide Holmium Carbide Holmium Carbonate
Lanthanum Acetate Lanthanum Arsenide Lanthanum Bromide Lanthanum Carbide Lanthanum Carbonate
Lutetium Acetate Praseodymium Arsenide Lutetium Bromide Lutetium Carbide Lutetium Carbonate
Praseodymium Acetate Samarium Arsenide Praseodymium Bromide Praseodymium Carbide Praseodymium Carbonate
Samarium Acetate Terbium Arsenide Samarium Bromide Samarium Carbide Samarium Carbonate
Scandium Acetate Thulium Arsenide Scandium Bromide Scandium Carbide Scandium Carbonate
Terbium Acetate Ytterbium Arsenide Terbium Bromide Terbium Carbide Terbium Carbonate
Thulium Acetate   Thulium Bromide Thulium Carbide Thulium Carbonate
Ytterbium Acetate   Ytterbium Bromide Ytterbium Carbide Ytterbium Carbonate
Yttrium Acetate   Yttrium Bromide Yttrium Carbide Yttrium Carbonate
         
Chloride Powder Fluoride Powder Nitrate Powder Nitride Powder Oxatate Powder
Cerium Chloride Cerium Fluoride Cerium Nitrate Cerium Nitride Cerium Oxalate
Dysprosium Chloride Dysprosium Fluoride Dysprosium Nitrate Dysprosium Nitride Dysprosium Oxalate
Erbium Chloride Erbium Fluoride Erbium Nitrate Erbium Nitride Erbium Oxalate
Europium Chloride Europium Fluoride Europium Nitrate Europium Nitride Europium Oxalate
Gadolinium Chloride Gadolinium Fluoride Gadolinium Nitrate Gadolinium Nitride Gadolinium Oxalate
Holmium Chloride Holmium Fluoride Holmium Nitrate Holmium Nitride Holmium Oxalate
Lanthanum Chloride Lanthanum Fluoride Lanthanum Nitrate Lanthanum Nitride Lanthanum Oxalate
Lutetium Chloride Lutetium Fluoride Lutetium Nitrate Lutetium Nitride Lutetium Oxalate
Praseodymium Chloride Praseodymium Fluoride Praseodymium Nitrate Praseodymium Nitride Praseodymium Oxalate
Samarium Chloride Samarium Fluoride Samarium Nitrate Samarium Nitride Samarium Oxalate
Scandium Chloride Scandium Fluoride Scandium Nitrate Scandium Nitride Scandium Oxalate
Terbium Chloride Terbium Fluoride Terbium Nitrate Terbium Nitride Terbium Oxalate
Thulium Chloride Thulium Fluoride Thulium Nitrate Thulium Nitride Thulium Oxalate
Ytterbium Chloride Ytterbium Fluoride Ytterbium Nitrate Ytterbium Nitride Ytterbium Oxalate
Yttrium Chloride Yttrium Fluoride Yttrium Nitrate Yttrium Nitride Yttrium Oxalate
         
  Phosphide Powder Sulfate Powder Sulfide Powder  
  Cerium Phosphide Cerium Sulfate Cerium Sulfide  
  Dysprosium Phosphide Dysprosium Sulfate Dysprosium Sulfide  
  Erbium Phosphide Erbium Sulfate Erbium Sulfide  
  Europium Phosphide Europium Sulfate Europium Sulfide  
  Gadolinium Phosphide Gadolinium Sulfate Gadolinium Sulfide  
  Holmium Phosphide Holmium Sulfate Holmium Sulfide  
  Lanthanum Phosphide Lanthanum Sulfate Lanthanum Sulfide  
  Lutetium Phosphide Lutetium Sulfate Lutetium Sulfide  
  Praseodymium Phosphide Praseodymium Sulfate Praseodymium Sulfide  
  Samarium Phosphide Samarium Sulfate Samarium Sulfide  
  Scandium Phosphide Scandium Sulfate Scandium Sulfide  
  Terbium Phosphide Terbium Sulfate Terbium Sulfide  
  Thulium Phosphide Thulium Sulfate Thulium Sulfide  
  Ytterbium Phosphide Ytterbium Sulfate Ytterbium Sulfide  
  Yttrium Phosphide Yttrium Sulfate Yttrium Sulfide  

Rare Earth Solutions of each of the forgoing rare earth compounds are produced by American Elements' AE Solutions division in both research and commercial (bulk) quantities.

Acetate Solution Bromide Solution Chloride Solution Nitrate Solution Sulfate Solution
Cerium Acetate Solution Cerium Bromide Solution Cerium Chloride Solution Cerium Nitrate Solution Cerium Sulfate Solution
Dysprosium Acetate Solution Dysprosium Bromide Solution Dysprosium Chloride Solution Dysprosium Nitrate Solution Dysprosium Sulfate Solution
Erbium Acetate Solution Erbium Bromide Solution Erbium Chloride Solution Erbium Nitrate Solution Erbium Sulfate Solution
Europium Acetate Solution Europium Bromide Solution Europium Chloride Solution Europium Nitrate Solution Europium Sulfate Solution
Gadolinium Acetate Solution Gadolinium Bromide Solution Gadolinium Chloride Solution Gadolinium Nitrate Solution Gadolinium Sulfate Solution
Holmium Acetate Solution Holmium Bromide Solution Holmium Chloride Solution Holmium Nitrate Solution Holmium Sulfate Solution
Lanthanum Acetate Solution Lanthanum Bromide Solution Lanthanum Chloride Solution Lanthanum Nitrate Solution Lanthanum Sulfate Solution
Lutetium Acetate Solution Lutetium Bromide Solution Lutetium Chloride Solution Lutetium Nitrate Solution Lutetium Sulfate Solution
Praseodymium Acetate Solution Praseodymium Bromide Solution Praseodymium Chloride Solution Praseodymium Nitrate Solution Praseodymium Sulfate Solution
Samarium Acetate Solution Samarium Bromide Solution Samarium Chloride Solution Samarium Nitrate Solution Samarium Sulfate Solution
Scandium Acetate Solution Scandium Bromide Solution Scandium Chloride Solution Scandium Nitrate Solution Scandium Sulfate Solution
Terbium Acetate Solution Terbium Bromide Solution Terbium Chloride Solution Terbium Nitrate Solution Terbium Sulfate Solution
Thulium Acetate Solution Thulium Bromide Solution Thulium Chloride Solution Thulium Nitrate Solution Thulium Sulfate Solution
Ytterbium Acetate Solution Ytterbium Bromide Solution Ytterbium Chloride Solution Ytterbium Nitrate Solution Ytterbium Sulfate Solution
Yttrium Acetate Solution Yttrium Bromide Solution Yttrium Chloride Solution Yttrium Nitrate Solution Yttrium Sulfate Solution

Rare Earth Organometallics provide a rare earth source that is soluble in non-aqueous (organic) solvents. A brief list of the organometallic rare earths produced by American Elements are listed below.

Acetylacetonate 2-Ethylhexanoate Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Cerium Acetylacetonate Cerium 2-Ethylhexanoate Cerium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Dysprosium Acetylacetonate Dysprosium 2-Ethylhexanoate Dysprosium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Erbium Acetylacetonate Erbium 2-Ethylhexanoate Erbium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Europium Acetylacetonate Europium 2-Ethylhexanoate Europium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Gadolinium Acetylacetonate Gadolinium 2-Ethylhexanoate Gadolinium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Holmium Acetylacetonate Holmium 2-Ethylhexanoate Holmium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Lanthanum Acetylacetonate Lanthanum 2-Ethylhexanoate Lanthanum Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Lutetium Acetylacetonate Lutetium 2-Ethylhexanoate Lutetium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Praseodymium Acetylacetonate Praseodymium 2-Ethylhexanoate Praseodymium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Samarium Acetylacetonate Samarium 2-Ethylhexanoate Samarium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Scandium Acetylacetonate Scandium 2-Ethylhexanoate Scandium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Terbium Acetylacetonate Terbium 2-Ethylhexanoate Terbium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Thulium Acetylacetonate Thulium 2-Ethylhexanoate Thulium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Yttrium Acetylacetonate Yttrium 2-Ethylhexanoate Yttrium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Ytterbium Acetylacetonate Ytterbium 2-Ethylhexanoate Ytterbium Trifluoromethanesulfonate


Recent Research & Development for Rare Earths

  • M.L. Fornasini, D. Mazzone, A. Provino, M. Michetti, D. Paudyal, K.A. Gschneidner Jr., P. Manfrinetti, New structures formed by R3Au4Sn3, R5Au8Sn5 and R3Au6Sn5 compounds (R = rare earths), Intermetallics, Volume 53, October 2014
  • Alessandro Zucchiatti, Ursula Alonso, Quentin Lemasson, Tiziana Missana, Brice Moignard, Claire Pacheco, Laurent Pichon, Sandra Camarena de la Mora, Detection of actinides and rare earths in natural matrices with the AGLAE new, high sensitivity detection set-up, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 332, 1 August 2014
  • C. Esther Jeyanthi, R. Siddheswaran, Pushpendra Kumar, V. Siva Shankar, K. Rajarajan, Structural and spectroscopic studies of rare earths doped ceria (RELa,Sc,Yb:CeO2) nanopowders, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 6, July 2014
  • Mariana N. Barroso, Manuel F. Gomez, Luis A. Arrúa, M. Cristina Abello, Co catalysts modified by rare earths (La, Ce or Pr) for hydrogen production from ethanol, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 39, Issue 16, 27 May 2014
  • H. Werheit, V. Filipov, N. Shitsevalova, M. Armbrüster, U. Schwarz, A. Ievdokimova, V. Muratov, V.N. Gurin, M.M. Korsukova, Raman scattering in rare earths tetraborides, Solid State Sciences, Volume 31, May 2014
  • K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, Perspectives for the recovery of rare earths from end-of-life fluorescent lamps, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 3, March 2014
  • Z. Sun, C.S. Zhang, M.F. Yan, Microstructure and mechanical properties of M50NiL steel plasma nitrocarburized with and without rare earths addition, Materials & Design, Volume 55, March 2014
  • Zhikun Qu, Libin Wu, Ruizhi Wu, Jinghuai Zhang, Milin Zhang, Bin Liu, Microstructures and tensile properties of hot extruded Mg–5Li–3Al–2Zn–xRE(Rare Earths) alloys, Materials & Design, Volume 54, February 2014
  • Estelle Molières, Gérard Panczer, Yannick Guyot, Patrick Jollivet, Odile Majérus, Patrick Aschehoug, Philippe Barboux, Stéphane Gin, Frédéric Angeli, Investigation of local environment around rare earths (La and Eu) by fluorescence line narrowing during borosilicate glass alteration, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 145, January 2014
  • M. Enomoto, Y. Ohata, H. Uchida, Reaction kinetics of H2, O2, and H2O with rare earths (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Er) at 298 K, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 580, Supplement 1, 15 December 2013


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