Europium Elemental Symbol
Europium



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Europium Europium Europio Európio Europio Europium

Elemental Europium PictureEuropium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Europium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Europium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f7 6s2. The europium atom has an atomic radius of 180.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 233 pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-53-1, europium has a silvery-white appearance but it is rarely found without oxide discoloration. Europium is found in many minerals including bastnasite, monazite, xenotime and loparite. It is not found in nature as a free element. Europium was discovered by Eugène-Anatole Demarçay in 1896, however, he did not isolate it until 1901. Europium was named after the continent of Europe.

Europium is utilized primarily for its unique luminescent behavior. Excitation of the europium atom by absorption of ultra violet radiation can result in specific energy level transitions within the atom creating an emission of visible radiation. In energy efficient fluorescent lighting, europium provides not only the necessary red, but also the blue. Several commercial blue phosphors are based on europium. Its luminesence is also valuable in medical, surgical and biochemical applications. Europium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Europium (Eu) Sputtering Target Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Europium Oxide (Eu2O3) Powder Europium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Europium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Europium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Europium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Europium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Eu Melting Point: 822 oC, 1511.6 oF, 1095.15 K
Atomic Number: 63 Boiling Point: 1529 oC, 2784.2 oF, 1802.15 K
Atomic Weight: 151.97 Density: 5.244 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.13 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0421 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 42 K-Cal/gm atom at 1597°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.50 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 63 Thermal Conductivity: 0.139 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 63 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 35.0 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 89 Electrical Resistivity: 90.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f76s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 180 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 198±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.66 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 233 pm Young's Modulus: 18.2 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 7.9 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 8.3 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.152
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 546.7 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 167 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1085 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2405 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-53-1 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22417 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23981 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.5 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010992 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.004 ppb
EC Number: 231-161-7 Discovered By: Eugène-Anatole Demarçay
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1896
SMILES Identifier: [Eu]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Eu Other Names: Europio
InChI Key: OGPBJKLSAFTDLK-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Europium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Europium

  • Utility of tris(4-bromopyridyl) europium complexes as versatile intermediates in the divergent synthesis of emissive chiral probes. Butler SJ, Delbianco M, Evans NH, Frawley AT, Pal R, Parker D, Puckrin RS, Yufit DS. Dalton Trans. 2014.
  • Enhanced performance of cadmium selenide quantum dot-sensitized solar cells by incorporating long afterglow europium, dysprosium co-doped strontium aluminate phosphors. Sun H, Pan L, Piao X, Sun Z. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014.
  • Europium phosphomolybdate and osmium metallopolymer multi-functional LbL films: Redox and electrocatalytic properties. Fernandes DM, Vos JG, Freire C. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014
  • The role of the Ca vacancy in the determination of the europium position in the energy gap, its valence state and spectroscopic properties in KCa(PO3)3. Watras A, Matraszek A, Godlewska P, Szczygiel I, Wojtkiewicz J, Brzostowski B, Banach G, Hanuza J, Deren PJ. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2014
  • Preparation and functionalization of a visible-light-excited europium complex-modified luminescent protein for cell imaging applications. Tian L, Dai Z, Ye Z, Song B, Yuan J. Analyst. 2014.
  • Crystal structure and photoluminescence of two europium compounds with phenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine. Wang A, Wei X, Zhang H, Yue B, Qu Y, Kang J, Wang Z, Chu H, Zhao Y. Dalton Trans. 2014 Feb.
  • Multi-component assembly and photophysical properties of europium polyoxometalates and polymer functionalized (mesoporous) silica through a double functional ionic liquid linker. Cuan J, Yan B. Dalton Trans. 2013 Sep.
  • Fluorescence enhancement of europium(III) perchlorate by benzoic acid on bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane complex and its binding characteristics with the bovine serum albumin (BSA). Zhang J, Li WX, Ao BY, Feng SY, Xin XD. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Jan.
  • Outer-sphere anion recognition by a cyclen-based octadentate europium(iii) complex: pH dependent recognition of ortho-phthalic acid. Sannasy D, Marques HM, Fernandes MA, de Sousa AS. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014 Jan.
  • Micellar self-assemblies of gadolinium(iii)/europium(iii) amphiphilic complexes as model contrast agents for bimodal imaging. Debroye E, Eliseeva SV, Laurent S, Vander Elst L, Muller RN, Parac-Vogt TN. Dalton Trans. 2014 Jan.
  • Photoluminescence behavior of europium (III) complexes containing 1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-3-(2-naphthyl)-propane-1,3-dione ligand. Wang D, Zheng C, Fan L, Hu Y, Zheng J. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Jan 3.
  • Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence properties of europium-, terbium-, and thulium-doped Ca3Bi(PO4)3 phosphors. Jiao M, Guo N, Lü W, Jia Y, Lv W, Zhao Q, Shao B, You H. Dalton Trans. 2013.
  • Fluorescence enhancement of europium(III) perchlorate by benzoic acid on bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane complex and its binding characteristics with the bovine serum albumin (BSA). Zhang J, Li WX, Ao BY, Feng SY, Xin XD. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014
  • Temperature dependent luminescence of a europium complex incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate). Liang H, Xie F, Ren X, Chen Y, Chen B, Guo F. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013 Dec.
  • A novel tridentate bis(phosphinic acid)phosphine oxide based europium(iii)-selective Nafion membrane luminescent sensor. Sainz-Gonzalo FJ, Popovici C, Casimiro M, Raya-Barón A, López-Ortiz F, Fernández I, Fernández-Sánchez JF, Fernández-Gutiérrez A. Analyst. 2013.
  • A microwave-assisted solution combustion synthesis to produce europium-doped calcium phosphate nanowhiskers for bioimaging applications. Wagner DE, Eisenmann KM, Nestor-Kalinoski AL, Bhaduri SB. Acta Biomater.
  • Real time detection of cell cycle regulator cyclin A on living tumor cells with europium emission. Li H, Chadbourne FL, Lan R, Chan CF, Chan WL, Law GL, Lee CS, Cobb SL, Wong KL. Dalton Trans. 2013.
  • A mitochondria-specific visible-light sensitized europium ß-diketonate complex with red emission. Divya V, Sankar V, Raghu KG, Reddy ML. Dalton Trans. 2013.
  • Structural Investigation and Photoluminescent Properties of Gadolinium(III), Europium(III) and Terbium(III) 3-Mercaptopropionate Complexes. Souza ER, Mazali IO, Sigoli FA. J Fluoresc. 2013.
  • Semiconducting Polymer Dots Doped with Europium Complexes Showing Ultranarrow Emission and Long Luminescence Lifetime for Time-Gated Cellular Imaging. Sun W, Yu J, Deng R, Rong Y, Fujimoto B, Wu C, Zhang H, Chiu DT. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013.

Europium Isotopes


Naturally occurring Europium has one stable isotope (153Eu) and one (151Eu) recently discovered to be unstable.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
151Eu 150.9198502(26) Stable 5×1018 a
153Eu 152.9212303(26) Observationally stable 5/2+