Europium Elemental Symbol
Europium



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Europium Europium Europio Európio Europio Europium

Elemental Europium PictureEuropium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Europium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Europium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f7 6s2. The europium atom has an atomic radius of 180.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 233 pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-53-1, europium has a silvery-white appearance but it is rarely found without oxide discoloration. Europium is found in many minerals including bastnasite, monazite, xenotime and loparite. It is not found in nature as a free element. Europium was discovered by Eugène-Anatole Demarçay in 1896, however, he did not isolate it until 1901. Europium was named after the continent of Europe.

Europium is utilized primarily for its unique luminescent behavior. Excitation of the europium atom by absorption of ultra violet radiation can result in specific energy level transitions within the atom creating an emission of visible radiation. In energy efficient fluorescent lighting, europium provides not only the necessary red, but also the blue. Several commercial blue phosphors are based on europium. Its luminesence is also valuable in medical, surgical and biochemical applications. Europium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Europium (Eu) Sputtering Target Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Europium Oxide (Eu2O3) Powder Europium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Europium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Europium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Europium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Europium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Eu Melting Point: 822 oC, 1511.6 oF, 1095.15 K
Atomic Number: 63 Boiling Point: 1529 oC, 2784.2 oF, 1802.15 K
Atomic Weight: 151.97 Density: 5.244 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.13 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0421 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 42 K-Cal/gm atom at 1597°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.50 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 63 Thermal Conductivity: 0.139 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 63 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 35.0 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 89 Electrical Resistivity: 90.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f76s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 180 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 198±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.66 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 233 pm Young's Modulus: 18.2 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 7.9 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 8.3 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.152
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 546.7 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 167 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1085 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2405 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-53-1 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22417 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23981 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.5 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010992 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.004 ppb
EC Number: 231-161-7 Discovered By: Eugène-Anatole Demarçay
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1896
SMILES Identifier: [Eu]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Eu Other Names: Europio
InChI Key: OGPBJKLSAFTDLK-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Europium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Europium

  • Dunjia Wang, Yan Pi, Hua Liu, Xianhong Wei, Yanjun Hu, Jing Zheng, Synthesis and spectroscopic behavior of highly luminescent trinuclear europium complexes with tris-ß-diketone ligand, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 613, 15 November 2014
  • A. Bandyopadhyay, A.K. Deb, S. Kobayashi, K. Yoshimura, P.K. Chakrabarti, Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped europium oxide (Eu1.90Fe0.10O3-d), Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 611, 25 October 2014
  • Vesna Ðordevic, Željka Antic, Vesna Lojpur, Miroslav D. Dramicanin, Europium-doped nanocrystalline Y2O3-La2O3 solid solutions with bixbyite structure, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Volume 75, Issue 10, October 2014
  • Chenning Zhang, Tetsuo Uchikoshi, Ji-Guang Li, Takayuki Watanabe, Takamasa Ishigaki, Photocatalytic activities of europium (III) and niobium (V) co-doped TiO2 nanopowders synthesized in Ar/O2 radio-frequency thermal plasmas, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 606, 5 September 2014
  • Bogdan Alexandru Sava, Mihai Elisa, Cristina Bartha, Raluca Iordanescu, Ionut Feraru, Carmen Plapcianu, Roxana Patrascu, Non-isothermal free-models kinetic analysis on crystallization of europium-doped phosphate glasses, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part A, September 2014
  • Sabrina A. Camacho, Pedro H.B. Aoki, Carlos J.L. Constantino, Ana Maria Pires, Sprayed films of europium complexes toward light conversion devices, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 153, September 2014
  • Wen-Xian Li, Feng Guo, Yu-Shan Zheng, Xiao-Fang Cao, Shu-Yan Feng, Juan Bai, Xiao-Dong Xin, Synthesis and luminescence properties of two novel europium (III) perchlorate complexes with bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane and 1,10-phenanthroline, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 153, September 2014
  • Akash Deep, Rajnish Kaur, Parveen Kumar, Pawan Kumar, A.K. Paul, Assembly of europium organic framework–gold nanoparticle composite thin films on silicon substrate, Thin Solid Films, Volume 565, 28 August 2014
  • Nan Chen, Yunjuan He, Guoping Du, Preparation and luminescence of europium-doped lanthanum fluoride–benzoic acid hybrid nanostructures, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 24, August 2014
  • A. Sabau, Y. Pipon, N. Toulhoat, C. Lomenech, N. Jordan, N. Moncoffre, A. Barkleit, N. Marmier, V. Brendler, S. Surblé, E. Giffaut, Interaction of europium and nickel with calcite studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 332, 1 August 2014
  • Yan-Fei Shao, Bing Yan, Multi-component hybrids of surfactant functionalized europium tetrakis (ß-diketonate) in MCM-41(m) and polymer modified ZnO for luminescence integration, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 193, 15 July 2014
  • Shizhu Chen, Cuimiao Zhang, Guang Jia, Jianlei Duan, Shuxiang Wang, Jinchao Zhang, Size-dependent cytotoxicity of europium doped NaYF4 nanoparticles in endothelial cells, Materials Science and Engineering: C, Available online 12 July 2014
  • Feng Wang, Jihong Sun, Shiyang Bai, Xia Wu, Jinpeng Wang, Influence of various anions (Cl-, NO3-, and CH3COO-) of europium salts on the thermal decomposition behavior of Eu3+-modified 1,8-naphthalic anhydride hybrid mesoporous silica, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Volume 453, 5 July 2014
  • Yongquan Wu, Mei Shi, Lingzhi Zhao, Wei Feng, Fuyou Li, Chunhui Huang, Visible-light-excited and europium-emissive nanoparticles for highly-luminescent bioimaging in vivo, Biomaterials, Volume 35, Issue 22, July 2014
  • Poh Sum Wong, Ming Hua Wan, Rosli Hussin, Hendrik O. Lintang, Salasiah Endud, Structural and luminescence studies of europium ions in lithium aluminium borophosphate glasses, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 7, July 2014
  • An Luo, Guoping Du, Hongmei Lai, Wangzhou Shi, Photoluminescence of europium-doped and europium/strontium-codoped sol–gel-prepared yttrium vanadate nanoparticles, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 23, July 2014
  • Ke Tang, Qianmin Ma, Qingguang Zhan, Qianming Wang, An intelligent copper(II) luminescent sensor using europium narrow emissions based on titania hybrid material, Optical Materials, Volume 36, Issue 9, July 2014
  • Chu-Chi Ting, Wei-Yang Li, Ching-Hua Wang, Hua-En Yong, Structural and electrical properties of the europium-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistors, Thin Solid Films, Volume 562, 1 July 2014
  • Sébastien Cahen, Hania Rida, Pascal Berger, Mélissa Fauchard, Philippe Lagrange, Jean-François Marêché, Claire Hérold, Graphite–lithium–europium system: Modulation of the structural and physical properties of the lamellar phases as a consequence of their chemical composition, Carbon, Available online 9 June 2014
  • Lei Chen, Bing Yan, Novel cool white-luminescent hybrids through host–guest assembly of 6-hydroxybenz[de]anthracen-7-one and europium ion exchanged zeolite L, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 43, May 2014

Europium Isotopes


Naturally occurring Europium has one stable isotope (153Eu) and one (151Eu) recently discovered to be unstable.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
151Eu 150.9198502(26) Stable 5×1018 a
153Eu 152.9212303(26) Observationally stable 5/2+