Europium Elemental Symbol
Europium



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Europium Europium Europio Európio Europio Europium

Europium (Eu) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolEuropium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Europium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Europium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f7 6s2. The europium atom has an atomic radius of 180.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 233 pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-53-1, europium has a silvery-white appearance but it is rarely found without oxide discoloration. Europium is found in many minerals including bastnasite, monazite, xenotime and loparite. It is not found in nature as a free element. Europium was discovered by Eugène-Anatole Demarçay in 1896, however, he did not isolate it until 1901.

Elemental Europium Picture Europium was named after the continent of Europe.Europium is utilized primarily for its unique luminescent behavior. Excitation of the europium atom by absorption of ultra violet radiation can result in specific energy level transitions within the atom creating an emission of visible radiation. In energy efficient fluorescent lighting, europium provides not only the necessary red, but also the blue. Several commercial blue phosphors are based on europium. Its luminesence is also valuable in medical, surgical and biochemical applications. Europium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Europium (Eu) Sputtering Target Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Europium Oxide (Eu2O3) Powder Europium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Europium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Europium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Europium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Europium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Eu Melting Point: 822 oC, 1511.6 oF, 1095.15 K
Atomic Number: 63 Boiling Point: 1529 oC, 2784.2 oF, 1802.15 K
Atomic Weight: 151.97 Density: 5.244 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.13 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0421 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 42 K-Cal/gm atom at 1597°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.50 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 63 Thermal Conductivity: 0.139 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 63 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 35.0 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 89 Electrical Resistivity: 90.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f76s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 180 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 198±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.66 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 233 pm Young's Modulus: 18.2 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 7.9 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 8.3 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.152
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 546.7 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 167 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1085 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2405 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-53-1 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22417 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23981 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.5 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010992 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.004 ppb
EC Number: 231-161-7 Discovered By: Eugène-Anatole Demarçay
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1896
SMILES Identifier: [Eu]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Eu Other Names: Europio
InChI Key: OGPBJKLSAFTDLK-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Europium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Europium

  • Jitao Lu, Liang Zhou, Qingguo Meng, Haiyan Sui, Yi Li, Xishi Tai, Self-assembly of sandwich-type (phthalocyaninato)(porphyrinato) europium double-decker complexes: Effects of hydrogen bonding on intermolecular stacking mode and morphology of self-assembled nanostructures, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 113, February 2015
  • J.R. Jayaramaiah, B.N. Lakshminarasappa, K.R. Nagabhushana, Luminescence performance of europium-doped yttrium oxide thin films, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 157, January 2015
  • Yinfeng Zhai, Hongde Xie, Peiqing Cai, Hyo Jin Seo, A luminescent inorganic–organic hybrid material containing the europium(III) complex with high thermal stability, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 157, January 2015
  • Vuong-Hung Pham, Nguyen Ngoc Trung, Luminescence of europium doped silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite nanobiophosphor via a coprecipitation method, Materials Letters, Volume 136, 1 December 2014
  • Dunjia Wang, Yan Pi, Hua Liu, Xianhong Wei, Yanjun Hu, Jing Zheng, Synthesis and spectroscopic behavior of highly luminescent trinuclear europium complexes with tris-β-diketone ligand, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 613, 15 November 2014
  • Yahong Jin, Yihua Hu, Yinrong Fu, Zhongfei Mu, Guifang Ju, Reversible white and light gray photochromism in europium doped Zn2GeO4, Materials Letters, Volume 134, 1 November 2014
  • A. Bandyopadhyay, A.K. Deb, S. Kobayashi, K. Yoshimura, P.K. Chakrabarti, Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped europium oxide (Eu1.90Fe0.10O3−δ), Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 611, 25 October 2014
  • Sébastien Cahen, Hania Rida, Pascal Berger, Mélissa Fauchard, Philippe Lagrange, Jean-François Marêché, Claire Hérold, Graphite–lithium–europium system: Modulation of the structural and physical properties of the lamellar phases as a consequence of their chemical composition, Carbon, Volume 77, October 2014
  • Li-Juan Han, Ya-Jie Kong, Ning Sheng, Xing-Ling Jiang, A new europium fluorous metal–organic framework with pentafluorobenzoate and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands: Synthesis, structure and luminescent properties, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, Volume 166, October 2014
  • Vesna Đorđević, Željka Antić, Vesna Lojpur, Miroslav D. Dramićanin, Europium-doped nanocrystalline Y2O3−La2O3 solid solutions with bixbyite structure, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Volume 75, Issue 10, October 2014

Europium Isotopes


Naturally occurring Europium has one stable isotope (153Eu) and one (151Eu) recently discovered to be unstable.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
151Eu 150.9198502(26) Stable 5×1018 a
153Eu 152.9212303(26) Observationally stable 5/2+