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About Europium

Europium Bohr

In 1901, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay was finally convinced that he was correct in his suspicion, which had begun five years of experiments earlier, that the samples of samarium and gadolinium he had acquired actually contained impurities of a previously undiscovered element. In a departure from the nationalistic trend, at the time, of naming newly discovered elements for countries--gallium, germanium, and polonium had each been discovered and named in the previous quarter-century--Demarçay named his discovery after the entire continent of Europe. Nearly a century later, when the Euro was established, phosphorescent europium compounds were fittingly chosen for use in anti-counterfeiting measures embedded in the notes of the new currency.

The main uses of europium are in light emitting compounds called phosphors, though they are found in many places in addition to Euro notes. The discovery of a europium-containing red phosphor revolutionized color television technology in the 1960’s. Prior to the introduction of europium phosphors, the phosphors used to provide the color red in color televisions were very weak, and to maintain color balance all the other colors had to be muted. The availability of brighter red phosphors meant brighter color televisions were suddenly possible.

Today, two different classes of europium oxide phosphors provide red and blue light, which can be used individually or in combination with a yellow-green phosphor to provide white light. Europium phosphors are used in televisions, fluorescent lighting, and some LEDs. Additionally, europium is used as a dopant in glasses used for lasers and other optoelectronic applications, and has some specialized research applications.

Europium is a rare earth element that can be found in varying quantities in most rare-earth containing minerals. It is most commonly extracted from monazite and bastnasite.

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High Purity (99.999%) Europium Oxide (Eu2O3) Powder Europium is utilized primarily for its unique luminescent behavior. Excitation of the europium atom by absorption of ultra violet radiation can result in specific energy level transitions within the atom creating an emission of visible radiation. In energy efficient fluorescent lighting, europium provides not only the necessary red, but also the blue. Several commercial blue phosphors are based on europium. Its luminesence is also High Purity (99.999%) Europium (Eu) Sputtering Targetvaluable in medical, surgical and biochemical applications. Europium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Europium oxide is available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Europium fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Europium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Europium Properties

Europium (Eu) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolEuropium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Europium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Europium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f7 6s2. The europium atom has an atomic radius of and its Van der Waals radius is 233 pm. In its elemental form, CAS Elemental Europium Picture7440-53-1, europium has a silvery-white appearance but it is rarely found without oxide discoloration. Europium is found in many minerals including bastnasite, monazite, xenotime and loparite. It is not found in nature as a free element. Europium was discovered by Eugène-Anatole Demarçay in 1896, however, he did not isolate it until 1901. Europium was named after the continent of Europe.

Symbol: Eu
Atomic Number: 63
Atomic Weight: 151.97
Element Category: Lanthanide
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f
Color: silvery-white
Other Names: Europio
Melting Point: 822 °C, 1511.6 °F, 1095.15 K
Boiling Point: 1529 °C, 2784.2 °F, 1802.15 K
Density: 5.244 kg·m3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.13 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 5.248 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 5244 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.0421 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 10.5
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 176
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 177.11
Thermal Conductivity: 0.139 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 35.0 µm/(m·K)
Electrical Resistivity: 90.0 µΩ-cm @ 25°C
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 27.66 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 18.2 GPa
Shear Modulus: 7.9 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 8.3 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.152
Mohs Hardness: N/A
Vickers Hardness: 167 MPa
Brinell Hardness: N/A
Speed of Sound: N/A
Pauling Electronegativity: N/A
Sanderson Electronegativity: 1.01
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: N/A
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: N/A
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 63
Protons: 63
Neutrons: 89
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f76s2
Atomic Radius: 180 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 198±6 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.83
Van der Waals Radius: 233 pm
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 83.334
1st Ionization Energy: 546.7 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1085 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2405 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-53-1
EC Number: 231-161-7
MDL Number: MFCD00010992
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Eu]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Eu
PubChem CID: 23981
ChemSpider ID: 22417
Earth - Total: 79 ppb
Mercury - Total: 61 ppb 
Venus - Total: 83 ppb 
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 0.00013
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.000005
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 1800
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 240
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 0.5
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 0.004
Stream, ppb by weight: 0.007
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.00005
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 60
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 8
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 0.5
Universe, ppb by atom: 0.004
Discovered By: Eugène-Anatole Demarçay
Discovery Date: 1896
First Isolation: Eugène-Anatole Demarçay (1901)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Europium

Europium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Europium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Europium.

Safety Data
Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H250
Hazard Codes F
Risk Codes 14/15-17
Safety Precautions 43-7/8
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information UN 2813 4.3/PG 1
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)

Europium Isotopes

Naturally occurring Europium has one stable isotope (153Eu) and one (151Eu) recently discovered to be unstable.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
130Eu 129.96357(54)# 1.1(5) ms [0.9(+5-3) ms] Unknown 2+# N/A 1016.81 -
131Eu 130.95775(43)# 17.8(19) ms Unknown 3/2+ N/A 1034.2 -
132Eu 131.95437(43)# 100# ms β+ to 132Sm; p to 132Sm N/A N/A 1042.28 -
133Eu 132.94924(32)# 200# ms β+ to 133Sm 11/2-# N/A 1059.68 -
134Eu 133.94651(21)# 0.5(2) s β+ to 134Sm N/A N/A 1067.75 -
135Eu 134.94182(32)# 1.5(2) s β+ to 135Sm; β+ + p to 134Sm 11/2-# N/A 1075.83 -
136Eu 135.93960(21)# 3.3(3) s β+ to 136Sm; β+ + p to 135Sm (7+) N/A 1093.23 -
137Eu 136.93557(21)# 8.4(5) s β+ to 137Sm 11/2-# N/A 1101.31 -
138Eu 137.93371(3) 12.1(6) s β+ to 138Sm (6-) N/A 1109.39 -
139Eu 138.929792(14) 17.9(6) s β+ to 139Sm (11/2)- N/A 1126.78 -
140Eu 139.92809(6) 1.51(2) s β+ to 140Sm 1+ N/A 1134.86 -
141Eu 140.924931(14) 40.7(7) s β+ to 141Sm 5/2+ N/A 1142.94 -
142Eu 141.92343(3) 2.36(10) s β+ to 142Sm 1+ N/A 1151.02 -
143Eu 142.920298(12) 2.59(2) min β+ to 143Sm 5/2+ N/A 1159.1 -
144Eu 143.918817(12) 10.2(1) s β+ to 144Sm 1+ N/A 1176.49 -
145Eu 144.916265(4) 5.93(4) d EC to 145Sm 5/2+ 3.99 1184.57 -
146Eu 145.917206(7) 4.61(3) d EC to 146Sm 4- 1.43 1192.65 -
147Eu 146.916746(3) 24.1(6) d EC to 147Sm; α to 143Pm 5/2+ 3.72 1200.73 -
148Eu 147.918086(11) 54.5(5) d EC to 148Sm; α to 143Pm 5- 2.34 1208.81 -
149Eu 148.917931(5) 93.1(4) d EC to 149Sm 5/2+ 3.57 1216.88 -
150Eu 149.919702(7) 36.9(9) y EC to 150Sm 5(-) 2.71 1224.96 -
151Eu 150.9198502(26) 5×1018 y α to 147Pm 5/2+ 3.4718 1233.04 47.81
152Eu 151.9217445(26) 13.537(6) y EC to 152Sm; β- to 152Gd 3- -1.91 1231.8 -
153Eu 152.9212303(26) STABLE - 5/2+ 1.5331 1239.88 52.19
154Eu 153.9229792(26) 8.593(4) y EC to 154Sm; β- to 154Gd 3- 2 1247.96 -
155Eu 154.9228933(27) 4.7611(13) y β- to 155Gd 5/2+ 1.6 1256.04 -
156Eu 155.924752(6) 15.19(8) d β- to 156Gd 0+ -2.01 1264.12 -
157Eu 156.925424(6) 15.18(3) h β- to 157Gd 5/2+ N/A 1272.2 -
158Eu 157.92785(8) 45.9(2) min β- to 158Gd (1-) N/A 1280.28 -
159Eu 158.929089(8) 18.1(1) min β- to 159Gd 5/2+ N/A 1288.35 -
160Eu 159.93197(22)# 38(4) s β- to 160Gd 1(-) N/A 1287.12 -
161Eu 160.93368(32)# 26(3) s β- to 161Gd 5/2+# N/A 1295.2 -
162Eu 161.93704(32)# 10.6(10) s β- to 162Gd N/A N/A 1303.27 -
163Eu 162.93921(54)# 6# s β- to 163Gd 5/2+# N/A 1311.35 -
164Eu 163.94299(64)# 2# s β- to 164Gd N/A N/A 1310.12 -
165Eu 164.94572(75)# 1# s β- to 165Gd 5/2+# N/A 1318.19 -
166Eu 165.94997(86)# 400# ms β- to 166Gd N/A N/A 1326.27 -
167Eu 166.95321(86)# 200# ms β- to 167Gd 5/2+# N/A 1325.04 -
Europium Elemental Symbol

Recent Research & Development for Europium

  • Ultrathin Europium Oxide Nanoplatelets: “Hidden” Parameters and Controlled Synthesis, Unusual Crystal Structure, and Photoluminescence Properties. D. Hudry, A. M. M. Abeykoon, J. Hoy, M. Y. Sfeir, E. A. Stach, and J. H. Dickerson. Chem. Mater.: January 26, 2015
  • Folic Acid-Conjugated Europium Complexes as Luminescent Probes for Selective Targeting of Cancer Cells. Silvio Quici, Alessandro Casoni, Francesca Foschi, Lidia Armelao, Gregorio Bottaro, Roberta Seraglia, Cristina Bolzati, Nicola Salvarese, Debora Carpanese, and Antonio Rosato. J. Med. Chem.: January 20, 2015
  • Observation of Mediated Cascade Energy Transfer in Europium-Doped ZnO Nanowalls by 1,10-Phenanthroline. Jung-Soo Kang, Yong-Kwang Jeong, Jun-Gill Kang, Liyan Zhao, Youngku Sohn, Debabrata Pradhan, and K. T. Leung. J. Phys. Chem. C: January 2, 2015
  • Europium-Doped Ba7F12Cl2, a Single Component Near-UV Excited Tunable White Phosphor. Hans Hagemann, Hans Bill, Julien M. Rey, Frank Kubel, Laurent Calame, and Dominique Lovy. J. Phys. Chem. C: December 12, 2014
  • A Photophysical Interpretation of the Thermochromism of a Polyfluorene Derivative–Europium Complex. Denis A. Turchetti, Raquel A. Domingues, Cristiano Zanlorenzi, Bruno Nowacki, Teresa D. Z. Atvars, and Leni C. Akcelrud. J. Phys. Chem. C: November 24, 2014
  • A Theoretical Study on Trivalent Europium: From the Free Ion to the Water Complex. Christof Holzer, Anna M. Wernbacher, Jan M. Senekowitsch, Karl Gatterer, and Anne-Marie Kelterer. J. Phys. Chem. A: November 18, 2014
  • Ab Initio Study of Energy Transfer Pathways in Dinuclear Lanthanide Complex of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) Ions. Ksenia A. Romanova, Alexandra Ya. Freidzon, Alexander A. Bagaturyants, and Yury G. Galyametdinov. J. Phys. Chem. A: November 17, 2014
  • Heterometallic Europium Disiloxanediolates: Synthesis, Structural Diversity, and Photoluminescence Properties. Janek Rausch, Volker Lorenz, Cristian G. Hrib, Vanessa Frettlöh, Matthias Adlung, Claudia Wickleder, Liane Hilfert, Peter G. Jones, and Frank T. Edelmann. Inorg. Chem.: October 20, 2014
  • Semiconducting Polymer Encapsulated Mesoporous Silica Particles with Conjugated Europium Complexes: Toward Enhanced Luminescence under Aqueous Conditions. Jixi Zhang, Neeraj Prabhakar, Tuomas Näreoja, and Jessica M. Rosenholm. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces: October 7, 2014
  • High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Europium-Doped Ceria as a Tool To Correlate Structure and Catalytic Activity. Philipp-Alexander Primus, Thomas Ritschel, Pilar Y. Sigüenza, Miguel A. Cauqui, Juan C. Hernández-Garrido, and Michael U. Kumke. J. Phys. Chem. C: September 15, 2014