Samarium Elemental Symbol
Samarium



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Samarium Samarium Samario Samário Samario Samarium

Elemental Samarium PictureSamarium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Samarium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Samarium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe]4f6 6s2. The samarium atom has a radius of 180.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 229.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-19-9, samarium has a silvery-white appearance. Samarium was discovered and first isolated by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1879. It is named after the mineral samarskite.

Samarium is primarily utilized in the production of samarium-cobalt (Sm2Co17) permanent magnets. It is also used in laser applications and for its dielectric properties. Samarium-cobalt magnets replaced the more expensive platinum-cobalt magnets in the early 1970s. While now overshadowed by the less expensive neodymium-iron-boron magnet, they are still valued for their ability to function at high temperatures. They are utilized in lightweight electronic equipment where size or space is a limiting factor and where functionality at high temperature is a concern. Applications include electronic watches, aeospace equipment, microwave technology and servomotors. Samarium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Samarium Oxide (Sm2O3)Powder Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Samarium (Sm) Sputtering Target Samarium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Samarium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Samarium is somewhat toxic. Safety data for Samarium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Samarium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Sm Melting Point: 1072 oC, 1961.6 oF, 1345.15 K
Atomic Number: 62 Boiling Point: 1794 oC, 3261.2 oF, 2067.15 K
Atomic Weight: 150.36 Density: 7353 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 7.16 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.043 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 46 K-cal/gm atom at 1791°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.60 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 62 Thermal Conductivity: 0.133 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 62 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) 12.7 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 88 Electrical Resistivity: 88.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f66s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 180 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 198±8 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 29.54 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 229 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) 49.7 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) 19.5 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) 37.8 GPa
Crystal Structure: rhombohedral Poisson Ratio: (α form) 0.274
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 544.53 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 412 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1068.10 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 441 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2257.77 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2130 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-19-9 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22391 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23951 Abundance in universe, by weight: 5 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011233 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.04 ppb
EC Number: 231-128-7 Discovered By: Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1879
SMILES Identifier: [Sm]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Sm Other Names: Samario
InChI Key: KZUNJOHGWZRPMI-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Samarium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Samarium

  • Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic investigations of nanostructured samarium oxalate crystals. Vimal G, Mani KP, Biju PR, Joseph C, Unnikrishnan NV, Ittyachen MA. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014
  • Recent advances in the chemoselective reduction of functional groups mediated by samarium(ii) iodide: a single electron transfer approach. Szostak M, Spain M, Procter DJ. Chem Soc Rev.
  • Modification of chitosan by using samarium for potential use in drug delivery system. Kusrini E, Arbianti R, Sofyan N, Abdullah MA, Andriani F. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Feb.
  • Samarium(III)-Catalyzed C(sp(3))-H Bond Activation: Synthesis of Indolizines via C-C and C-N Coupling between 2-Alkylazaarenes and Propargylic Alcohols. Wang X, Li SY, Pan YM, Wang HS, Liang H, Chen ZF, Qin XH. Org Lett. 2014 Jan.
  • Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric determination of the complex vapor composition of samarium, europium, and ytterbium bromides. Sergeev DN, Butman MF, Motalov VB, Kudin LS, Krämer KW. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom.
  • Towards the core structure of strychnos alkaloids using samarium diiodide-induced reactions of indole derivatives. Beemelmanns C, Gross S, Reissig HU. Chemistry. 2013 Dec 23.
  • Samarium(III)-Catalyzed C(sp3)-H Bond Activation: Synthesis of Indolizines via C-C and C-N Coupling between 2-Alkylazaarenes and Propargylic Alcohols. Wang X, Li SY, Pan YM, Wang HS, Liang H, Chen ZF, Qin XH. Org Lett. 2013 Dec.
  • The use of 185 MBq and 740 MBq of 153-samarium hydroxyapatite for knee synovectomy in haemophilia. Calegaro JU, Machado J, Furtado RG, de Almeida JS, de Vasconcelos AV, de Barboza MF, de Paula AP. Haemophilia. 2013 Dec
  • Radioactive synovectomy with (90) yttrium and (153) samarium hydroxyapatite in haemophilic joints: preliminary study on radiation safety. Thomas S, Mendes JD, Souza SA, Lorenzato CS, Assi PE, Pacheco LR, Gabriel MB, Bordim A, Gutfilen B, da Fonseca LM. Haemophilia. 2013 Jul
  • Recent advances in the chemoselective reduction of functional groups mediated by samarium(ii) iodide: a single electron transfer approach. Szostak M, Spain M, Procter DJ. Chem Soc Rev. 2013 Dec.
  • Synthesis and luminescence properties of encapsulated sol-gel glass samarium complexes. Zaitoun MA, Momani K, Jaradat Q, Qurashi IM. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013 Nov
  • Repetitively dosed docetaxel and (153) samarium-EDTMP as an antitumor strategy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Autio KA, Pandit-Taskar N, Carrasquillo JA, Stephenson RD, Slovin SF, Rathkopf DE, Hong C, Heller G, Scher HI, Larson SM, Morris MJ. Cancer. 2013 Sep 1.
  • Photocatalytic performance of novel samarium-doped spherical-like ZnO hierarchical nanostructures under visible light irradiation for 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation. Sin JC, Lam SM, Lee KT, Mohamed AR. J Colloid Interface Sci.
  • Chelating ligand-mediated hydrothermal synthesis of samarium orthovanadate with decavanadate as vanadium source. Li Q, Zuo W, Li F. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013 Aug 28
  • Synthesis and luminescence properties of encapsulated sol-gel glass samarium complexes. Zaitoun MA, Momani K, Jaradat Q, Qurashi IM. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013 Nov
  • Recent advances in the chemoselective reduction of functional groups mediated by samarium(ii) iodide: a single electron transfer approach. Szostak M, Spain M, Procter DJ. Chem Soc Rev.
  • Repetitively dosed docetaxel and (153) samarium-EDTMP as an antitumor strategy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Autio KA, Pandit-Taskar N, Carrasquillo JA, Stephenson RD, Slovin SF, Rathkopf DE, Hong C, Heller G, Scher HI, Larson SM, Morris MJ. Cancer. 2013.
  • Samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate, a beta-emitting bone-targeted radiopharmaceutical, useful for patients with osteoblastic bone metastases. Longo J, Lutz S, Johnstone C. Cancer Manag Res. 2013.
  • Recent developments in samarium diiodide promoted organic reactions. Gopalaiah K, Kagan HB. Chem Rec. 2013.
  • Poly[tris-(dimethyl-formamide)(µ3-2,4,6-triiodobenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl-ato)samarium(III)]. Yan B, Sheng D, Yang Y. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online. 2013.

Samarium Isotopes


Samarium (Sm) has five stable isotopes: 144Sm, 149Sm, 150Sm, 152Sm and 154Sm.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
144Sm 143.911999 Observationally Stable 0+
149Sm 148.9171847 Observationally Stable 7/2-
150Sm 149.9172755 Observationally Stable 0+
152Sm 151.9197324 Observationally Stable 0+
154Sm 153.9222093 Observationally Stable 0+