Cobalt Elemental Symbol

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Cobalt Cobalt Cobalto Cobalto Cobalto Kobolt

Cobalt(Co) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCobalt is a Block D, Group 9, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of cobalt's shells is 2, 8, 15, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d7 4s2. Cobalt Bohr ModelThe cobalt atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7440-48-4, cobalt has a lustrous gray appearance. Cobalt is found in cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot and skutterudite ores, but is not found free in nature. Cobalt was first discovered by George Brandt in 1732. The origin of the word Cobalt comes from the German word 'Kobalt or Kobold' which translates as "goblin", "elf" or "evil spirit".Elemental Cobalt

Cobalt is often alloyed with iron, nickel and other metals to make Alnico, an alloy of unusual magnetic strength with many important uses. Samarium-cobalt, for instance, is one of the highest strength magnet alloys known. Cobalt compounds are used to produce a brilliant and permanent blue color in ceramic glazes, glass, pottery, tiles, and enamels. Co-60, a commercially important radioisotope, is useful as a radioactive tracer and gamma ray source. High Purity (99.999%) Cobalt (Co) Sputtering TargetCobalt is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Cobalt Oxide (Co3O4) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Cobalt nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Cobalt is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Toxicity of cobalt and its compounds are mild by skin contact and moderate by ingestion. Safety data for Cobalt and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Cobalt Properties

Symbol: Co Melting Point: 1495.0 °C (1768.15 K, 2723.0 °F)
Atomic Number: 27 Boiling Point: 2870.0 °C (3143.15 K, 5198.0 °F)
Atomic Weight: 58.9332 Density: 8.9 gm/cc
Element Category: Transition Metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 7.75 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 9, 4, d Specific Heat: 0.109 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 377 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 16.06 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 27 Thermal Conductivity: 1.0 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 27 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 13.0 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 32 Electrical Resistivity: 6.24 microhm-cm @ 20°C
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d74s2 Electronegativity: 1.8 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 125 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 126±3 (low spin), 150±7 (high spin) pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.81 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200 pm Young's Modulus: 209 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 75 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 180 GPa
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Poisson Ratio: 0.31
Magnetic Ordering: ferromagnetic Mohs Hardness: 5.0
1st Ionization Energy: 760.41 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 1043 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1648.27 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 700 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 3232.28 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 4720 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7440-48-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 20 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 94547 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 2 ppb
PubChem CID: 104730 Abundance in universe, by weight: 3000 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010935 Abundance in universe, by atom: 60 ppb
EC Number: 231-158-0 Discovered By: Georg Brandt
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1732
SMILES Identifier: [Co]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Co Other Names: Cobaltum, Cobalto, Kobalt, Kobolt

Cobalt Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Metal Forms

Cobalt Balls
Cobalt Bands
Cobalt Bar
Cobalt Bits
Cobalt Board
Cobalt Capsules
Cobalt Chunk
Cobalt Coil
Cobalt Coin
Cobalt Concentrate
Cobalt Crucibles
Cobalt Disc
Cobalt Dust
Cobalt Flake
Cobalt Flanges
Cobalt Foam
Cobalt Foil
Cobalt Fragments
Cobalt Grain
Cobalt Granules
Cobalt Honeycomb
Cobalt Ingot
Cobalt Iron
Cobalt Lump
Cobalt Mesh
Cobalt Metal
Cobalt Microfoil
Cobalt Microleaf
Cobalt Particles
Cobalt Parts
Cobalt Pebbles
Cobalt Pellets
Cobalt Pieces
Cobalt Pills
Cobalt Plate
Cobalt Powder
Cobalt Precipitate
Cobalt Puck
Cobalt Residue
Cobalt Ribbon
Cobalt Rings
Cobalt Rocks
Cobalt Rod
Cobalt Samples
Cobalt Scraps
Cobalt Segments
Cobalt Shaving
Cobalt Sheet
Cobalt Shot
Cobalt Sleeves
Cobalt Slug
Cobalt Specimens
Cobalt Spheres
Cobalt Sponge
Cobalt Spring
Cobalt Strip
Cobalt Tape
Cobalt Tube
Cobalt Wafer
Cobalt Wire
Cobalt Wool

Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Cobalt Sputtering Target
Cobalt Aluminate Sputtering Target
Cobalt Aluminum Sputtering Target
Cobalt Boron Sputtering Target
Cobalt Chromium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Cobalt Chromium Iron Sputtering Target
Cobalt Chromium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Chromium Tantalum Boron Sputtering Target
Cobalt Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Iron Boron Sputtering Target
Cobalt Iron Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Iron Sputtering Target
Cobalt Nickel Sputtering Target
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Phosphide Sputtering Target
Cobalt Rotatable Sputtering Target
Cobalt Selenide Sputtering Target
Cobalt Silicide Sputtering Target
Cobalt Sputtering Target
Cobalt Terbium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Tungsten Sputtering Target
Cobalt Vanadium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Zirconium Sputtering Target
Copper Cobalt Sputtering Target
Dysprosium Cobalt Sputtering Target
Dysprosium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite Sputtering Target (LSCF)
Nickel Cobalt Sputtering Target
Samarium Cobalt Sputtering Target
Terbium Gadolinium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Terbium Iron Cobalt Sputtering Target
Titanium Cobalt Sputtering Target
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Sputtering Target
Vanadium Cobalt Sputtering Target

Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Cobalt Arsenide CoAs
Cobalt Arsenide CoAs2
Cobalt Arsenide CoAs3
Cobalt Phosphide
Cobalt Selenide
Cobalt II Sulfide CoS
Cobalt IV Sulfide CoS2
Cobalt Telluride


Ammonium Cobalt Phosphate Anhydrous
Ammonium Cobalt Phosphate Monohydrate
Ammonium Cobalt(II) Sulfate Hexahydrate
Barium Tetrafluorocobaltate
Bismuth Cobalt Zinc Oxide
Calcium Cobalt Oxide
Cobalt Acetate
Cobalt Acetate Solution
Cobalt(II) Acetate Tetrahydrate
Cobalt(II) Aluminate
Cobalt Aluminide
Cobalt Antimonide
Cobalt bis(dihydrogen phosphate)
Cobalt Boride (CoB)
Cobalt Boride (Co2B)
Cobalt Boride (Co3B)
Cobalt Bromate
Cobalt Bromide
Cobalt Bromide, Ultra Dry
Cobalt(II) Bromide Hydrate
Cobalt Carbide
Cobalt Carbonate
Cobalt Carbonate, Basic
Cobalt Carbonate Hydrate
Cobalt Chloride
Cobalt(II) Chloride Hydrate
Cobalt(II) Chloride Hexahydrate
Cobalt Chloride, Ultra Dry
Cobalt Chloride Solution
Cobalt Chromate
Cobalt(II) Cyanide Dihydrate
Cobalt Ferrite
Cobalt Fluoride CoF2
Cobalt Fluoride CoF3
Cobalt(II) Fluoride Tetrahydrate
Cobalt Hydroxide
Cobalt Iodate
Cobalt Iodide
Cobalt Iodide, Ultra Dry
Cobalt Iron Oxide
Cobalt Iron Nickel Oxide
Cobalt Molybdate
Cobalt Nitrate
Cobalt Nitrate Hexahydrate
Cobalt Nitrate Solution
Cobalt Oxalate
Cobalt(II) Oxalate Dihydrate
Cobalt(II) Oxide CoO
Cobalt(II,III) Oxide Co3O4
Cobalt(III) Oxide Co2O3
Cobalt Perchlorate
Cobalt Perchlorate Hexahydrate
Cobalt Phosphate Hydrate
Cobalt Selenate
Cobalt Selenite
Cobalt Silicide
Cobalt(II) Sulfamate
Cobalt Sulfate
Cobalt Sulfate Heptahydrate
Cobalt(II) Sulfate Hydrate
Cobalt Sulfate Solution
Cobalt(II) Thiocyanate
Cobalt(II) Titanate
Cobalt(III) Titanate
Cobalt Tetrafluoroborate Hexahydrate
Cobalt Tungstate
Cobalt Zirconate
Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Chromite Paste
Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite
Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Chromite
Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite Paste
Lithium Cobalt Oxide
Lithium Cobalt Phosphate
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Electrode Sheet
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Oxide
Lithium Nickel Dioxide
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC)
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Electrode Sheet
Manganese Cobalt Oxide
Potassium Hexacyanocobaltate(III)
Samarium Strontium Cobalt Oxide
Sodium Hexanitritocobaltate(III)

Oxide Forms

Cobalt(II) Oxide Nanopowder
Cobalt(II,III) Oxide Nanopowder
Cobalt(III) Oxide Nanopowder
Cobalt Oxide Particles
Cobalt Oxide Pellets
Cobalt Oxide Pieces
Cobalt Oxide Powder
Cobalt Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Cobalt Oxide Shot
Cobalt Oxide Sputtering Target
Cobalt Oxide Tablets


Bismuth Cobalt Zinc Oxide Nanopowder
Chromium Cobalt Iron Nanoparticles
Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Nanopowder
Cobalt Iron Oxide Nanopowder
Cobalt Iron Nanopowder
Cobalt Iron Zinc Oxide Nanopowder
Cobalt Nanofoil
Cobalt Nanoparticles
Cobalt Nanorods
Cobalt Nanowires
Cobalt(II) Oxide Nanopowder
Cobalt(II,III) Oxide Nanopowder
Cobalt(III) Oxide Nanopowder
Iron Cobalt Nanopowder
Nickel Cobalt Chromium Nanoparticles
Nickel Cobalt Oxide Nanopowder
Samarium Strontium Cobalt Oxide Nanopowder

Organometallic Compounds

5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-21H,23H-porphine cobalt(II)
5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine Cobalt(II)
(Carbomethoxycyclopentadiene)(tetra phenylcyclobutadiene)cobalt(I)
[N,N'-Bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene) -1,2-phenylenediaminochromium-di-THF]tetracarbonylcobaltate
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt(III) hexafluorophosphate
Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)cobalt(III) hexafluorophosphate
Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)cobalt(III) hexafluorophosphate
Bis(salicylaldehyde)cobalt(II) dihydrate
Chloro(pyridine)bis(dimethylglyoximato) cobalt(III)
Cobalt(II) 1,2,3,4,8,9,10,11,15,16,17,18,22,23,24,25-hexadecafluoro-29H,31H-phthalocyanine
Cobalt 2-Ethylhexanoate
Cobalt(II) 2-Ethylhexanoate Solution
Cobalt Acetylacetonate
Cobalt(III) Acetylacetonate
Cobalt Benzoate
Cobalt(II) Benzoylacetonate
Cobalt(III) Chloropentammine Chloride
Cobalt Citrate
Cobalt Citrate Dihydrate
Cobalt Gluconate
Cobalt Glycinate
Cobalt Glycine
Cobalt(II) Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Hydrate
Cobalt Isopropoxide
Cobalt Naphthenate
Cobalt Octoate
Cobalt(II) Oxo Pivalate
Cobalt Potassium Citrate
Cobalt(III) Sepulchrate Trichloride
Cobalt Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Cobalt Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate)
Hexaminecobalt(III) Chloride
Cobalt Isopropoxide
Potassium Trioxalatocobaltate
trans-Dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) Chloride
trans-Dinitrobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) Nitrate
Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) Chloride Dihydrate
Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) Nitrate


Aluminum Cobalt Alloy
Aluminum Cobalt Yttrium Alloy
Aluminum Nickel Cobalt Alloy
Aluminum Nickel Cobalt Alloy Particles
Boron Cobalt Iron Alloy
Chromium Cobalt Metal
Chromium Cobalt Alloy
Chromium Cobalt Iron
Chromium Cobalt Nickel
Chromium Cobalt Platinum
Chromium Cobalt Platinum Tantalum
Chromium Cobalt Tantalum
Cobalt Aluminum Alloy
Cobalt Boron Silicon Iron Molybdenum Nickel Foil
Cobalt Chromium Alloy
Cobalt Chromium Metals Alloy Particles
Cobalt Chromium Nickel Iron Molybdenum Manganese
Cobalt Chromium Foam
Cobalt Chromium Aluminum Alloy
Cobalt Chromium Honeycomb
Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum Alloy
Cobalt Chromium Sponge
Cobalt Chromium Transition Metals Alloy Powder
Cobalt Chromium Tungsten Nickel Iron Manganese Foil
Cobalt Chromium Tungsten Nickel Manganese
Cobalt Chromium Wool
Cobalt Hafnium Niobium
Cobalt Iron Boron
Cobalt Iron Nickel
Cobalt Iron Niobium
Cobalt Iron Zirconium
Cobalt Magnesium Alloy
Cobalt Molybdenum Alloy
Cobalt Nickel
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Alloy
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Iron Molybdenum Tungsten Titanium
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Alloy
Cobalt Niobium Titanium Alloy
Cobalt Niobium Titanium Metal
Cobalt Niobium Zirconium Alloy
Cobalt Niobium Zirconium Metal
Cobalt Palladium Alloy
Cobalt Platinum Metal
Cobalt Platinum Alloy
Cobalt Rhodium Zirconium
Cobalt Silicon Boron Iron Nickel Foil
Cobalt Silicon Boron Manganese Foil
Cobalt Silicon Molybdenum Iron Boron Niobium Foil
Cobalt Tantalum Zirconium
Cobalt Titanium Alloy
Cobalt Tungsten Alloy
Copper Cobalt Alloy
Havar Alloy Foil
Iron Cobalt Vanadium Alloy
Lanthanum-Nickel-Cobalt Alloy
Nickel Chromium Aluminum Cobalt Alloy
Nickel Chromium Cobalt Alloy
Nickel Chromium Cobalt Molybdenum Titanium Aluminum Alloy
Nickel Chromium Cobalt Molybdenum Titanium Aluminum Iron Alloy
Nickel Cobalt Chromium Alloy
Platinum Cobalt on Carbon
Samarium Cobalt
Samarium Cobalt Powder
Titanium Cobalt Alloy
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Rod
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Sheet
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Spheres
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Tube
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Wire

Recent Research & Development for Cobalt

  • Hui Fan, Michael Keane, Prabhakar Singh, Minfang Han, Electrochemical performance and stability of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxygen electrode with gadolinia doped ceria barrier layer for reversible solid oxide fuel cell, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Panpan Xu, Ke Ye, Dianxue Cao, Jichun Huang, Tong Liu, Kui Cheng, Jinling Yin, Guiling Wang, Facile synthesis of cobalt manganese oxides nanowires on nickel foam with superior electrochemical performance, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Hee-Je Kim, Su-Weon Kim, Chandu V.V.M. Gopi, Soo-Kyoung Kim, S. Srinivasa Rao, Myeong-Soo Jeong, Improved performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells adopting a highly efficient cobalt sulfide/nickel sulfide composite thin film counter electrode, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Xuefei Gong, J.P. Cheng, Fu Liu, Li Zhang, Xiaobin Zhang, Nickel–Cobalt hydroxide microspheres electrodepositioned on nickel cobaltite nanowires grown on Ni foam for high-performance pseudocapacitors, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Pouyan Paknahad, Masoud Askari, Milad Ghorbanzadeh, Application of sol–gel technique to synthesis of copper–cobalt spinel on the ferritic stainless steel used for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 266, 15 November 2014
  • Alexander Schenk, Christoph Grimmer, Markus Perchthaler, Stephan Weinberger, Birgit Pichler, Christoph Heinzl, Christina Scheu, Franz-Andreas Mautner, Brigitte Bitschnau, Viktor Hacker, Platinum–cobalt catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells – Long term behavior under ex-situ and in-situ conditions, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 266, 15 November 2014
  • Yaoming Xiao, Wei-Yan Wang, Shu-Wei Chou, Tsung-Wu Lin, Jeng-Yu Lin, In situ electropolymerization of polyaniline/cobalt sulfide decorated carbon nanotube composite catalyst toward triiodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 266, 15 November 2014
  • Songying Liu, Ling Zhou, Liyuan Yao, Liya Chai, Li Li, Guo Zhang, Kankan, Keying Shi, One-pot reflux method synthesis of cobalt hydroxide nanoflake-reduced graphene oxide hybrid and their NOx gas sensors at room temperature, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 612, 5 November 2014
  • M.B. Lourenço, M.D. Carvalho, P. Fonseca, T. Gasche, G. Evans, M. Godinho, M.M. Cruz, Stability and magnetic properties of cobalt nitrides, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 612, 5 November 2014
  • Pankaj Kandwal, Prasanta Kumar Mohapatra, A highly efficient solvent system containing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide in NPOE—Dodecane mixture for effective transport of radio-cesium from acidic wastes, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 469, 1 November 2014
  • M.P. Popov, I.A. Starkov, S.F. Bychkov, A.P. Nemudry, Improvement of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-d functional properties by partial substitution of cobalt with tungsten, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 469, 1 November 2014
  • Murat Rakap, Hydrogen generation from the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane using electrolessly deposited cobalt–phosphorus as reusable and cost-effective catalyst, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 265, 1 November 2014
  • L. Ajroudi, N. Mliki, L. Bessais, V. Madigou, S. Villain, Ch. Leroux, Magnetic, electric and thermal properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 59, November 2014
  • R. Ramchandra Kiran, R.A. Mondal, Sandhya Dwevedi, G. Markandeyulu, Structural, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of Nb substituted Cobalt Ferrite, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 610, 15 October 2014
  • Jie Hou, Zhiwen Zhu, Jing Qian, Wei Liu, A new cobalt-free proton-blocking composite cathode La2NiO4+d–LaNi0.6Fe0.4O3-d for BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3-d-based solid oxide fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 264, 15 October 2014
  • Alamgir, Wasi Khan, Shabbir Ahmad, A.H. Naqvi, Formation of self-assembled spherical-flower like nanostructures of cobalt doped anatase TiO2 and its optical band-gap, Materials Letters, Volume 133, 15 October 2014
  • Mehdi Salehi, Mehdi Amirnasr, Soraia Meghdadi, Kurt Mereiter, Hamid R. Bijanzadeh, Ali Khaleghian, Synthesis, characterization, and X-ray crystal structure of cobalt(III) complexes with a N2O2-donor Schiff base and ancillary ligands. Spectral, antibacterial activity, and electrochemical studies, Polyhedron, Volume 81, 15 October 2014
  • T.L. Oliveira, L.H.G. Kalinke, E.J. Mascarenhas, R. Castro, F.T. Martins, J.R. Sabino, H.O. Stumpf, J. Ferrando, M. Julve, F. Lloret, D. Cangussu, Cobalt(II) and copper(II) assembling through a functionalized oxamate-type ligand, Polyhedron, Volume 81, 15 October 2014
  • Piotr Garczarek, Jan Janczak, Marek Duczmal, Jerzy Zon, The synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of two cobalt phosphonate salts, Polyhedron, Volume 81, 15 October 2014
  • Ankita Solanki, Sujit Baran Kumar, Syntheses and structural studies of cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) selenocyanate complexes with a tetradentate N4-donor ligand, Polyhedron, Volume 81, 15 October 2014

Cobalt Isotopes

Naturally occurring cobalt has 1 stable isotope: 59Co.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
59Co 58.9331950 Stable 7/2-