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About Neodymium

Neodymium Bohr

In 1841, Carl Gustav Mosander obtained a novel oxide from his experiments with rare-earth containing minerals. He believed this compound to be an oxide of a new rare earth element that he called didymium. This name was derived from the greek didymos, meaning twin, because Mosander felt it had very similar properties to the rare earth element he had previously discovered, lanthanum. Didymium was included as an element on an early version of Dmitri Mendeleev’s periodic table. Later experiments by Austrian chemist Carl Auer Welsbach in 1885 showed that Mosander’s oxide was actually a mixture of salts of two new elements, which were subsequently named praseodymium and neodymium. “Dymium” was retained from the original name, and “neo” simply means “new”.

Neodymium magnets, made from an alloy of neodymium, iron, and boron, are the strongest known permanent magnets. They are essential for many modern electronics, including microphones, speakers, hard disks, and electric motors. The vast majority of neodymium's commercial use isin production of these high-strength magnets.

In most other applications of neodymium, it is added in small amounts to alter the properties of a host material. Neodymium oxide is used as a colorant to produce glass that varies in shade depending on what type of lighting it is viewed in, a property valued by collectors. The color change phenomenon results from the sharp absorption bands of light transmitted through neodymium glasses, a feature that makes the same glass useful for photography filters and in scientific settings. Additionally, neodymium is used in combination with praseodymium to produce glass for safety goggles that block the high intensity yellow light and ultraviolet and infrared light produced during welding or glass blowing. Neodymium is also an important component of a variety of gain media used in lasers operating at infrared wavelengths. Yttrium aluminum garnet, yttrium lithium fluoride, and yttrium orthovanadate crystals can all be neodymium doped for this purpose. Commercially available laser pointers generally use neodymium doped crystals to produce infrared light that is converted to green light. Additionally, neodymium glass can itself be a laser gain medium and is particularly useful in extremely high power lasers.

Neodymium is one of the light rare earths, and is typically sourced, along with other elements from that group, from the minerals monazite and bastnasite.

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Elemental NeodymiumSummary. Primary applications include lasers, glass coloring and tinting, dielectrics and, most importantly, as the fundamental basis for neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets. Neodymium has a strong absorption band centered at 580 nm, which is very close to the human eye's maximum level of sensitivity, making it useful in protective lenses for welding goggles. It is also used in CRT displays to enhance contrast between reds and greens and highly valued in glass manufacturing for its attractive purple coloring. High Purity (99.999%) Neodymium Oxide (Nd2O3) PowderNeodymium is included in many formulations of barium titanate, used as dielectric coatings and in multi-layer capacitors essential to electronic equipment. Neodymium is available as metal and High Purity (99.999%) Neodymium (Nd) Sputtering Targetcompounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Neodymium oxide is available in powder and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Neodymium fluoride is another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Neodymium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Neodymium Properties

Neodymium (Nd) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolNeodymium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Neodymium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Neodymium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f4 6s2. The neodymium atom has a radius of 181.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 229.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-00-8, neodymium has a silvery-white appearance. Neodymium is the most abundant of the rare earths after cerium and lanthanum. Neodymium is found in monazite and bastnäsite ores. Neodymium was first discovered by Carl Aer von Welsbach in 1885. The name originates from the Greek words ‘neos didymos’, meaning new twin.

Symbol: Nd
Atomic Number: 60
Atomic Weight: 144.2
Element Category: Lanthanide
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f
Color: silvery-white/ silvery white, yellowish tinge
Other Names: Néodyme, Neodym, Neodimio
Melting Point: 1016°C,1860.8°F,1289.15 K
Boiling Point: 3074°C, 5565.2°F, 3347.15 K
Density: 7.01 g·cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.89 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 7.0 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 6800 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.049 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 7.113
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 328
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 328.57
Thermal Conductivity: 0.165 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Thermal Expansion: 6.89 g·cm3
Electrical Resistivity: 64.0 µΩ-cm @ 25°C
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 27.45 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: (form) 41.4 GPa
Shear Modulus: (form) 16.3 GPa
Bulk Modulus: ( form) 31.8 GPa
Poisson Ratio: ( form) 0.281
Mohs Hardness: N/AQ
Vickers Hardness: 343 MPa
Brinell Hardness: 265 MPa
Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2330 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.14
Sanderson Electronegativity: N/A
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.07
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.86
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 60
Protons: 60
Neutrons: 84
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f4 6s2
Atomic Radius: 181 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
2.39
Covalent Radius: 201±6 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.88
Van der Waals Radius: 229 pm
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: hexagonal
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) Unknown
1st Ionization Energy: 533.09 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1035.30 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2132.34 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-00-8
EC Number: 231-109-3
MDL Number: MFCD00011130
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Nd]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Nd
InChI Key: QEFYFXOXNSNQGX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
PubChem CID: 23934
ChemSpider ID: 22376
Earth - Total: 690 ppb 
Mercury - Total: 530 ppb
Venus - Total: 723 ppb 
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 0.0028
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.00012
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 33000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 4800
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 3
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 0.02
Stream, ppb by weight: 0.2
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.001
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 510
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 70
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 10
Universe, ppb by atom: 0.09
Discovered By: Carl Auer von Welsbach
Discovery Date: 1885
First Isolation: N/A

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Neodymium

Safety data for Neodymium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Neodymium.

Safety Data
Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H260-H315-H319-H335
Hazard Codes F,Xi
Risk Codes 11-14/15-36/37/3
Safety Precautions 16-26-33-36/37/39-43
RTECS Number QO8575000
Transport Information UN 3208 4.3/PG
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Flame-Flammables

Neodymium Isotopes

Neodymium has five stable isotopes: 142Nd, 143Nd, 145Nd, 146Nd and 148Nd.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
124Nd 123.95223(64)# 500# ms Unknown 0+ N/A 981.02 -
125Nd 124.94888(43)# 600(150) ms Unknown 5/2(+#) N/A 998.41 -
126Nd 125.94322(43)# 1# s [>200 ns] β+ to 126Pr 0+ N/A 1006.49 -
127Nd 126.94050(43)# 1.8(4) s β+ to 127Pr 5/2+# N/A 1014.57 -
128Nd 127.93539(21)# 5# s β+ to 128Pr 0+ N/A 1031.97 -
129Nd 128.93319(22)# 4.9(2) s β+ to 129Pr 5/2+# N/A 1040.04 -
130Nd 129.92851(3) 21(3) s β+ to 130Pr 0+ N/A 1057.44 -
131Nd 130.92725(3) 33(3) s β+ to 131Pr (5/2)(+#) N/A 1065.52 -
132Nd 131.923321(26) 1.56(10) min β+ to 132Pr 0+ N/A 1073.6 -
133Nd 132.92235(5) 70(10) s β+ to 133Pr (7/2+) N/A 1081.67 -
134Nd 133.918790(13) 8.5(15) min β+ to 134Pr 0+ N/A 1099.07 -
135Nd 134.918181(21) 12.4(6) min β+ to 135Pr 9/2(-) N/A 1107.15 -
136Nd 135.914976(13) 50.65(33) min β+ to 136Pr 0+ N/A 1115.23 -
137Nd 136.914567(12) 38.5(15) min β+ to 137Pr 1/2+ N/A 1123.31 -
138Nd 137.911950(13) 5.04(9) h EC to 138Pr 0+ N/A 1131.38 -
139Nd 138.911978(28) 29.7(5) min EC to 139Pr 3/2+ N/A 1139.46 -
140Nd 139.90955(3) 3.37(2) d EC to 140Pr 0+ N/A 1156.86 -
141Nd 140.909610(4) 2.49(3) h EC to 141Pr 3/2+ 1.01 1164.94 -
142Nd 141.9077233(25) STABLE - 0+ N/A 1173.02 27.2
143Nd 142.9098143(25) Observationally Stable - 7/2- -1.065 1181.09 12.2
144Nd 143.9100873(25) 2.29(16)E+15 y α to 140Ce 0+ N/A 1179.86 23.8
145Nd 144.9125736(25) Observationally Stable - 7/2- -0.656 1187.94 8.3
146Nd 145.9131169(25) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 1196.01 17.2
147Nd 146.9161004(25) 10.98(1) d β- to 147Pm 5/2- 0.58 1204.09 -
148Nd 147.916893(3) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 1212.17 5.7
149Nd 148.920149(3) 1.728(1) h β- to 149Pm 5/2- 0.35 1210.93 -
150Nd 149.920891(3) 6.7(7)E+18 y - to 150Sm 0+ N/A 1219.01 5.6
151Nd 150.923829(3) 12.44(7) min β- to 151Pm 3/2+ N/A 1227.09 -
152Nd 151.924682(26) 11.4(2) min β- to 152Pm 0+ N/A 1235.17 -
153Nd 152.927698(29) 31.6(10) s β- to 153Pm (3/2)- N/A 1243.25 -
154Nd 153.92948(12) 25.9(2) s β- to 154Pm 0+ N/A 1251.33 -
155Nd 154.93293(16)# 8.9(2) s β- to 155Pm 3/2-# N/A 1250.09 -
156Nd 155.93502(22) 5.49(7) s β- to 156Pm 0+ N/A 1258.17 -
157Nd 156.93903(21)# 2# s [>300 ns] β- to 157Pm 5/2-# N/A 1266.25 -
158Nd 157.94160(43)# 700# ms [>300 ns] β- to 158Pm 0+ N/A 1265.01 -
159Nd 158.94609(54)# 500# ms β- to 159Pm 7/2+# N/A 1273.09 -
160Nd 159.94909(64)# 300# ms β- to 160Pm 0+ N/A 1281.17 -
161Nd 160.95388(75)# 200# ms β- to 161Pm 1/2-# N/A 1279.93 -
Neodymium Elemental Symbol

Recent Research & Development for Neodymium

  • Tao Wei, Ying Tian, Cong Tian, Xufeng Jing, Muzhi Cai, Junjie Zhang, Long Zhang, Shiqing Xu, Comprehensive evaluation of the structural, absorption, energy transfer, luminescent properties and near-infrared applications of the neodymium doped germanate glass, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 618, 5 January 2015
  • E. Gasnier, I. Bardez-Giboire, V. Montouillout, N. Pellerin, M. Allix, N. Massoni, S. Ory, M. Cabie, S. Poissonnet, D. Massiot, Homogeneity of peraluminous SiO2–B2O3–Al2O3–Na2O–CaO–Nd2O3 glasses: Effect of neodymium content, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 405, 1 December 2014
  • Shanjun Ke, Yanmin Wang, Zhidong Pan, Effect of lithium chloride on crystallization process of neodymium disilicate, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 9, Part A, November 2014
  • H. Zaari, M. Boujnah, A.G. El hachimi, A. Benyoussef, A. El Kenz, Electronic structure and X-ray magnetic circular dichroic of Neodymium doped ZnTe using the GGA + U approximation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 93, October 2014
  • Elmar Willbold, Xuenan Gu, Devon Albert, Katharina Kalla, Katharina Bobe, Maria Brauneis, Carla Janning, Jens Nellesen, Wolfgang Czayka, Wolfgang Tillmann, Yufeng Zheng, Frank Witte, Effect of the addition of low rare earth elements (lanthanum, neodymium, cerium) on the biodegradation and biocompatibility of magnesium, Acta Biomaterialia, Available online 30 September 2014
  • Barbara Skołyszewska-Kühberger, Thomas L. Reichmann, Herbert Ipser, Phase equilibria in the neodymium–cadmium binary system, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 606, 5 September 2014
  • Xiongwei LI, Mei LI, Mitang WANG, Zhaogang LIU, Yanhong HU, Junhu TIAN, Effects of neodymium and gadolinium on weathering resistance of ZnO-B2O3-SiO2 glass, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 9, September 2014
  • Allison M. Latshaw, Mark D. Smith, Hans-Conrad zur Loye, Crystal growth and structure of three new neodymium containing silicates: Na0.50Nd4.50(SiO4)3O, Na0.63Nd4.37(SiO4)3O0.74F0.26 and Na4.74Nd4.26(O0.52F0.48)[SiO4]4, Solid State Sciences, Volume 35, September 2014
  • Guicheng Jiang, Xiantao Wei, Shaoshuai Zhou, Yonghu Chen, Changkui Duan, Min Yin, Neodymium doped lanthanum oxysulfide as optical temperature sensors, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 152, August 2014
  • Elisha A. Josepha, Sara Farooq, Cinnamon M. Mitchell, John B. Wiley, Synthesis and thermal stability studies of a series of metastable Dion–Jacobson double-layered neodymium-niobate perovskites, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 216, August 2014