Palladium Elemental Symbol
Palladium



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Palladium Palladium Palladio Palladium Palladium Palladium

Palladium(Pd) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolPalladium is a Block D, Group 10, Period 5 element. Palladium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of palladium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d10. The palladium atom has a radius of 137.6.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 163.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-05-3, palladium has a silvery white appearance. Elemental PalladiumPalladium is a member of the platinum group of metals (along with platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium). Palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of the group. Palladium can be found as a free metal alloyed with other platinum-group metals. Nickel-copper deposits are the main commercial source of palladium. Palladium was first discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in 1803.


Palladium is frequently alloyed with gold, silver, iridium and other platinum group elements for use in jewelry. The metal is used in surgical instruments and electrical contacts. Palladium is also an excellent hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalyst and is available in many Organo-metallic forms for this purpose. High Purity (99.999%) Palladium Oxide (PdO) PowderPalladium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Palladium (Pd) Sputtering Target Palladium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Palladium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Safety data for Palladium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Palladium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Pd Melting Point: 1828.05 K, 1554.9 °C, 2830.82 °F
Atomic Number: 46 Boiling Point: 3236 K, 2963 °C, 5365 °F
Atomic Weight: 106.42 Density: 12.023 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 10.38 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 10, 5, d Specific Heat: 0.24 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 147.7 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.6 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 46 Thermal Conductivity: 71.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 46 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 11.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 60 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 105.4 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 Electronegativity: 2.20 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 137 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 139±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.98 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 163 pm Young's Modulus: 121 GPa
Oxidation States: 0, +1, +2, +4, +6 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 44 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 180 GPa
Crystal Structure: face-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.39
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 4.75
1st Ionization Energy: 520.23 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 461 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 7298.22 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 310 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 11815.13 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 3070 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-05-3 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22380 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23938 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00011167 Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: 231-115-6 Discovered By: William Hyde Wollaston
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1803
SMILES Identifier: [Pd]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pd Other Names: Palladio
InChI Key: KDLHZDBZIXYQEI-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Palladium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Compounds

Ammonium Chloropalladate
Ammonium Chloropalladite
Ammonium Hexachloropalladate(IV)
Ammonium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Diamminepalladium(II) Nitrite solution
Dichlorodiammine Palladium
Lindlar Catalyst
Lithium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Palladium Acetate
Palladium Acetate Solution
Palladium Bromide
Palladium Carbide
Palladium Chloride
Palladium(II) Cyanide
Palladium Dichloride
Palladium Chloride Solution
Palladium Fluoride
Palladium Hydroxide
Palladium Iodide
Palladium Nitrate
Palladium(II) Nitrate Dihydrate
Palladium Oxide
Palladium(II) Potassium Thiosulfate Monohydrate
Palladium Sulfate
Palladium Sulfate Solution
Palladium Trans-Dichlorodiammine
Palladium(II) Trifluoroacetate
Palladium on Barium Carbonate
Palladium on Barium Sulfate
Palladium on Calcium Carbonate
Palladium on Calcium Carbonate, Poisoned with Lead
Palladium on Strontium Carbonate
Potassium Chloropalladate
Potassium Chloropalladite
Potassium Dinitrosulfatopalladate(II) Solution
Potassium Disulfitopalladate(II)
Potassium Hexachloropalladate(IV)
Potassium Tetrabromopalladate(II)
Potassium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Potassium Tetracyanopalladate(II) Hydrate
Potassium Tetranitropalladate(II)
Sodium Hexachloropalladate(IV) Hydrate
Sodium Tetrabromopalladate(II)
Sodium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Sodium Tetrachloropalladate(II) Hydrate
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Bromide
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Chloride Monohydrate
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Dichloride
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Nitrate Solution
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Tetrachloropalladate(II)
trans-Diamminedichloropalladium(II)


Alloys

Chromium Manganese Palladium Alloy
Chromium Manganese Palladium Metal
Cobalt Palladium Alloy
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Particles
Gold/Palladium Foil
Gold/Palladium Tube
Gold/Palladium Wire
Gold/Platinum/Palladium Powder
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Powder
Manganese Palladium Platinum
Palladium Chromium Foil
Palladium Copper Foil
Palladium Silver Foil
Palladium Silver Silicon Alloy
Platinum Palladium Gold Alloy
Platinum/Palladium/Gold Paste
Silver Palladium Foil
Silver/Palladium/Platinum Paste
Titanium Palladium Alloy
Titanium Palladium Foil


Sputtering Targets

Gold Palladium Sputtering Target
Palladium Oxide Sputtering Target
Palladium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Palladium Selenide Sputtering Target
Palladium Sputtering Target
Palladium Telluride Sputtering Target
Platinum Palladium Sputtering Target


Isotopes

Palladium 102 Metal Isotope
Palladium 104 Metal Isotope
Palladium 105 Metal Isotope
Palladium 108 Metal Isotope
Organometallic Compounds

(1,3-Bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium(II) Chloride
([2S,3S]-Bis[Diphenylphosphino]butane) (?3-allyl) palladium(II) Perchlorate
1,1'-Bis(di-cyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene Palladium Dichloride
1,1'-Bis(di-isopropylphosphino)ferrocene Palladium Dichloride
1,1'-Bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)ferrocene Palladium Dichloride
1,2-Bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane palladium(II) Acetate
1,3-Bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (1,4-naphthoquinone)palladium(0) Dimer
1,3-Bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene(1,4-naphthoquinone)palladium(0) Dimer
1,4-Bis(diphenylphosphino)butane-palladium(II) Chloride
2'-(Dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl-palladium(II) Chloride Dinorbornylphosphine Complex
2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine Palladium(II)
2-(2'-Di-tert-butylphosphine)biphenylpalladium(II) Acetate
2-(Dimethylaminomethyl)ferrocen-1-yl-palladium(II) Chloride Dinorbornylphosphine Complex
2-[Bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenoxy)phosphinooxy]-3,5-di(tert-butyl)phenyl-palladium(II) Chloride Dimer
2-[Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)bromide]benzyl Alcohol
5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-21H,23H-porphine Palladium(II)
5-(Di-tert-butylphosphino)-1', 3', 5'-triphenyl-1'H-[1,4']bipyrazole
Allylpalladium(II) Chloride Dimer
Allyl[1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]palladium(II) Chloride
Allyl[1,3-bis(mesityl)imidazol-2-ylidene]palladium Chloride
Bis(acetonitrile)dichloropalladium(II)
Bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium
Bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium(0)
Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) Diacetate
Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]palladium
Bis[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]palladium(0)
Bis(ethylenediamine)palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[tris(3-(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl)phenyl)phosphine]palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[tris(3-(heptadecafluoro octyl)phenyl)phosphine] palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[tris(4-(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl)phenyl)phosphine]palladium(II) Dichloride
Bromo(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium(I) Dimer
Bromo[(2-(hydroxy-?O)methyl)phenylmethyl-C](triphenylphosphine)palladium
Di-μ-chlorobis[5-chloro-2-[(4-chlorophenyl)(hydroxyimino-κN)
methyl]phenyl-κC]palladium dimerr

Di-μ-chloro-bis-[5-hydroxy-2-[1-(hydroxyimino-κN)-ethyl]-phenyl-κC]-palladium(II) dimer
Dichloro(1,10-phenanthroline)palladium(II)
Dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)palladium(II)
Dichloro(ethylenediamine)palladium(II)
Dichloro(N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine)palladium(II)
Dichloro-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethanepalladium(II)
Dichlorobis(methyldiphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
Dichlorobis(tricyclohexylphosphine)palladium(II)
meso-Tetraphenyl-tetrabenzoporphine Palladium Complex
Palladium(II) Benzoate
Palladium(II) 2,4-pentanedionate
Palladium(II)[1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane]-bis(benzonitrile)-bis-tetrafluoroborate
Palladium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Palladium Acetylacetonate
Palladium(II) Hexafluoroacetylacetonate
Palladium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Palladium Oxalate
Palladium(II) Propionate
Tetrakis(acetonitrile)palladium(II) Tetrafluoroborate
Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium
trans-Benzyl(chloro)bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Bis(benzonitrile)dichloropalladium(II)
trans-Bis(dicyclohexylamine)bis(acetato)palladium(II)
trans-Bromo(N-succinimidyl)bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Dibromobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Dichlorobis(triethylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium
Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium Chloroform Complex
[(R)-(+)-2,2'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl]palladium(II) Chloride
[1,2,3,4-Tetrakis(methoxycarbonyl)-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl]palladium(II)


Oxide Forms

Palladium Oxide Nanopowder
Palladium Oxide Pellets
Palladium Oxide Pieces
Palladium Oxide Powder
Palladium Oxide Shot
Palladium Oxide Sputtering Target
Palladium Oxide Tablets


Recent Research & Development for Palladium

  • Koodlur Sannegowda Lokesh, Annemie Adriaens, Electropolymerization of palladium tetraaminephthalocyanine: Characterization and supercapacitance behavior, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 112, January 2015
  • Jindi Cai, Yanzhen Zeng, Yonglang Guo, Copper@palladium–copper core–shell nanospheres as a highly effective electrocatalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 270, 15 December 2014
  • Jing-Jing Lv, Shan-Shan Li, Ai-Jun Wang, Li-Ping Mei, Jiu-Ju Feng, Jian-Rong Chen, Zhaojiang Chen, One-pot synthesis of monodisperse palladium–copper nanocrystals supported on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with improved catalytic activity and methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 269, 10 December 2014
  • Jing-Jing Lv, Jie-Ning Zheng, Hong-Bao Zhang, Meng Lin, Ai-Jun Wang, Jian-Rong Chen, Jiu-Ju Feng, Simple synthesis of platinum–palladium nanoflowers on reduced graphene oxide and their enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 269, 10 December 2014
  • Mingjun Ren, Liangliang Zou, Ting Yuan, Qinghong Huang, Zhiqing Zou, Xuemei Li, Hui Yang, Novel palladium flower-like nanostructured networks for electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • David B. Hobart Jr., Michael A.G. Berg, Joseph S. Merola, Bis-glycinato complexes of palladium(II): Synthesis, structural determination, and hydrogen bonding interactions, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 423, Part A, 1 November 2014
  • Suman Roy, Rajat Saha, Tapan Kumar Mondal, Chittaranjan Sinha, Palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes of N-{(2-pyridyl)methyliden}-6-coumarin and N-{(2-hydroxy)benzyliden}-6-coumarin, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 423, Part A, 1 November 2014
  • Jing-Jing Lv, Jie-Ning Zheng, Ying-Ying Wang, Ai-Jun Wang, Li-Li Chen, Jiu-Ju Feng, A simple one-pot strategy to platinum–palladium@palladium core–shell nanostructures with high electrocatalytic activity, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 265, 1 November 2014
  • Peiyu Wang, Guoheng Zhang, Liwei Liu, Haiyan Jiao, Xiaoyan Deng, Xiaoping Zheng, Palladium supported on mesoporous silica via an in-situ method as an efficient catalyst for Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reactions, Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 59, November 2014
  • Ali Riza Deniz, Zakir Çaldiran, Önder Metin, Hasan Can, Kadem Meral, Sakir Aydogan, Schottky diode performance of an Au/Pd/GaAs device fabricated by deposition of monodisperse palladium nanoparticles over a p-type GaAs substrate, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • Harrison S. Kibombo, Vagulejan Balasanthiran, Chia-Ming Wu, Rui Peng, Ranjit T. Koodali, Exploration of room temperature synthesis of palladium containing cubic MCM-48 mesoporous materials, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 198, 1 November 2014
  • Christopher G. Jones, Patrick J. Cappillino, Vitalie Stavila, David B. Robinson, Control of both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium alloy powders, Powder Technology, Volume 267, November 2014
  • Tim Boeltken, Dennis Soysal, Seungcheol Lee, Grazyna Straczewski, Uta Gerhards, Peter Peifer, Johannes Arnold, Roland Dittmeyer, Perspectives of suspension plasma spraying of palladium nanoparticles for preparation of thin palladium composite membranes, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 468, 15 October 2014
  • Ganna Gogolieva, Jérôme Durand, Odile Dechy-Cabaret, Emmanuel Gras, Uncommon approach toward NHC–triazole complexes of palladium: Synthesis and applications, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Volume 769, 15 October 2014
  • Sevil Irisli, Merve Karaman, Nilgün Arda, Bircan Dindar, Orhan Büyükgüngör, Palladium and platinum complexes of the new ligands containing P–N and P–O bonds, Polyhedron, Volume 81, 15 October 2014
  • Abbas Washeel Salman, Ghani Ur Rehman, Norbani Abdullah, Srinivasa Budagumpi, Salasiah Endud, Hassan Hadi Abdallah, Wen Yee Wong, Sterically modulated palladium(II)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes for the catalytic oxidation of olefins: Synthesis, crystal structure, characterization and DFT studies, Polyhedron, Volume 81, 15 October 2014
  • Cassandra L. Fleming, Trent D. Ashton, Frederick M. Pfeffer, Synthesis of 4-amino substituted 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives using palladium-mediated amination, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 109, October 2014
  • Cheng-Shane Chu, Chih-Yung Chuang, Highly sensitive fiber-optic oxygen sensor based on palladium tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin doped in ormosil, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • Xiang Liu, Xiaohua Zhao, Ming Lu, Novel polymer supported iminopyridylphosphine palladium (?) complexes: An efficient catalyst for Suzuki–Miyaura and Heck cross-coupling reactions, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Volume 768, 1 October 2014
  • Gesa Beck, Christoph Bachmann, Microstructural changes due to anodic polarisation of palladium and silver films on YSZ, Solid State Ionics, Volume 263, 1 October 2014

Palladium Isotopes


Naturally occurring palladium (Pd) has six stable isotopes: 102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 108Pd, and 110Pd.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
102Pd 101.905609 Observationally Stable 0+
104Pd 103.904036 Stable 0+
105Pd 104.905085 Stable 5/2+
106Pd 105.903486 Stable 0+
108Pd 107.903892 Stable 0+
110Pd 109.905153 Observationally Stable 0+