Palladium Elemental Symbol
Palladium



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Palladium Palladium Palladio Palladium Palladium Palladium

Palladium(Pd) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolPalladium is a Block D, Group 10, Period 5 element. Palladium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of palladium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d10. The palladium atom has a radius of 137.6.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 163.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-05-3, palladium has a silvery white appearance. Elemental PalladiumPalladium is a member of the platinum group of metals (along with platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium). Palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of the group. Palladium can be found as a free metal alloyed with other platinum-group metals. Nickel-copper deposits are the main commercial source of palladium. Palladium was first discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in 1803.


Palladium is frequently alloyed with gold, silver, iridium and other platinum group elements for use in jewelry. The metal is used in surgical instruments and electrical contacts. Palladium is also an excellent hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalyst and is available in many Organo-metallic forms for this purpose. High Purity (99.999%) Palladium Oxide (PdO) PowderPalladium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Palladium (Pd) Sputtering Target Palladium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Palladium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Safety data for Palladium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Palladium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Pd Melting Point: 1828.05 K, 1554.9 °C, 2830.82 °F
Atomic Number: 46 Boiling Point: 3236 K, 2963 °C, 5365 °F
Atomic Weight: 106.42 Density: 12.023 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 10.38 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 10, 5, d Specific Heat: 0.24 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 147.7 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.6 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 46 Thermal Conductivity: 71.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 46 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 11.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 60 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 105.4 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 Electronegativity: 2.20 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 137 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 139±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.98 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 163 pm Young's Modulus: 121 GPa
Oxidation States: 0, +1, +2, +4, +6 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 44 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 180 GPa
Crystal Structure: face-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.39
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 4.75
1st Ionization Energy: 520.23 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 461 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 7298.22 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 310 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 11815.13 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 3070 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-05-3 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22380 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23938 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00011167 Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: 231-115-6 Discovered By: William Hyde Wollaston
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1803
SMILES Identifier: [Pd]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pd Other Names: Palladio
InChI Key: KDLHZDBZIXYQEI-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Palladium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Compounds

Ammonium Chloropalladate
Ammonium Chloropalladite
Ammonium Hexachloropalladate(IV)
Ammonium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Diamminepalladium(II) Nitrite solution
Dichlorodiammine Palladium
Lithium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Palladium Acetate
Palladium Acetate Solution
Palladium Bromide
Palladium Carbide
Palladium Chloride
Palladium(II) Cyanide
Palladium Dichloride
Palladium Chloride Solution
Palladium Fluoride
Palladium Hydroxide
Palladium Iodide
Palladium Nitrate
Palladium(II) Nitrate Dihydrate
Palladium Oxide
Palladium(II) Potassium Thiosulfate Monohydrate
Palladium Sulfate
Palladium Sulfate Solution
Palladium Trans-Dichlorodiammine
Palladium(II) Trifluoroacetate
Potassium Chloropalladate
Potassium Chloropalladite
Potassium Dinitrosulfatopalladate(II) Solution
Potassium Disulfitopalladate(II)
Potassium Hexachloropalladate(IV)
Potassium Tetrabromopalladate(II)
Potassium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Potassium Tetracyanopalladate(II) Hydrate
Potassium Tetranitropalladate(II)
Sodium Hexachloropalladate(IV) Hydrate
Sodium Tetrabromopalladate(II)
Sodium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Sodium Tetrachloropalladate(II) Hydrate
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Bromide
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Chloride Monohydrate
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Dichloride
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Nitrate Solution
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Tetrachloropalladate(II)
trans-Diamminedichloropalladium(II)


Alloys

Chromium Manganese Palladium Alloy
Chromium Manganese Palladium Metal
Cobalt Palladium Alloy
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Particles
Gold/Palladium Foil
Gold/Palladium Tube
Gold/Palladium Wire
Gold/Platinum/Palladium Powder
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Powder
Manganese Palladium Platinum
Palladium Chromium Foil
Palladium Copper Foil
Palladium Silver Foil
Palladium Silver Silicon Alloy
Platinum Palladium Gold Alloy
Platinum/Palladium/Gold Paste
Silver Palladium Foil
Silver/Palladium/Platinum Paste
Titanium Palladium Alloy
Titanium Palladium Foil


Sputtering Targets

Gold Palladium Sputtering Target
Palladium Oxide Sputtering Target
Palladium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Palladium Selenide Sputtering Target
Palladium Sputtering Target
Palladium Telluride Sputtering Target
Platinum Palladium Sputtering Target


Isotopes

Palladium 102 Metal Isotope
Palladium 104 Metal Isotope
Palladium 105 Metal Isotope
Palladium 108 Metal Isotope
Organometallic Compounds

(1,3-Bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium(II) Chloride
([2S,3S]-Bis[Diphenylphosphino]butane) (?3-allyl) palladium(II) Perchlorate
1,1'-Bis(di-cyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene Palladium Dichloride
1,1'-Bis(di-isopropylphosphino)ferrocene Palladium Dichloride
1,1'-Bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)ferrocene Palladium Dichloride
1,2-Bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane palladium(II) Acetate
1,3-Bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (1,4-naphthoquinone)palladium(0) Dimer
1,3-Bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene(1,4-naphthoquinone)palladium(0) Dimer
1,4-Bis(diphenylphosphino)butane-palladium(II) Chloride
2'-(Dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl-palladium(II) Chloride Dinorbornylphosphine Complex
2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine Palladium(II)
2-(2'-Di-tert-butylphosphine)biphenylpalladium(II) Acetate
2-(Dimethylaminomethyl)ferrocen-1-yl-palladium(II) Chloride Dinorbornylphosphine Complex
2-[Bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenoxy)phosphinooxy]-3,5-di(tert-butyl)phenyl-palladium(II) Chloride Dimer
2-[Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)bromide]benzyl Alcohol
5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-21H,23H-porphine Palladium(II)
5-(Di-tert-butylphosphino)-1', 3', 5'-triphenyl-1'H-[1,4']bipyrazole
Allylpalladium(II) Chloride Dimer
Allyl[1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]palladium(II) Chloride
Allyl[1,3-bis(mesityl)imidazol-2-ylidene]palladium Chloride
Bis(acetonitrile)dichloropalladium(II)
Bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium
Bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium(0)
Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) Diacetate
Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]palladium
Bis[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]palladium(0)
Bis(ethylenediamine)palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[tris(3-(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl)phenyl)phosphine]palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[tris(3-(heptadecafluoro octyl)phenyl)phosphine] palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[tris(4-(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl)phenyl)phosphine]palladium(II) Dichloride
Bromo(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium(I) Dimer
Bromo[(2-(hydroxy-?O)methyl)phenylmethyl-C](triphenylphosphine)palladium
Di-μ-chlorobis[5-chloro-2-[(4-chlorophenyl)(hydroxyimino-κN)
methyl]phenyl-κC]palladium dimerr

Di-μ-chloro-bis-[5-hydroxy-2-[1-(hydroxyimino-κN)-ethyl]-phenyl-κC]-palladium(II) dimer
Dichloro(1,10-phenanthroline)palladium(II)
Dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)palladium(II)
Dichloro(ethylenediamine)palladium(II)
Dichloro(N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine)palladium(II)
Dichloro-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethanepalladium(II)
Dichlorobis(methyldiphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
Dichlorobis(tricyclohexylphosphine)palladium(II) meso-Tetraphenyl-tetrabenzoporphine Palladium Complex
Palladium(II) Benzoate
Palladium(II) 2,4-pentanedionate
Palladium(II)[1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane]-bis(benzonitrile)-bis-tetrafluoroborate
Palladium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Palladium Acetylacetonate
Palladium(II) Hexafluoroacetylacetonate
Palladium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Palladium Oxalate
Palladium(II) Propionate
Tetrakis(acetonitrile)palladium(II) Tetrafluoroborate
Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium
trans-Benzyl(chloro)bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Bis(benzonitrile)dichloropalladium(II)
trans-Bis(dicyclohexylamine)bis(acetato)palladium(II)
trans-Bromo(N-succinimidyl)bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Dibromobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Dichlorobis(triethylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium
Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium Chloroform Complex
[(R)-(+)-2,2'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl]palladium(II) Chloride
[1,2,3,4-Tetrakis(methoxycarbonyl)-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl]palladium(II)


Oxide Forms

Palladium Oxide Nanopowder
Palladium Oxide Pellets
Palladium Oxide Pieces
Palladium Oxide Powder
Palladium Oxide Shot
Palladium Oxide Sputtering Target
Palladium Oxide Tablets


Recent Research & Development for Palladium

  • Light-responsive three-dimensional microstructures composed of azobenzene-based palladium complexes. Han M, Hirade T, Okui Y. Dalton Trans. 2014.
  • DNAzyme-functionalized gold-palladium hybrid nanostructures for triple signal amplification of impedimetric immunosensor. Hou L, Gao Z, Xu M, Cao X, Wu X, Chen G, Tang D. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014.
  • Palladium-catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling of benzothiazoles with thiophenes and thiazoles. Chen X, Huang X, He Q, Xie Y, Yang C. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014.
  • Facile synthesis of 2-arylmethylindoles and 2-vinylic indoles through palladium-catalyzed heteroannulations of 2-(2-propynyl)aniline and 2-(2-propynyl)tosylanilide. Das B, Kundu P, Chowdhury C. Org Biomol Chem. 2014 Feb.
  • Spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of oxali-palladium interactions with β-lactoglobulin. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 create date:2013/10/29 | first author:Ghalandari B
  • Spectroscopic and biological approach in the characterization of a novel 14-membered [N4] macrocyclic ligand and its palladium(II), platinum(II), ruthenium(III) and iridium(III) complexes. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 create date:2013/09/21 | first author:Rani S
  • Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric 1,6-addition of diarylphosphines to α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated sulfonic esters: controlling regioselectivity by rational selection of electron-withdrawing groups. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014 create date:2013/11/29 | first author:Lu J
  • Palladium monophosphine Pd(PPh3): is it really accessible in solution? Chem Commun (Camb). 2014 create date:2013/11/28 | first author:Vidossich P
  • Synthesis, structure and dynamics of NHC-based palladium macrocycles. Dalton Trans. 2014 create date:2013/11/10 | first author:Andrew RE
  • Silica nanosphere-supported palladium(ii) furfural complex as a highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for oxidative amination of aldehydes. Dalton Trans. 2014 create date:2013/11/07 | first author:Sharma RK
  • Luminescent liquid crystalline materials based on palladium(ii) imine derivatives containing the 2-phenylpyridine core. Dalton Trans. 2014 create date:2013/10/31 | first author:Micutz M
  • Preparation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles for the on-line determination of gold, palladium, and platinum in mine samples based on flow injection micro-column preconcentration coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta. 2014 create date:2013/11/28 | first author:Ye J
  • Evaluation of the molecular mechanisms of a palladium(II) saccharinate complex with terpyridine as an anticancer agent. Anticancer Drugs. 2014 create date:2013/09/21 | first author:Kacar O
  • Spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of oxali-palladium interactions with β-lactoglobulin. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 create date:2013/10/29 | first author:Ghalandari B
  • Spectroscopic and biological approach in the characterization of a novel 14-membered [N4] macrocyclic ligand and its Palladium(II), Platinum(II), Ruthenium(III) and Iridium(III) complexes. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 create date:2013/09/21 | first author:Rani S
  • Palladium(ii)-(E,N,E) pincer ligand (E = S/Se/Te) complex catalyzed Suzuki coupling reactions in water via in situ generated palladium quantum dots. Dalton Trans. 2013 create date:2013/10/05 | first author:Kumar S
  • In situ TEM and STEM studies of reversible electromigration in thin palladium-platinum bridges. Nanotechnology. 2013 create date:2013/11/26 | first author:Kozlova T
  • A cost-effective and practical polybenzanthrone-based fluorescent sensor for efficient determination of palladium (II) ion and its application in agricultural crops and environment. Anal Chim Acta. 2013 create date:2013/12/04 | first author:Zhang G
  • Determination of Cu, As, Hg and Pb in vegetable oils by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with palladium nanoparticles as modifier. Talanta. 2013 | first author:Hsu WH
  • An Oxygen-Chelate Complex, Palladium Bis-acetylacetonate, Induces Apoptosis in H460 Cells via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway Rather than Interacting with DNA. J Med Chem. 2013 | first author:Wang Y

Palladium Isotopes


Naturally occurring palladium (Pd) has six stable isotopes: 102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 108Pd, and 110Pd.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
102Pd 101.905609 Observationally Stable 0+
104Pd 103.904036 Stable 0+
105Pd 104.905085 Stable 5/2+
106Pd 105.903486 Stable 0+
108Pd 107.903892 Stable 0+
110Pd 109.905153 Observationally Stable 0+