Palladium Elemental Symbol
Palladium



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Palladium Palladium Palladio Palladium Palladium Palladium

Palladium(Pd) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolPalladium is a Block D, Group 10, Period 5 element. Palladium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of palladium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d10. The palladium atom has a radius of 137.6.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 163.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-05-3, palladium has a silvery white appearance. Elemental PalladiumPalladium is a member of the platinum group of metals (along with platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium). Palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of the group. Palladium can be found as a free metal alloyed with other platinum-group metals. Nickel-copper deposits are the main commercial source of palladium. Palladium was first discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in 1803.


Palladium is frequently alloyed with gold, silver, iridium and other platinum group elements for use in jewelry. The metal is used in surgical instruments and electrical contacts. Palladium is also an excellent hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalyst and is available in many Organo-metallic forms for this purpose. High Purity (99.999%) Palladium Oxide (PdO) PowderPalladium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Palladium (Pd) Sputtering Target Palladium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Palladium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Safety data for Palladium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Palladium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Pd Melting Point: 1828.05 K, 1554.9 °C, 2830.82 °F
Atomic Number: 46 Boiling Point: 3236 K, 2963 °C, 5365 °F
Atomic Weight: 106.42 Density: 12.023 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 10.38 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 10, 5, d Specific Heat: 0.24 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 147.7 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.6 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 46 Thermal Conductivity: 71.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 46 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 11.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 60 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 105.4 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 Electronegativity: 2.20 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 137 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 139±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.98 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 163 pm Young's Modulus: 121 GPa
Oxidation States: 0, +1, +2, +4, +6 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 44 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 180 GPa
Crystal Structure: face-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.39
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 4.75
1st Ionization Energy: 520.23 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 461 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 7298.22 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 310 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 11815.13 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 3070 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-05-3 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22380 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23938 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00011167 Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: 231-115-6 Discovered By: William Hyde Wollaston
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1803
SMILES Identifier: [Pd]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pd Other Names: Palladio
InChI Key: KDLHZDBZIXYQEI-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Palladium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Compounds

Ammonium Chloropalladate
Ammonium Chloropalladite
Ammonium Hexachloropalladate(IV)
Ammonium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Diamminepalladium(II) Nitrite solution
Dichlorodiammine Palladium
Lindlar Catalyst
Lithium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Palladium Acetate
Palladium Acetate Solution
Palladium Bromide
Palladium Carbide
Palladium Chloride
Palladium(II) Cyanide
Palladium Dichloride
Palladium Chloride Solution
Palladium Fluoride
Palladium Hydroxide
Palladium Iodide
Palladium Nitrate
Palladium(II) Nitrate Dihydrate
Palladium Oxide
Palladium(II) Potassium Thiosulfate Monohydrate
Palladium Sulfate
Palladium Sulfate Solution
Palladium Trans-Dichlorodiammine
Palladium(II) Trifluoroacetate
Palladium on Barium Carbonate
Palladium on Barium Sulfate
Palladium on Calcium Carbonate
Palladium on Calcium Carbonate, Poisoned with Lead
Palladium on Strontium Carbonate
Potassium Chloropalladate
Potassium Chloropalladite
Potassium Dinitrosulfatopalladate(II) Solution
Potassium Disulfitopalladate(II)
Potassium Hexachloropalladate(IV)
Potassium Tetrabromopalladate(II)
Potassium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Potassium Tetracyanopalladate(II) Hydrate
Potassium Tetranitropalladate(II)
Sodium Hexachloropalladate(IV) Hydrate
Sodium Tetrabromopalladate(II)
Sodium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Sodium Tetrachloropalladate(II) Hydrate
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Bromide
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Chloride Monohydrate
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Dichloride
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Nitrate Solution
Tetraamminepalladium(II) Tetrachloropalladate(II)
trans-Diamminedichloropalladium(II)


Alloys

Chromium Manganese Palladium Alloy
Chromium Manganese Palladium Metal
Cobalt Palladium Alloy
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Particles
Gold/Palladium Foil
Gold/Palladium Tube
Gold/Palladium Wire
Gold/Platinum/Palladium Powder
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Powder
Manganese Palladium Platinum
Palladium Chromium Foil
Palladium Copper Foil
Palladium Silver Foil
Palladium Silver Silicon Alloy
Platinum Palladium Gold Alloy
Platinum/Palladium/Gold Paste
Silver Palladium Foil
Silver/Palladium/Platinum Paste
Titanium Palladium Alloy
Titanium Palladium Foil


Sputtering Targets

Gold Palladium Sputtering Target
Palladium Oxide Sputtering Target
Palladium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Palladium Selenide Sputtering Target
Palladium Sputtering Target
Palladium Telluride Sputtering Target
Platinum Palladium Sputtering Target


Isotopes

Palladium 102 Metal Isotope
Palladium 104 Metal Isotope
Palladium 105 Metal Isotope
Palladium 108 Metal Isotope
Organometallic Compounds

(1,3-Bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium(II) Chloride
([2S,3S]-Bis[Diphenylphosphino]butane) (?3-allyl) palladium(II) Perchlorate
1,1'-Bis(di-cyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene Palladium Dichloride
1,1'-Bis(di-isopropylphosphino)ferrocene Palladium Dichloride
1,1'-Bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)ferrocene Palladium Dichloride
1,2-Bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane palladium(II) Acetate
1,3-Bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (1,4-naphthoquinone)palladium(0) Dimer
1,3-Bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene(1,4-naphthoquinone)palladium(0) Dimer
1,4-Bis(diphenylphosphino)butane-palladium(II) Chloride
2'-(Dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl-palladium(II) Chloride Dinorbornylphosphine Complex
2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine Palladium(II)
2-(2'-Di-tert-butylphosphine)biphenylpalladium(II) Acetate
2-(Dimethylaminomethyl)ferrocen-1-yl-palladium(II) Chloride Dinorbornylphosphine Complex
2-[Bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenoxy)phosphinooxy]-3,5-di(tert-butyl)phenyl-palladium(II) Chloride Dimer
2-[Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)bromide]benzyl Alcohol
5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-21H,23H-porphine Palladium(II)
5-(Di-tert-butylphosphino)-1', 3', 5'-triphenyl-1'H-[1,4']bipyrazole
Allylpalladium(II) Chloride Dimer
Allyl[1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]palladium(II) Chloride
Allyl[1,3-bis(mesityl)imidazol-2-ylidene]palladium Chloride
Bis(acetonitrile)dichloropalladium(II)
Bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium
Bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium(0)
Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) Diacetate
Bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]palladium
Bis[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]palladium(0)
Bis(ethylenediamine)palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[tris(3-(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl)phenyl)phosphine]palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[tris(3-(heptadecafluoro octyl)phenyl)phosphine] palladium(II) Dichloride
Bis[tris(4-(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl)phenyl)phosphine]palladium(II) Dichloride
Bromo(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium(I) Dimer
Bromo[(2-(hydroxy-?O)methyl)phenylmethyl-C](triphenylphosphine)palladium
Di-μ-chlorobis[5-chloro-2-[(4-chlorophenyl)(hydroxyimino-κN)
methyl]phenyl-κC]palladium dimerr

Di-μ-chloro-bis-[5-hydroxy-2-[1-(hydroxyimino-κN)-ethyl]-phenyl-κC]-palladium(II) dimer
Dichloro(1,10-phenanthroline)palladium(II)
Dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)palladium(II)
Dichloro(ethylenediamine)palladium(II)
Dichloro(N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine)palladium(II)
Dichloro-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethanepalladium(II)
Dichlorobis(methyldiphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
Dichlorobis(tricyclohexylphosphine)palladium(II)
meso-Tetraphenyl-tetrabenzoporphine Palladium Complex
Palladium(II) Benzoate
Palladium(II) 2,4-pentanedionate
Palladium(II)[1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane]-bis(benzonitrile)-bis-tetrafluoroborate
Palladium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Palladium Acetylacetonate
Palladium(II) Hexafluoroacetylacetonate
Palladium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Palladium Oxalate
Palladium(II) Propionate
Tetrakis(acetonitrile)palladium(II) Tetrafluoroborate
Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium
trans-Benzyl(chloro)bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Bis(benzonitrile)dichloropalladium(II)
trans-Bis(dicyclohexylamine)bis(acetato)palladium(II)
trans-Bromo(N-succinimidyl)bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Dibromobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Dichlorobis(triethylphosphine)palladium(II)
trans-Dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II)
Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium
Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium Chloroform Complex
[(R)-(+)-2,2'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl]palladium(II) Chloride
[1,2,3,4-Tetrakis(methoxycarbonyl)-1,3-butadiene-1,4-diyl]palladium(II)


Oxide Forms

Palladium Oxide Nanopowder
Palladium Oxide Pellets
Palladium Oxide Pieces
Palladium Oxide Powder
Palladium Oxide Shot
Palladium Oxide Sputtering Target
Palladium Oxide Tablets


Recent Research & Development for Palladium

  • Martin Deutges, Hans Peter Barth, Yuzeng Chen, Christine Borchers, Reiner Kirchheim, Hydrogen diffusivities as a measure of relative dislocation densities in palladium and increase of the density by plastic deformation in the presence of dissolved hydrogen, Acta Materialia, Volume 82, 1 January 2015
  • Koodlur Sannegowda Lokesh, Annemie Adriaens, Electropolymerization of palladium tetraaminephthalocyanine: Characterization and supercapacitance behavior, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 112, January 2015
  • Yuanyuan Cai, Xianfu Chen, Yi Wang, Minghui Qiu, Yiqun Fan, Fabrication of palladium–titania nanofiltration membranes via a colloidal sol–gel process, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 201, 1 January 2015
  • Dong Chen, Penglei Cui, Hongyan He, Hui Liu, Jun Yang, Highly catalytic hollow palladium nanoparticles derived from silver@silver–palladium core–shell nanostructures for the oxidation of formic acid, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • Chongjiang Cao, Guang Yang, Wei Song, Xingrong Ju, Qiuhui Hu, Jianfeng Yao, Selective adsorption of palladium complex for carbon-supported Pd/Mo electrocatalyst by the charge enhanced dry impregnation method, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • Shan-Shan Li, Jie-Ning Zheng, Ai-Jun Wang, Fang-Lei Tao, Jiu-Ju Feng, Jian-Rong Chen, Haiying Yu, Branched platinum-on-palladium bimetallic heteronanostructures supported on reduced graphene oxide for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • Wei-Hsin Chen, Charng-Hung Lin, Yu-Li Lin, Flow-field design for improving hydrogen recovery in a palladium membrane tube, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 472, 15 December 2014
  • Jindi Cai, Yanzhen Zeng, Yonglang Guo, Copper@palladium–copper core–shell nanospheres as a highly effective electrocatalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 270, 15 December 2014
  • Jing-Jing Lv, Shan-Shan Li, Ai-Jun Wang, Li-Ping Mei, Jiu-Ju Feng, Jian-Rong Chen, Zhaojiang Chen, One-pot synthesis of monodisperse palladium–copper nanocrystals supported on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with improved catalytic activity and methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 269, 10 December 2014
  • Jing-Jing Lv, Jie-Ning Zheng, Hong-Bao Zhang, Meng Lin, Ai-Jun Wang, Jian-Rong Chen, Jiu-Ju Feng, Simple synthesis of platinum–palladium nanoflowers on reduced graphene oxide and their enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 269, 10 December 2014

Palladium Isotopes


Naturally occurring palladium (Pd) has six stable isotopes: 102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 108Pd, and 110Pd.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
102Pd 101.905609 Observationally Stable 0+
104Pd 103.904036 Stable 0+
105Pd 104.905085 Stable 5/2+
106Pd 105.903486 Stable 0+
108Pd 107.903892 Stable 0+
110Pd 109.905153 Observationally Stable 0+