Gold Elemental Symbol

French German Italian Portuguese Spanish Swedish
Or Gold Oro Ouro Oro Guld

Gold(Au) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Gold is a Block D, Group 11, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Gold's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f142 5d10 6s1. The gold atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is Gold Bohr ModelIn its elemental form, CAS 7440-57-5, gold has a metallic yellow appearance. Gold is a soft metal and is usually alloyed to give it more strength.Elemental Gold It is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is unaffected by air and most reagents. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements. Gold is often found as a free element and with silver as a gold silver alloy. Less commonly, it is found in minerals as gold compounds, usually with tellurium. Gold was first discovered by Early Man c.a. 6000.

Gold is used in coinage and is a standard for most modern monetary systems. It is also used extensively for jewelry, dental work, and plating. It is used for coating certain space satellites, as it is a good infrared reflector and it's inert. The use of gold in electronics has seen significant growth, particularly within telecommunications, information technology and safety critical applications. Similarly, within computers there are usually gold-plated edge connectors. Gold bonding wires are used extensively within semiconductor packages and gold thick film inks are applied in the fabrication of hybrid circuits. High Purity (99.999%) Gold Oxide (Au2O3) Powder Gold's excellent solder wetting properties are used to form a very thin protective layer on copper laminate printed circuit boards. Gold is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Gold (Au) Sputtering TargetElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Gold nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Gold is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Gold is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for gold and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Gold Properties

Symbol: Au Melting Point: 1337.33 K, 1064.18 °C, 1947.52 °F
Atomic Number: 79 Boiling Point: 3129 K, 2856 °C, 5173 °F
Atomic Weight: 196.966569 Density: 19.30 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 17.31 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 11, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.13 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 343.1 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 12.7 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 79 Thermal Conductivity: 318 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 79 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 14.2 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 118 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 22.14 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d106s1 Electronegativity: 2.54 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 144 pm Tensile Strength: 120 MPa
Covalent Radius: 136±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.418 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 217 pm Young's Modulus: 79 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 27 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 180 GPa
Crystal Structure: lattice face centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.44
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 2.5
1st Ionization Energy: 890.13 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 216 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1977.96 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 25 HB
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 2030 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7440-57-5 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 100 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22421 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 3 ppb
PubChem CID: 23985 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.6 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00003436 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.004 ppb
EC Number: 231-165-9 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Prior to 6000 BC
SMILES Identifier: [Au]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Au Other Names: Or, Oro, Ouro, Guld

Gold Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials


Ammonium Tetrachloroaurate(III) Hydrate
Digold Hexachloride
Digold Trioxide
Gold Acetate
Gold Acetate Solution
Gold Beryllium Pieces
Gold Beryllium Pellets
Gold Beryllium Slugs
Gold(I) Bromide AuBr
Gold(III) Bromide AuBr3
Gold Carbide
Gold(I) Chloride AuCl
Gold(III) Chloride AuCl3
Gold(III) Chloride Solution
Gold(III) Chloride Hydrate
Gold(III) Chloride Trihydrate
Gold Cyanide
Gold Fluoride
Gold Hydroxide
Gold(I) Iodide AuI
Gold(III) Iodide AuI3
Gold Nitrate
Gold Nitrate Solution
Gold Oxide
Gold Pentafluoride
Gold(I) Potassium Cyanide
Gold(III) Potassium Thiocyanate
Gold Selenate
Gold(I) Sodium Cyanide
Gold(I) Sodium Thiosulfate Hydrate
Gold Sulfate
Gold Sulfate Solution
Gold Trifluoride
Gold Triiodide
Hydrogen Tetrabromoaurate(III) Hydrate
Potassium Gold(III) Chloride
Tetragold Octachloride

Organometallic Compounds

Gold(I) Chloride

ylidene(acetonitrile)gold(I) tetrafluoroborate

triisopropylbiphenyl Gold(I) Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

butylphosphine]gold(I) Hexafluoroantimonate

phosphine)gold(I) (2:1) Toluene Adduct


Chloro[1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl) imidazol-2-


Dimethyl Gold Acetylacetonate
Schmid Au55 Cluster
Tris(triphenylphosphinegold)oxonium Tetrafluoroborate

Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Gold Ditelluride
Gold Phosphide
Gold Selenide AuSe
Gold Sulfide
Digold Sulfide
Gold(II) Telluride AuTe
Gold(III) Telluride Au2Te3
Digold Triselenide Au2Se3
Digold Trisulfide


Copper Gold Alloy
Copper Gold Nickel Alloy
Germanium Gold Metal
Gold Antimony
Gold Copper Alloy
Gold Copper Metal
Gold Copper Nickel Alloy
Gold Germanium Eutectic Foil
Gold Germanium Pellets
Gold Indium Alloy
Gold Nickel Foil
Gold/Palladium Foil
Gold/Platinum/Palladium Powder
Gold/Palladium Tube
Gold/Palladium Wire
Gold Phosphorus Alloy
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy

Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium
Alloy Powder

Gold Silicon Alloy
Gold Silver Copper Alloy
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Particles
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Powder
Gold Silver Tin Alloy
Gold Tin Alloy
Gold Tin Foil
Gold Tin Metal
Gold Tin Pellets
Platinum/Gold Conductor Paste
Platinum Palladium Gold Alloy
Platinum/Palladium/Gold Conductor Paste
Silver Gold Alloy
Silver Gold Hollow Spheres
Silver Gold Tube
Spangold Alloy
Tin Antimony Gold Alloy
Tin Gold Alloy


(1-Mercaptoundec-11-yl)tetra(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Solution
Dodecanethiol Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Solution
Gold Microrod Dispersion
Gold Nanoparticles
Gold Nanoparticles, amine functionalized
Gold Nanoparticles, methyl terminated
Gold Nanoparticles, carboxylic acid functionalized
Gold Nanoprisms
Gold Nanorods
Gold Nanorods, Amine Terminated
Gold Nanorods, Carboxyl Terminated
Gold Nanorods, Methyl Terminated
Gold Nanorods, Palladium Coated
Gold Nanorods, Platinum Coated
Gold Nanotubes
Gold Nanowires
Gold Oxide Nanopowder
Octanethiol Functionalized
Gold Nanoparticles Solution

Silver Gold Hollow Nanospheres
Silver Gold Nanotubes

Sputtering Targets

Gold Antimony Sputtering Target
Gold Arsenic Sputtering Target
Gold Copper Sputtering Target
Gold Germanium Sputtering Target
Gold Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gold Oxide Sputtering Target
Gold Palladium Sputtering Target
Gold Platinum Sputtering Target
Gold Phosphide Sputtering Target
Gold Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gold Selenide Sputtering Target
Gold Silicon Sputtering Target
Gold Sputtering Target
Gold Telluride Sputtering Target
Gold Tin Sputtering Target
Gold Zinc Sputtering Target

Recent Research & Development for Gold

  • Xi Ke, Yantong Xu, Changchun Yu, Jie Zhao, Guofeng Cui, Drew Higgins, Qing Li, Gang Wu, Nanoporous gold on three-dimensional nickel foam: An efficient hybrid electrode for hydrogen peroxide electroreduction in acid media, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 269, 10 December 2014
  • Tamara V. Basova, Roman G. Parkhomenko, Igor K. Igumenov, Aseel Hassan, Mahmut Durmus, Ayse Gül Gürek, Vefa Ahsen, Composites of liquid crystalline nickel phthalocyanine with gold nanoparticles: Liquid crystalline behaviour and optical properties, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 111, December 2014
  • Xianyi Cao, Fei Shen, Minwei Zhang, Jiajia Guo, Yeli Luo, Jingyue Xu, Ying Li, Chunyan Sun, Highly sensitive detection of melamine based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer between rhodamine B and gold nanoparticles, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 111, December 2014
  • Sandeep Nigam, Chiranjib Majumder, Comparison between cluster and slab model for Pt-group atom adsorption on gold and silver substrate, Surface Science, Volume 630, December 2014
  • Shuiping Liu, Lianjiang Tan, Xiaoqiang Li, Jiajia Fu, Ioannis S. Chronakis, Mingqiao Ge, Gold nanoparticles–gelatin hybrid fibers with bright photoluminescence, Materials Letters, Volume 135, 15 November 2014
  • Guowen An, Shuguang Li, Wan Zhang, Zhenkai Fan, Yajie Bao, A polarization filter of gold-filled photonic crystal fiber with regular triangular and rectangular lattices, Optics Communications, Volume 331, 15 November 2014
  • Yangyang Duan, Jing Wang, Fan Gao, Jing Wang, Yiye Li, Xin Wang, Guangjun Nie, Mesoporous silica-coating of gold nanorods by a templated method, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 9, Part B, November 2014
  • Stephanie Vial, Dmytro Nykypanchuk, Francis Leonard Deepak, Marta Prado, Oleg Gang, Plasmonic response of DNA-assembled gold nanorods: Effect of DNA linker length, temperature and linker/nanoparticles ratio, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 433, 1 November 2014
  • Shweta Verma, B. Tirumala Rao, A.K. Srivastava, H.S. Patel, S. Satapathy, M.P. Joshi, V.K. Sahu, L.M. Kukreja, Studies on interdependent optical properties of Rhodamine 6G dye and gold nanoparticles at different dilutions of aqueous solutions, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 155, November 2014
  • Qingsong Jiang, Jian Gao, Hong Tao, Guojia Fang, Helin Wei, Lin Yi, Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using silica/gold core–shell spheres modified photoanodes, Materials Letters, Volume 134, 1 November 2014
  • Mahdi Malekshahi Byranvand, Ali Nemati Kharat, One pot green synthesis of gold nanowires using pomegranate juice, Materials Letters, Volume 134, 1 November 2014
  • Jing Liu, Changyuan Hu, Jingkun Xu, Fengxing Jiang, Fei Chen, Enhanced photocatalytic performance of partially reduced graphene oxide under simulated solar light through loading gold nanoparticles, Materials Letters, Volume 134, 1 November 2014
  • Jing Li, Minmin Chang, Xinmu Zhou, Dongping Li, Yongxiu Li, Facile synthesis of gold nanopuncheons with high-index facets and their SERS effects on Rhodamine 6G, Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 59, November 2014
  • Mostafa Roosta, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Maryam Mohammadi, Removal of Alizarin Red S by gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon combined with ultrasound device: Optimization by experimental design methodology, Powder Technology, Volume 267, November 2014
  • Eran Shaffir, Yaron Kauffmann, Ilan Riess, Void formation in gold films on yttrium-doped zirconia in the initial stage of de-wetting, Acta Materialia, Volume 79, 15 October 2014
  • Weidong Ruan, Tieli Zhou, Ge Hui, Yue Wang, Xiaoli Chong, Xu Wang, Wei Song, Xiaoxia Han, Bing Zhao, Particle lithography-based patterning of polyelectrolyte template films and their application in fabrication of gold/silver nanoparticle assembly, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 432, 15 October 2014
  • J. Burunkova, I. Csarnovics, I. Denisyuk, L. Daróczi, S. Kökényesi, Enhancement of laser recording in gold/amorphous chalcogenide and gold/acrylate nanocomposite layers, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 402, 15 October 2014
  • S. Mammeri, S. Ouichaoui, H. Ammi, A. Dib, Sputtering and surface structure modification of gold thin films deposited onto silicon substrates under the impact of 20–160 keV Ar+ ions, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 337, 15 October 2014
  • Hoon Choi, Taegyeong Kang, Kiju Um, Jinku Kim, Kangtaek Lee, Reduction of silver ions in gold nanoparticle suspension for detection of dihydroxybenzene isomers, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Volume 459, 5 October 2014
  • Xiaoqin Li, Jinru Li, Long Jiang, A silica-gold core-shell structure to mimic the large size of gold particles for promoting cell growth: A comparative study of the silica core size and the nanogold amount in the shell, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Volume 459, 5 October 2014

Gold Isotopes

Gold (Au) has one stable isotope, 197Au

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
197Au 196.9665687 Observationally Stable 3/2+