Gold Elemental Symbol
Gold



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Or Gold Oro Ouro Oro Guld

Gold(Au) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Gold is a Block D, Group 11, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Gold's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f142 5d10 6s1. The gold atom has a radius of 144.2.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 217.pm. Gold Bohr ModelIn its elemental form, CAS 7440-57-5, gold has a metallic yellow appearance. Gold is a soft metal and is usually alloyed to give it more strength.Elemental Gold It is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is unaffected by air and most reagents. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements. Gold is often found as a free element and with silver as a gold silver alloy. Less commonly, it is found in minerals as gold compounds, usually with tellurium. Gold was first discovered by Early Man c.a. 6000.

Gold is used in coinage and is a standard for most modern monetary systems. It is also used extensively for jewelry, dental work, and plating. It is used for coating certain space satellites, as it is a good infrared reflector and it's inert. The use of gold in electronics has seen significant growth, particularly within telecommunications, information technology and safety critical applications. Similarly, within computers there are usually gold-plated edge connectors. Gold bonding wires are used extensively within semiconductor packages and gold thick film inks are applied in the fabrication of hybrid circuits. High Purity (99.999%) Gold Oxide (Au2O3) Powder Gold's excellent solder wetting properties are used to form a very thin protective layer on copper laminate printed circuit boards. Gold is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Gold (Au) Sputtering TargetElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Gold nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Gold is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Gold is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for gold and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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  • Isotopes
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Gold Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Au Melting Point: 1337.33 K, 1064.18 °C, 1947.52 °F
Atomic Number: 79 Boiling Point: 3129 K, 2856 °C, 5173 °F
Atomic Weight: 196.966569 Density: 19.30 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 17.31 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 11, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.13 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 343.1 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 12.7 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 79 Thermal Conductivity: 318 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 79 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 14.2 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 118 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 22.14 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d106s1 Electronegativity: 2.54 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 144 pm Tensile Strength: 120 MPa
Covalent Radius: 136±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.418 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 217 pm Young's Modulus: 79 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 27 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 180 GPa
Crystal Structure: lattice face centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.44
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 2.5
1st Ionization Energy: 890.13 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 216 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1977.96 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 25 HB
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 2030 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-57-5 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 100 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22421 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 3 ppb
PubChem CID: 23985 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.6 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00003436 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.004 ppb
EC Number: 231-165-9 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Prior to 6000 BC
SMILES Identifier: [Au]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Au Other Names: Or, Oro, Ouro, Guld
InChI Key: PCHJSUWPFVWCPO-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Gold Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Compounds

Ammonium Tetrachloroaurate(III) Hydrate
Digold Hexachloride
Digold Trioxide
Gold Acetate
Gold Acetate Solution
Gold Beryllium Pieces
Gold Beryllium Pellets
Gold Beryllium Slugs
Gold(I) Bromide AuBr
Gold(III) Bromide AuBr3
Gold Carbide
Gold(I) Chloride AuCl
Gold(III) Chloride AuCl3
Gold(III) Chloride Solution
Gold(III) Chloride Hydrate
Gold(III) Chloride Trihydrate
Gold Cyanide
Gold Fluoride
Gold Hydroxide
Gold(I) Iodide AuI
Gold(III) Iodide AuI3
Gold Nitrate
Gold Nitrate Solution
Gold Oxide
Gold Pentafluoride
Gold(I) Potassium Cyanide
Gold(III) Potassium Thiocyanate
Gold Selenate
Gold(I) Sodium Cyanide
Gold(I) Sodium Thiosulfate Hydrate
Gold Sulfate
Gold Sulfate Solution
Gold Trifluoride
Gold Triiodide
Hydrogen Tetrabromoaurate(III) Hydrate
Potassium Gold(III) Chloride
Tetragold Octachloride


Organometallic Compounds

1,3-Bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene
Gold(I) Chloride

1,3-Bis(2,6-di-i-propylphenyl)imidazol-2-
ylidene(acetonitrile)gold(I) tetrafluoroborate

2-Dicyclohexylphosphino-2',4',6'-
triisopropylbiphenyl Gold(I) Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

(Acetonitrile)[(2-biphenyl)di-tert-
butylphosphine]gold(I) Hexafluoroantimonate

[Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imidate](triphenyl
phosphine)gold(I) (2:1) Toluene Adduct

Chloro(dimethylsulfide)gold
Chloro(tri-tert-butylphosphine)gold(I)
Chloro(triethylphosphine)gold(I)
Chloro(trimethylphosphine)gold(I)
Chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold
Chloro(triphenylphosphite)gold
Chloro[(1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)di-tert-
butylphosphine]gold(I)

Chloro[1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl) imidazol-2-
ylidene]gold(I)

Chloro[2-dicyclohexyl(2',4',6'-
trisopropylbiphenyl)phosphine]gold(I)

Chloro[tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphite]gold
Chloro[tris(para-trifluoromethylphenyl)phosphine]gold(I)
Dichloro(2-pyridinecarboxylato)gold
Dimethyl Gold Acetylacetonate
Schmid Au55 Cluster
Trichloro(pyridine)gold(III)
Tris(triphenylphosphinegold)oxonium Tetrafluoroborate


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Gold Ditelluride
Gold Phosphide
Gold Selenide AuSe
Gold Sulfide
Digold Sulfide
Gold(II) Telluride AuTe
Gold(III) Telluride Au2Te3
Digold Triselenide Au2Se3
Digold Trisulfide



Alloys

Copper Gold Alloy
Copper Gold Nickel Alloy
Germanium Gold Metal
Gold Antimony
Gold Copper Alloy
Gold Copper Metal
Gold Copper Nickel Alloy
Gold Germanium Eutectic Foil
Gold Germanium Pellets
Gold Indium Alloy
Gold Nickel Foil
Gold/Palladium Foil
Gold/Platinum/Palladium Powder
Gold/Palladium Tube
Gold/Palladium Wire
Gold Phosphorus Alloy
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy
Particles

Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium
Alloy Powder

Gold Silicon Alloy
Gold Silver Copper Alloy
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Particles
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Powder
Gold Silver Tin Alloy
Gold Tin Alloy
Gold Tin Foil
Gold Tin Metal
Gold Tin Pellets
Platinum/Gold Conductor Paste
Platinum Palladium Gold Alloy
Platinum/Palladium/Gold Conductor Paste
Silver Gold Alloy
Silver Gold Hollow Spheres
Silver Gold Tube
Spangold Alloy
Tin Antimony Gold Alloy
Tin Gold Alloy


Nanomaterials

(1-Mercaptoundec-11-yl)tetra(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Solution
Dodecanethiol Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Solution
Gold Microrod Dispersion
Gold Nanoparticles
Gold Nanoparticles, amine functionalized
Gold Nanoparticles, methyl terminated
Gold Nanoparticles, carboxylic acid functionalized
Gold Nanoprisms
Gold Nanorods
Gold Nanorods, Amine Terminated
Gold Nanorods, Carboxyl Terminated
Gold Nanorods, Methyl Terminated
Gold Nanorods, Palladium Coated
Gold Nanorods, Platinum Coated
Gold Nanotubes
Gold Nanowires
Gold Oxide Nanopowder
Octanethiol Functionalized
Gold Nanoparticles Solution

Silver Gold Hollow Nanospheres
Silver Gold Nanotubes


Sputtering Targets

Gold Antimony Sputtering Target
Gold Arsenic Sputtering Target
Gold Copper Sputtering Target
Gold Germanium Sputtering Target
Gold Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gold Oxide Sputtering Target
Gold Palladium Sputtering Target
Gold Platinum Sputtering Target
Gold Phosphide Sputtering Target
Gold Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gold Selenide Sputtering Target
Gold Silicon Sputtering Target
Gold Sputtering Target
Gold Telluride Sputtering Target
Gold Tin Sputtering Target
Gold Zinc Sputtering Target





Recent Research & Development for Gold

  • Raju Poddar, Maddipatla Reddikumar, In vitro 3D anterior segment imaging in lamb eye with extended depth range swept source optical coherence tomography, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 67, April 2015
  • Arash Ahmadivand, Saeed Golmohammadi, Surface plasmon resonances and plasmon hybridization in compositional Al/Al2O3/SiO2 nanorings at the UV spectrum to the near infrared region (NIR), Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 66, March 2015
  • G.F. Sun, K. Wang, R. Zhou, Z.P. Tong, X.Y. Fang, Effect of annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of laser deposited Co-285+WC coatings, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 66, March 2015
  • Xin Jiang, Soni Chandrasekar, Changhai Wang, A laser microwelding method for assembly of polymer based microfluidic devices, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Volume 66, March 2015
  • Giulio Martini, Elisa Martinelli, Giacomo Ruggeri, Giancarlo Galli, Andrea Pucci, Julolidine fluorescent molecular rotors as vapour sensing probes in polystyrene films, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 113, February 2015
  • M.A. Pogosova, D.I. Provotorov, A.A. Eliseev, M. Jansen, P.E. Kazin, Synthesis and characterization of the Bi-for-Ca substituted copper-based apatite pigments, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 113, February 2015
  • Simon Kuster, Thomas Geiger, Coupled π-conjugated chromophores: Squaraine dye dimers as two connected pendulums, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 113, February 2015
  • Zhenghuan Lin, Yingshuang Ma, Xin Zheng, Limei Huang, E Yang, Cheng-Ya Wu, Tahsin J. Chow, Qidan Ling, Amide-based diarylmaleimide derivatives and polymers: Highly selective and ratiometric fluorescence sensing for anions, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 113, February 2015
  • Qun Wang, Ji Qi, Wenqiang Qiao, Zhi Yuan Wang, Soluble ladder conjugated polypyrrones: Synthesis, characterization and application in photodetectors, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 113, February 2015
  • Lufei Xiao, Hui Wang, Qiong Zhang, Yingzhong Zhu, Junshan Luo, Yunke Liang, Shengyi Zhang, Hongping Zhou, Yupeng Tian, Jieying Wu, Novel ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes containing carbazole with flexible substituents: Crystal structure, nonlinear optical properties and DNA-binding interaction, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 113, February 2015

Gold Isotopes


Gold (Au) has one stable isotope, 197Au

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
197Au 196.9665687 Observationally Stable 3/2+