Gold Elemental Symbol
Gold



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Or Gold Oro Ouro Oro Guld

Gold(Au) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Gold is a Block D, Group 11, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Gold's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f142 5d10 6s1. The gold atom has a radius of 144.2.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 217.pm. Gold Bohr ModelIn its elemental form, CAS 7440-57-5, gold has a metallic yellow appearance. Gold is a soft metal and is usually alloyed to give it more strength.Elemental Gold It is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is unaffected by air and most reagents. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements. Gold is often found as a free element and with silver as a gold silver alloy. Less commonly, it is found in minerals as gold compounds, usually with tellurium. Gold was first discovered by Early Man c.a. 6000.

Gold is used in coinage and is a standard for most modern monetary systems. It is also used extensively for jewelry, dental work, and plating. It is used for coating certain space satellites, as it is a good infrared reflector and it's inert. The use of gold in electronics has seen significant growth, particularly within telecommunications, information technology and safety critical applications. Similarly, within computers there are usually gold-plated edge connectors. Gold bonding wires are used extensively within semiconductor packages and gold thick film inks are applied in the fabrication of hybrid circuits. High Purity (99.999%) Gold Oxide (Au2O3) Powder Gold's excellent solder wetting properties are used to form a very thin protective layer on copper laminate printed circuit boards. Gold is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Gold (Au) Sputtering TargetElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Gold nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Gold is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Gold is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for gold and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Gold Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Au Melting Point: 1337.33 K, 1064.18 °C, 1947.52 °F
Atomic Number: 79 Boiling Point: 3129 K, 2856 °C, 5173 °F
Atomic Weight: 196.966569 Density: 19.30 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 17.31 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 11, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.13 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 343.1 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 12.7 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 79 Thermal Conductivity: 318 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 79 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 14.2 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 118 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 22.14 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d106s1 Electronegativity: 2.54 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 144 pm Tensile Strength: 120 MPa
Covalent Radius: 136±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.418 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 217 pm Young's Modulus: 79 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 27 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 180 GPa
Crystal Structure: lattice face centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.44
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 2.5
1st Ionization Energy: 890.13 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 216 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1977.96 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 25 HB
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 2030 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-57-5 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 100 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22421 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 3 ppb
PubChem CID: 23985 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.6 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00003436 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.004 ppb
EC Number: 231-165-9 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Prior to 6000 BC
SMILES Identifier: [Au]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Au Other Names: Or, Oro, Ouro, Guld
InChI Key: PCHJSUWPFVWCPO-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Gold Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Compounds

Ammonium Tetrachloroaurate(III) Hydrate
Digold Hexachloride
Digold Trioxide
Gold Acetate
Gold Acetate Solution
Gold Beryllium Pieces
Gold Beryllium Pellets
Gold Beryllium Slugs
Gold(I) Bromide AuBr
Gold(III) Bromide AuBr3
Gold Carbide
Gold(I) Chloride AuCl
Gold(III) Chloride AuCl3
Gold(III) Chloride Solution
Gold(III) Chloride Hydrate
Gold(III) Chloride Trihydrate
Gold Cyanide
Gold Fluoride
Gold Hydroxide
Gold(I) Iodide AuI
Gold(III) Iodide AuI3
Gold Nitrate
Gold Nitrate Solution
Gold Oxide
Gold Pentafluoride
Gold(I) Potassium Cyanide
Gold(III) Potassium Thiocyanate
Gold Selenate
Gold(I) Sodium Cyanide
Gold(I) Sodium Thiosulfate Hydrate
Gold Sulfate
Gold Sulfate Solution
Gold Trifluoride
Gold Triiodide
Hydrogen Tetrabromoaurate(III) Hydrate
Potassium Gold(III) Chloride
Tetragold Octachloride


Organometallic Compounds

1,3-Bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene
Gold(I) Chloride

1,3-Bis(2,6-di-i-propylphenyl)imidazol-2-
ylidene(acetonitrile)gold(I) tetrafluoroborate

2-Dicyclohexylphosphino-2',4',6'-
triisopropylbiphenyl Gold(I) Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

(Acetonitrile)[(2-biphenyl)di-tert-
butylphosphine]gold(I) Hexafluoroantimonate

[Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imidate](triphenyl
phosphine)gold(I) (2:1) Toluene Adduct

Chloro(dimethylsulfide)gold
Chloro(tri-tert-butylphosphine)gold(I)
Chloro(triethylphosphine)gold(I)
Chloro(trimethylphosphine)gold(I)
Chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold
Chloro(triphenylphosphite)gold
Chloro[(1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)di-tert-
butylphosphine]gold(I)

Chloro[1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl) imidazol-2-
ylidene]gold(I)

Chloro[2-dicyclohexyl(2',4',6'-
trisopropylbiphenyl)phosphine]gold(I)

Chloro[tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphite]gold
Chloro[tris(para-trifluoromethylphenyl)phosphine]gold(I)
Dichloro(2-pyridinecarboxylato)gold
Dimethyl Gold Acetylacetonate
Schmid Au55 Cluster
Trichloro(pyridine)gold(III)
Tris(triphenylphosphinegold)oxonium Tetrafluoroborate


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Gold Ditelluride
Gold Phosphide
Gold Selenide AuSe
Gold Sulfide
Digold Sulfide
Gold(II) Telluride AuTe
Gold(III) Telluride Au2Te3
Digold Triselenide Au2Se3
Digold Trisulfide



Alloys

Copper Gold Alloy
Copper Gold Nickel Alloy
Germanium Gold Metal
Gold Antimony
Gold-Coated Rhenium Tungsten Wire
Gold Copper Alloy
Gold Copper Metal
Gold Copper Nickel Alloy
Gold Germanium Eutectic Foil
Gold Germanium Pellets
Gold Indium Alloy
Gold Nickel Foil
Gold/Palladium Foil
Gold/Platinum/Palladium Powder
Gold/Palladium Tube
Gold/Palladium Wire
Gold Phosphorus Alloy
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy
Particles

Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium
Alloy Powder

Gold Silicon Alloy
Gold Silver Copper Alloy
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Particles
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Powder
Gold Silver Tin Alloy
Gold Tin Alloy
Gold Tin Foil
Gold Tin Metal
Gold Tin Pellets
Platinum/Gold Conductor Paste
Platinum Palladium Gold Alloy
Platinum/Palladium/Gold Conductor Paste
Silver Gold Alloy
Silver Gold Hollow Spheres
Silver Gold Tube
Tin Antimony Gold Alloy
Tin Gold Alloy


Nanomaterials

(1-Mercaptoundec-11-yl)tetra(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Solution
Dodecanethiol Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Solution
Gold Microrod Dispersion
Gold Nanoparticles
Gold Nanoparticles, amine functionalized
Gold Nanoparticles, methyl terminated
Gold Nanoparticles, carboxylic acid functionalized
Gold Nanoprisms
Gold Nanorods
Gold Nanorods, Amine Terminated
Gold Nanorods, Carboxyl Terminated
Gold Nanorods, Methyl Terminated
Gold Nanorods, Palladium Coated
Gold Nanorods, Platinum Coated
Gold Nanotubes
Gold Nanowires
Gold Oxide Nanopowder
Octanethiol Functionalized
Gold Nanoparticles Solution

Silver Gold Hollow Nanospheres
Silver Gold Nanotubes


Sputtering Targets

Gold Antimony Sputtering Target
Gold Arsenic Sputtering Target
Gold Copper Sputtering Target
Gold Germanium Sputtering Target
Gold Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gold Oxide Sputtering Target
Gold Palladium Sputtering Target
Gold Platinum Sputtering Target
Gold Phosphide Sputtering Target
Gold Rotatable Sputtering Target
Gold Selenide Sputtering Target
Gold Silicon Sputtering Target
Gold Sputtering Target
Gold Telluride Sputtering Target
Gold Tin Sputtering Target
Gold Zinc Sputtering Target





Recent Research & Development for Gold

  • Low-dose gold nanoparticles exert subtle endocrine-modulating effects on the ovarian steroidogenic pathway ex vivo independent of oxidative stress. Nanotoxicology. 2014 create date:2013/09/03 | first author:Larson JK
  • Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder - VM Brown, KS LaBar, CC Haswell, AL Gold - 2014.
  • Nontoxic impact of PEG-coated gold nanospheres on functional pulmonary surfactant-secreting alveolar type II cells. Nanotoxicology. 2014 create date:2013/08/07 | first author:Bouzas V
  • Gold-nanobeacons for gene therapy: evaluation of genotoxicity, cell toxicity and proteome profiling analysis. Nanotoxicology. 2014 create date:2013/05/07 | first author:Conde J
  • Application of the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold test in Erythema Induratum. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014 create date:2012/08/28 | first author:Sim JH
  • Using gold nanorods core/silver shell nanostructures as model material to probe biodistribution and toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in mice. Nanotoxicology. 2014 create date:2013/07/11 | first author:Meng J
  • Aptamer-conjugated gold nanorod for photothermal ablation of epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressed epithelial cancer. J Biomed Opt. 2014 create date:2013/12/04 | first author:Choi J
  • The unfolding of G-quadruplexes and its adverse effect on DNA-gold nanoparticles-based sensing system. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/11/12 | first author:Cheng S
  • Sandwich-format electrochemiluminescence assays for tumor marker based on PAMAM dendrimer-l-cysteine-hollow gold nanosphere nanocomposites. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/11/12 | first author:Zhuo Y
  • Covalent fabrication of methyl parathion hydrolase on gold nanoparticles modified carbon substrates for designing a methyl parathion biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/11/12 | first author:Liu G
  • Highly sensitive and label-free electrochemical detection of microRNAs based on triple signal amplification of multifunctional gold nanoparticles, enzymes and redox-cycling reaction. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/11/10 | first author:Liu L
  • Novel electrochemical aptamer biosensor based on an enzyme-gold nanoparticle dual label for the ultrasensitive detection of epithelial tumour marker MUC1. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/11/06 | first author:Hu R
  • A gold nanoparticles colorimetric assay for label-free detection of protein kinase activity based on phosphorylation protection against exopeptidase cleavage. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/10/26 | first author:Zhou J
  • Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a gold nanoparticle-based colourimetric polymerase chain reaction assay. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/10/16 | first author:Chan WS
  • Label-free turn-on fluorescent detection of melamine based on the anti-quenching ability of Hg(2+) to gold nanoclusters. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/10/15 | first author:Dai H
  • Lipase-nanoporous gold biocomposite modified electrode for reliable detection of triglycerides. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/10/15 | first author:Wu C
  • Triple signal amplification using gold nanoparticles, bienzyme and platinum nanoparticles functionalized graphene as enhancers for simultaneous multiple electrochemical immunoassay. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 | first author:Jia X
  • Colorimetric sensor based on dual-functional gold nanoparticles: Analyte-recognition and peroxidase-like activity. Food Chem. 2014 | first author:Deng HH
  • Gold nanoparticles cellular toxicity and recovery: Adipose Derived Stromal cells. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Mironava T
  • Improved detection limits of protein optical fiber biosensors coated with gold nanoparticles. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 | first author:Lepinay S

Gold Isotopes


Gold (Au) has one stable isotope, 197Au

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
197Au 196.9665687 Observationally Stable 3/2+