Copper Elemental Symbol
Copper



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Cuivre Kupfer Rame Cobre Cobre Koppar

Copper(Cu) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCopper is a Block D, Group 11, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of copper's shells is 2, 8, 18, 1 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s1. Elemental CopperCopper Bohr ModelThe copper atom has a radius of 127.8 .pm and its Van der Waals radius is 140.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-50-8, copper has a red-orange metallic luster appearance. Of all pure metals, only silver has a higher electrical conductivity. Copper was first discovered by Early Man. The origin of the word copper comes from the Latin word 'cuprium' which translates as "metal of Cyprus". Cyprus, a Mediterranean island, was known as an ancient source of mined copper.

High Purity (99.999%) Copper Oxide (CuO) PowderCopper is used as a building material, a conductor of heat and electricity, and as a component of various metal alloys. Due to its high electrical conductivity, large amounts of copper are used by the electrical industry for wire. Since copper is resistant to corrosion caused by moisture, it is widely used in pipes, coins, and jewelry. Copper is often too soft for its applications, so it is incorporated in numerous alloys. For example, brass is a copper-zinc alloy, and bronze is a copper-tin alloy. Copper sulfate (CuSO4· H2O), also known as blue vitrol, is the most well-known copper compound. It is used as an agricultural poison, an algicide, and as a pigment for inks. Cuprous chloride (CuCl) is a powder used to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2). Copper cyanide (CuCN) is often used in electroplating applications. High Purity (99.9999%) Copper (Cu) Sputtering TargetCopper is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Copper nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Copper is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Copper is an essential trace element in animals and plants, but in excess copper is toxic. Safety data for Copper and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Copper Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Cu Melting Point: 1083.0 °C (1356.15 K, 1981.4 °F)
Atomic Number: 29 Boiling Point: 2567.0 °C (2840.15 K, 4652.6 °F)
Atomic Weight: 63.546 Density: 8.96 gm/cc
Element Category: Transition Metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.02 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 11, 4, d Specific Heat: 0.092 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 306.7 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 13 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 29 Thermal Conductivity: 401 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 29 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 16.5 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 35 Electrical Resistivity: 1.678 microhm-cm @ 20°C
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d104s1 Electronegativity: 1.9 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 128 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 132±4 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.440 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 140 pm Young's Modulus: 110–128 GPa
Oxidation States: +1, +2, +3, +4 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 48 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 140 GPa
Crystal Structure: Cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.34
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 3.0
1st Ionization Energy: 745.49 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 369 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1957.93 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 35 HB = 874 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 3554.64 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (r.t.) (annealed) 3810 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-50-8 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 1000 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22414 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 99 ppb
PubChem CID: 23978 Abundance in universe, by weight: 60 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010965 Abundance in universe, by atom: 1 ppb
EC Number: 231-159-6 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Around 9000 BC
SMILES Identifier: [Cu]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Cu Other Names: Cuprum, Cuivre, Kupfer, Cobre
InChI Key: RYGMFSIKBFXOCR-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Copper Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Copper Balls
Copper Bands
Copper Bars
Copper Beads
Copper Bits
Copper Board
Copper Briquette
Copper Busbars
Copper Capsules
Copper Cathode Plates
Copper Cathode Squares
Copper Cathodes
Copper Chunk
Copper Coil
Copper Coins
Copper Conductor Paste
Copper Concentrate
Copper Crucibles
Copper Cuttings
Copper Cylinder
Copper Disc
Copper Dust
Copper Flanges
Copper Foam
Copper Foil
Copper Fragments
Copper Grain
Copper Granules
Copper Honeycomb
Copper Ingot
Copper Insulated Wire
Copper Inquarts
Copper Lump
Copper Mesh
Copper Metal
Copper Microfoil
Copper Nugget
Copper Particles
Copper Parts
Copper Pebbles
Copper Pellets
Copper Pieces
Copper Pills
Copper Plates
Copper Powder
Copper Precipitate
Copper Puck
Copper Punchings
Copper Residue
Copper Ribbon
Copper Rings
Copper Rocks
Copper Rod
Copper Samples
Copper Scraps
Copper Segments
Copper Shaving
Copper Sheets
Copper Shot
Copper Single Crystal
Copper Sleeves
Copper Slugs
Copper Specimens
Copper Spheres
Copper Sponge
Copper Spring
Copper Strip
Copper Tape
Copper Tube
Copper Turnings
Copper Tungstate
Copper Wafer
Copper Wire
Copper Wool
Tinned Copper Foil
Tinned Copper Wire
Ultra Thin Copper Foil


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Copper Magnesium Chromium Zinc Sputtering Target
Aluminum Copper Manganese Magnesium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Copper Manganese Sputtering Target
Aluminum Copper Molybdenum Sputtering Target
Aluminum Copper Silicon Sputtering Target
Aluminum Copper Sputtering Target
Aluminum Copper Tungsten Sputtering Target
Aluminum Magnesium Copper Nickel Sputtering Target
Aluminum Niobium Tantalum Sputtering Target
Aluminum Silicon Copper Magnesium Chromium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Silicon Copper Manganese Magnesium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Silicon Copper Sputtering Target
Cerium Copper Sputtering Target
Chromium Copper Sputtering Target
Copper Aluminum Oxide Sputtering Target
Copper Aluminum Sputtering Target
Copper Chrome Sputtering Target
Copper Cobalt Sputtering Target
Copper Fluoride Sputtering Target
Copper Gallium Selenide Sputtering Target
Copper Gallium Sputtering Target
Copper Germanium Sputtering Target
Copper-Indium-Gallium Sputtering Target
CIGS Sputtering Target
CIGSS Sputtering Target
Copper Indium Selenide Sputtering Target
Copper Indium Sputtering Target
Copper Nickel Sputtering Target
Copper Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Copper Oxide Sputtering Target
Copper Rotatable Sputtering Target
Copper Selenide Sputtering Target
Copper Sputtering Target
Copper Sulfide Sputtering Target
Copper Telluride Sputtering Target
Copper Zinc Sputtering Target
Gold Copper Sputtering Target
Holmium Copper Sputtering Target
Manganese Copper Sputtering Target
Nickel Copper Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Barium Copper Oxide Sputtering Target
Silver Copper Sputtering Target
Vanadium Copper Sputtering Target
Yttrium Barium Cuprate Sputtering Target
Zirconium Copper Sputtering Target


Oxide Forms

Copper Oxide Hollow Spheres
Copper Oxide Hollow Nanospheres
Copper Oxide Nanopowder
Copper Oxide Particles
Copper Oxide Pellets
Copper Oxide Pieces
Copper Oxide Powder
Copper Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Copper Oxide Shot
Copper Oxide Sputtering Target
Copper Oxide Tablets
Copper Oxide/Aluminum Oxide Granules
Copper Oxide/Indium Oxide Granules
Copper(II) Oxide Wire


Compounds

Ammonium Cupric Chloride
Ammonium Cupric Sulfate Hexaydrate
Ammonium Tetrachlorocuprate(II) Dihydrate
Bismuth Lead Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide
Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide
Calcium Copper Titanate
Copper Acetate
Copper(I) Acetate
Copper Acetate Solution
Copper(II) Acetate Monohydrate
Copper Arsenate
Copper Benzoate
Copper(I) Bromide CuBr
Copper(II) Bromide CuBr2
Copper Carbide
Copper Carbonate
Copper(II) Carbonate Basic
Copper(I) Chloride CuCl
Copper(I) Chloride - bis(lithium chloride) Complex
Copper(I) Chloride Solution
Copper(I) Chloride, Ultra Dry
Copper(II) Chloride CuCl2
Copper(II) Chloride Dihydrate
Copper(I) Chloride Solution
Copper Chromate
Copper Ferrite
Copper Fluoride
Copper(I) Hydride
Copper Hydroxide
Copper Hydroxide Phosphate
Copper Hydroxyfluoride
Copper Iodate
Copper Iodide/Cesium Carbonate Admixture
Copper Iodide
Copper Molybdate
Copper(II) Niobate
Copper Nitrate
Copper Nitrate/Ammonium Chloride
Copper(II) Nitrate Hemi(pentahydrate)
Copper(II) Nitrate on Celite
Copper Nitrate Solution
Copper(II) Nitrate Trihydrate
Copper Nitride
Copper(II) Oxide CuO
Copper(I) Oxide Cu2O
Copper Oxychloride
Copper Perchlorate Hexahydrate
Copper Pyrophosphate
Copper(II) Pyrophosphate Hydrate
Copper Selenate
Copper(II) Selenite Dihydrate
Copper Selenite
Copper Silicide
Copper Sulfate
Copper Sulfate Monohydrate
Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate
Copper Sulfate Solution
Copper Tellurite
Copper(II) Tetrafluoroborate
Copper(II) Tetrafluoroborate Hydrate
Copper(I) Tetraiodomercurate
Copper(I) Thiocyanate
Copper(II) Vanadium Oxide
Cupric Sulfate Anhydrous
Potassium bis(oxalato)Cuprate(II) Hydrate
Potassium copper(I) cyanide
Praseodymium Barium Copper Oxide
Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide


Nanomaterials

Copper Aluminum Oxide Nanopowder
Copper Carbon Nanotube
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Nanoparticles
Copper Indium Selenide Nanoparticles
Copper Iron Oxide Nanopowder
Copper Nanoparticles
Copper Nanorods
Copper Nanotubes
Copper Nanowires
Copper Nickel Nanoparticles
Copper Oxide Hollow Nanospheres
Copper Oxide Nanopowder
Copper Tin Alloy Nanoparticles
Copper Zinc Alloy Nanoparticles
Copper Zinc Alloy Nanoprisms
Copper Zinc Iron Oxide Nanopowder
Iron Nickel Copper Nanoparticles
Silver Copper Nanopowder
ZnCuInS/ZnS Quantum Dots


Organometallic Compounds

1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-Octabutoxyphthalocyanine Copper(II) Salt
Bis(1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene)copper(I) Tetrafluoroborate
Bis(1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane)tetra(copper(I) iodide)
Bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionato)copper
Bis(N,N'-di-sec-butylacetamidinato)dicopper(I)
Bis(N,N'-dimethylpiperazine)tetra[copper(I) iodide]
Bis(triphenylphosphine)copper(I) Borohydride
Chloro[1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]copper(I)
Chlorophyllin Sodium Copper Salt
Copper 2-Ethylhexanoate
Copper(I) 3-Methylsalicylate
Copper Acetylacetonate
Copper Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate
Copper Beta Resorcylate, Monobasic
Copper Bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate)
Copper Bromide Dimethyl Sulfide Complex
Copper Caprylate
Copper Citrate Hemitrihydrate
Copper(II) Cyclohexanebutyrate
Copper(II) D-gluconate
Copper Disalicylate
Copper Disodium Ethylenediaminetetraacetate
Copper(II) Ethylacetoacetate
Copper(II) Formate Hydrate
Copper Formate Tetrahydrate
Copper Glycinate
Copper(II) Heptafluorodimethyloctanedionate
Copper(II) Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Hydrate
Copper(I) Iodide Trimethylphosphite Complex
Copper(II) Methoxide
Copper Naphthenate
Copper Octoate
Copper(II) Oleate
Copper Oxalate
Copper Peptonate
Copper Phthalocyanine
Copper Phthalocyanine-3,4',4",4"'-tetrasulfonic Acid Tetrasodium Salt
Copper Salicylate
Copper Salicylate Monobasic
Copper(II) Tartrate Hydrate
Copper Tetrammine Sulfate Hydrate
Copper Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Copper Undecylenate
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Copper(II) Disodium Salt
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Diammonium Copper Salt Solution
(Hexamethylenetetramine)penta[copper(I) cyanide]
Iodo(trimethylphosphite)copper(I)
Tetrakisacetonitrile Copper(I) Triflate
Tetraamminecopper(II) Sulfate Monohydrate
Trifluoromethyl(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(I)
Tris(triphenylphosphine)(trifluoromethyl)copper(I)


Alloys

Aluminum Copper Alloy
Aluminum Copper Magnesium Alloy
Aluminum Copper Magnesium Manganese Alloy
Aluminum Copper Manganese Silicon Magnesium Alloy
Aluminum Copper Silicon Alloy
Aluminum Magnesium Copper Alloy
Aluminum Magnesium Silicon Copper Alloy
Aluminum Manganese Copper Alloy
Aluminum Nickel Copper Magnesium Alloy
Aluminium Tin Copper Alloy Particles
Aluminum Tin Copper Alloy Powder
Aluminum Zinc Magnesium Copper Chromium Alloy
Beryllium Copper Alloy
Beryllium Copper Grids
Brass Electrodes
Bronze Electrodes
Chromium Copper Alloy
Chromium Nickel Copper Alloy
Copper Aluminum Foam
Copper Aluminum Honeycomb
Copper Aluminum Sponge
Copper Aluminum Wool
Copper Aluminum Zinc Alloy
Copper Barium Alloy Particles
Copper Barium Alloy Powder
Copper Beryllium Foil
Copper Boron Alloy
Copper Chromium Alloy
Copper Chromium Nickel Silicon Alloy
Copper Chromium Zirconium Alloy
Copper Chromium Zirconium Alloy Particles
Copper Chromium Zirconium Alloy Powder
Copper Clad Molybdenum
Copper Cobalt Alloy
Copper Gold Alloy
Copper Gold Nickel Alloy
Copper Iron Alloy
Copper Manganese Nickel Alloy Powder
Copper Manganese Nickel Foil
Copper Manganese Nickel Rod
Copper Manganese Nickel Wire
Copper Nickel
Copper Nickel Foil
Copper Nickel Mesh
Copper Nickel Zinc Alloy
Copper Phosphorus
Copper Silver Inquarts
Copper Tin Alloy Spherical Powder
Copper Tin Silver Alloy
Copper Titanium
Copper Titanium Tin Alloy Particles
Copper Titanium Tin Alloy Powder
Copper Yttrium Alloy Particles
Copper Yttrium Alloy Powder
Copper Zinc Alloy
Copper Zinc Alloy Flakes
Copper Zinc Alloy Particles
Copper-Zinc Alloy Powder
Copper Zinc Prisms
Copper Zinc Silver Alloy
Copper Zirconium Alloy
Copper Zirconium Alloy Pieces
Gold Copper Alloy
Gold Copper Nickel Alloy
Gold Silver Copper Alloy
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Particles
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Powder
Iron Chromium Nickel Copper Alloy
Iron Chromium Nickel Copper Titanium Niobium
Iron Nickel Copper
Manganese Copper
Molybdenum Copper Heat Sinks
Molybdenum Copper Wafers
Nickel Copper Alloy
Nickel Copper Foam
Nickel Copper Honeycomb
Nickel Copper Iron Manganese Powder
Nickel Copper Iron Manganese Rod
Nickel Copper Metal
Nickel Copper Iron Alloy
Nickel Copper Silicon Alloy
Nickel Copper Sponge
Nickel Copper Wool
Palladium Copper Foil
Silver Cadmium Zinc Copper Alloy Particles
Silver Cadmium Zinc Copper Alloy Powder
Silver Copper Alloy
Silver Copper Alloy Particles
Silver Copper Alloy Powder
Silver/Copper Eutectic Brazing Paste
Silver Copper Foil
Silver Copper Indium Alloy
Silver Copper Manganese Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Tin Alloy
Silver Copper Tin Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Wire
Silver Copper Zinc Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Manganese Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Tin Alloy
Spangold Alloy
Tellurium Copper Alloy
Tin Bismuth Copper Silver Alloy
Tin Copper Alloy
Tin Silver Bismuth Copper Alloy
Tin Silver Copper Alloy
Titanium Copper Alloy
Titanium Nickel Copper
Titanium Nickel Copper Alloy
Tungsten Carbide Copper Alloy
Tungsten Copper Alloy
Tungsten Copper Bar
Tungsten-Copper Electrodes
Tungsten Copper Foil
Tungsten Copper Sheet
Tungsten Copper Tube
Tungsten Copper Wire
Tungsten Nickel Copper Alloy
Tungsten Nickel Copper Iron Alloy
Zinc Aluminum Copper Alloy
Zinc Copper Alloy
Zirconium Copper Alloy


Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Copper Arsenide
CIGS Granule
CIGS Lump
CIGS Particles
CIGS Powder
CIGS Single Crystal
CIGSS Granule
CIGSS Lump
CIGSS Powder
CIS Particles
CIS Powder
CIS Single Crystal
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide
Copper Indium Selenide
Copper Phosphide
Copper Selenide
Copper(I) Sulfide
Copper Sulfide
Copper Sulfide, Ultra Dry
Copper Telluride CuTe
Copper Telluride Cu2Te
Copper Titanium Selenide Granules


Isotopes

Copper-63 Isotope
Copper-63 Oxide Isotope
Copper-65 Isotope
Copper-65 Oxide Isotope




Recent Research & Development for Copper

  • Wen-Tong Chen, Qiu-Yan Luo, Ya-Ping Xu, Yan-Kang Dai, Shan-Lin Huang, Pei-Yu Guo, Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and properties of a thermally stable dysprosium porphyrin with a three-dimensional porous open framework, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 49, November 2014
  • Yingjie Zhang, Mohan Bhadbhade, Nicholas Scales, Inna Karatchevtseva, Jason R. Price, Kim Lu, Gregory R. Lumpkin, Dysprosium complexes with mono-/di-carboxylate ligands—From simple dimers to 2D and 3D frameworks, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 219, November 2014
  • Yan Sui, Xiao-Niu Fang, Rong-Hua Hu, Jia Li, Dong-Sheng Liu, A new type of multifunctional single ionic dysprosium complex based on chiral salen-type Schiff base ligand, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 423, Part A, 1 November 2014
  • Yan Wang, Bin Cui, Lulu Zhang, Zhenyu Hu, Yaoyu Wang, Phase composition, microstructure, and dielectric properties of dysprosium-doped Ba(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3-based Y5V ceramics with high permittivity, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part A, September 2014
  • M.F. Al-Kuhaili, S.M.A. Durrani, Structural and optical properties of dysprosium oxide thin films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 591, 5 April 2014
  • Huijie Zhang, Ruiqing Fan, Wei Chen, Xubin Zheng, Kai Li, Ping Wang, Yulin Yang, Two new dysprosium–organic frameworks contaning rigid dicarboxylate ligands: Synthesis and effect of solvents on the luminescent properties, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 143, November 2013
  • Stuart K. Langley, Boujemaa Moubaraki, Keith S. Murray, Trinuclear, octanuclear and decanuclear dysprosium(III) complexes: Synthesis, structural and magnetic studies, Polyhedron, Volume 64, 12 November 2013
  • Mengsi Yang, Jianhua Jin, Guiqing Xu, Fengling Cui, Hongxia Luo, A naproxen complex of dysprosium intercalates into calf thymus DNA base pairs, Chemical Physics, Volume 428, 15 January 2014
  • Zhi-Gang Wang, Jing Lu, Chun-Yan Gao, Chao Wang, Jin-Lei Tian, Wen Gu, Xin Liu, Shi-Ping Yan, Single-ion magnet behavior of a new mononuclear dysprosium complex, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 27, January 2013
  • Brian J. Jaques, Daniel D. Osterberg, Gordon A. Alanko, Sumit Tamrakar, Cole R. Smith, Michael F. Hurley, Darryl P. Butt, In situ characterization of the nitridation of dysprosium during mechanochemical processing, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 201

Copper Isotopes


Copper has two stable isotopes, 63Cu and 65Cu.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
63Cu 62.9295975 Stable 3/2-
65Cu 64.9277895 Stable 3/2-