Silver Elemental Symbol
Silver



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Argent Silber Argento Prata Plata Silver

Silver(Ag)atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolSilver is a Block D, Group 11, Period 5 element. Silver Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Silver's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 1 and its electron configuration is [Kr]4d10 5s1. Elemental SilverThe silver atom has a radius of 144.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 144.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-22-4, silver has a brilliant white metallic luster. It is a little harder than gold and is very ductile and malleable, being exceeded only by gold and perhaps palladium. Pure silver has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals, and possesses the lowest contact resistance. It is stable in pure air and water, but tarnishes when exposed to ozone, hydrogen sulfide, or air containing sulfur. Silver was first discovered by Early Man prior to 5000 BC. It is found in copper, copper-nickel, lead, and lead-zinc ores among others. Silver was named after the Anglo-Saxon word "seolfor" or "siolfur" meaning 'silver'.

Silver has a long history as a precious metal where it's been used in coins, ornaments, jewelry, and utensils (silverware). Silver is also used for electrical contacts and conductors. It's sometimes used as a catalysis of chemical reactions. Silver nitrate has wide application in painting, xerography, chemical electroplating and electric batteries. Silver chloride is another important compound, due to its ductility and malleability. High Purity (99.999%) Silver (Ag) Sputtering TargetThe organic compounds of the element are used in the coating of several metals and in dynamite or other explosive bars. Silver is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Silver Oxide (AgO)PowderSilver nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Silver is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Silver is not toxic although most silver salts are poisonous. Safety data for Silver and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Silver Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Ag Melting Point: 1234.93 K, 961.78 °C, 1763.2 °F
Atomic Number: 47 Boiling Point: 2435 K, 2162 °C, 3924 °F
Atomic Weight: 107.8682 Density: 10.49 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 9.320 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 11, 5, d Specific Heat: 0.23 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 257.7 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 11.3 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 47 Thermal Conductivity: 429 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 47 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 18.9 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 61 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 15.87 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d105s1 Electronegativity: 1.93 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 145 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 145±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.350 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 172 pm Young's Modulus: 83 GPa
Oxidation States: 1, 2, 3 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 30 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 100 GPa
Crystal Structure: Cubic face centered Poisson Ratio: 0.37
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 2.5
1st Ionization Energy: 731.01 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 251 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 2073.48 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 206 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2073.48 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 2680 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-22-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22394 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23954 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.6 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00003397 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.007 ppb
EC Number: 231-131-3 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: before 5000 BC
SMILES Identifier: [Ag]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ag Other Names: Argentum, Argent, Silber, Plata
InChI Key: BQCADISMDOOEFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Silver Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Silver Balls
Silver Bands
Silver Bars
Silver Bits
Silver Board
Silver Briquette
Silver Capsules
Silver Circle
Silver Coil
Silver Coins
Silver Concentrate
Silver Crucibles
Silver Disc
Silver Dust
Silver Flake
Silver Flanges
Silver Foam
Silver Foil
Silver Fragments
Silver Grain
Silver Granules
Silver Honeycomb
Silver Ingot
Silver Inquarts
Silver Insulated Wire
Silver Lump
Silver Mesh
Silver Metal
Silver Microfoil
Silver Microleaf
Silver Needles
Silver Nugget
Silver Particles
Silver Parts
Silver Paste
Silver Pebbles
Silver Pellets
Silver Pieces
Silver Pills
Silver Plates
Silver Powder
Silver Precipitate
Silver Prisms
Silver Puck
Silver Residue
Silver Ribbon
Silver Rings
Silver Rocks
Silver Rod
Silver Samples
Silver Scraps
Silver Segments
Silver Shaving
Silver Sheets
Silver Shot
Silver Sleeves
Silver Slugs
Silver Specimens
Silver Spheres
Silver Sponge
Silver Spring
Silver Strip
Silver Tape
Silver Tube
Silver Wafer
Silver Wire
Silver Wool
Ultra Thin Silver Foil


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Silver Sputtering Target
Cerium Silver Sputtering Target
Neodymium Silver Sputtering Target
Silver Aluminum Sputtering Target
Silver Copper Sputtering Target
Silver Fluoride Sputtering Target
Silver Lanthanum Sputtering Target
Silver Lutetium Sputtering Target
Silver Magnesium Sputtering Target
Silver Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Silver Oxide Sputtering Target
Silver Phosphide Sputtering Target
Silver Rotatable Sputtering Target
Silver Selenide Sputtering Target
Silver Sputtering Target
Silver Sulfide Sputtering Target
Silver Telluride Sputtering Target
Silver Tin Sputtering Target


Oxide Forms

Silver Molybdenum Oxide
Silver Oxide Particles
Silver Oxide Pellets
Silver Oxide Pieces
Silver Oxide Powder
Silver Oxide Shot
Silver Oxide Tablets
Silver Tungsten Oxide
Compounds

L-(+)-Lactic Acid Silver Salt
Mercury(II) Silver Iodide
Potassium Chloride/Silver Chloride Solution
Potassium Dicyanoargentate
Silver Acetate
Silver Acetate Solution
Silver Arsenate
Silver Benzoate
Silver Benzoate Hydrate
Silver Bromate
Silver Bromide
Silver Carbide
Silver Carbonate
Silver Chlorate
Silver Chloride
Silver Chloride, Ultra Dry
Silver Chloride Solution
Silver Chromate
Silver Citrate Hydrate
Silver Cyanate
Silver Cyanide
Silver Cyanide-13C
Silver Cylinder
Silver Difluoride
Silver Fluoride
Silver(II) Fluoride
Disilver Fluoride
Silver Heptafluorobutyrate
Silver Hexafluoroanimonate(V)
Silver Hexafluoroarsenate(V)
Silver Hexafluorophosphate
Silver Hydrogen Fluoride
Silver Iodate
Silver Iodide
Silver Lactate
Silver Metavanadate
Silver Methanesulfonate
Silver Molybdate
Silver Molybdenum Oxide
Silver Nitrate
Silver Nitrate on Silica Gel
Silver Nitrate Solution
Silver Nitrite
Silver Oxalate
Silver(I) Oxide Ag2O
Silver(II) Oxide AgO
Disilver Oxide
Silver Pentafluoropropionate
Silver Perchlorate
Silver(I) Perchlorate, Anhydrous
Silver Perchlorate Hydrate
Silver Perchlorate Monohydrate
Silver Permanganate
Silver Perrhenate
Silver Phosphate
Silver Phthalocyanine
Silver Potassium Cyanide
Silver Potassium Iodide
Silver Salicylate Hydrate
Silver Selenate
Silver Selenite
Silver Stearate
Silver Sulfadiazine
Silver Sulfate
Silver Sulfate Solution
Silver(I) Sulfite
Silver(I) Tetraborate Hydrate
Silver Tetrafluoroborate
Silver Thiocyanate
Silver Trifluoroacetate
Silver Triocyanate
Silver Tungstate
Silver-exchanged Zeolite


Organometallic Compounds

(1,5-Cyclooctadiene) (hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver
Silver 2-Ethylhexanoate
Silver Acetylacetonate
Silver Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide
Silver Cyclohexanebutyrate
Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate
Silver Neodecanoate
Silver p-toluenesulfonate
Silver Pivalate
Silver Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Tetrakis(acetonitrile)silver(I) Tetrafluoroborate


Isotopes

Silver-107 Isotope
Silver-109 Isotope




Alloys

Bismuth Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Copper Tin Silver Alloy
Copper-Silver Inquarts
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Particles
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Powder
Gold Silver Copper Alloy
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Particles
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Powder
Gold Silver Tin Alloy
Indium Lead Silver Alloy
Indium Silver Alloy
Indium Silver Rod
Lead Indium Silver Alloy
Lead Silver Alloy
Lead Silver Antimony Alloy
Lead-Silver Inquarts
Lead Silver Tin Alloy
Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Lead Tin Silver Indium Alloy
Nickel Silver Foil
Nickel Silver Tube
Palladium Silver Foil
Silver Cadmium Zinc Copper Alloy Particles
Silver Cadmium Zinc Copper Alloy Powder
Silver Copper Alloy Particles
Silver Copper Alloy Powder
Silver/Copper Eutectic Brazing Paste
Silver Copper Foil
Silver Copper Indium Alloy
Silver Copper Manganese Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Tin Alloy
Silver Copper Tin Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Manganese Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Tin Alloy
Silver Copper Wire
Silver Gold Alloy
Silver Gold Hollow Spheres
Silver Gold Tube
Silver Indium Sulfur Granule
Silver Indium Sulfur Lump
Silver Indium Sulfur Powder
Silver Indium Tellurium Granules
Silver Indium Tellurium Powder
Silver Indium Tellurium Lump
Silver Lead Alloy
Silver Nickel
Silver/Palladium/Platinum Conductor Paste
Silver Palladium Foil
Silver/Platinum Conductor Paste
Silver Tungsten Electrode
Tin Bismuth Copper Silver Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Particles
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Powder
Tin Silver Alloy
Tin Silver Antimony Alloy
Tin Silver Bismuth Copper Alloy
Tin Silver Copper Alloy
Tin Silver Zinc Alloy
Tungsten Silver Alloy
Zirconium Silver Alloy


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Disilver Selenide
Disilver Sulfide
Silver Antimony Telluride
Silver Arsenide
Silver Gallium Selenide Granules
Silver Gallium Telluride Granules
Silver Indium Selenide Granules
Silver Indium Sulfide Granules
Silver Indium Telluride Granules
Silver Phosphide
Silver Selenide
Silver Sulfide
Silver Telluride
Silver Titanium Selenide Granules
Silver Titanium Telluride Granules


Nanomaterials

Decanethiol Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles Solution
Silver Copper Nanopowder
Silver Gold Hollow Nanospheres
Silver Gold Nanotubes
Silver Nanoparticle Ink
Silver Nanoparticles
Silver Nanoprisms
Silver Nanorods
Silver Nanotubes
Silver Nanowires
Silver Oxide Nanopowder
Silver Platinum Nanopowder
Silver Tin Alloy Nanopowder


Recent Research & Development for Silver

  • Silver nanoparticle-specific mitotoxicity in Daphnia magna. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Stensberg MC
  • Using gold nanorods core/silver shell nanostructures as model material to probe biodistribution and toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in mice. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Meng J
  • The antibacterial effects of silver, titanium dioxide and silica dioxide nanoparticles compared to the dental disinfectant chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans using a… A Besinis, T De Peralta, RD Handy - Nanotoxicology, 2014 - informahealthcare.com
  • Inhibition of biofilm formation and antibacterial properties of a silver nano-coating on human dentine. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Besinis A
  • Systematic analysis of silver nanoparticle ionic dissolution by tangential flow filtration: toxicological implications. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Maurer EI
  • Analytically monitored digestion of silver nanoparticles and their toxicity on human intestinal cells. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Böhmert L
  • Phenylboronic acid modified silver nanoparticles for colorimetric dynamic analysis of glucose. Cao K, Jiang X, Yan S, Zhang L, Wu W. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Feb.
  • In vitro toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles in the presence of phenolic compounds - preventive agents against the harmful effect? Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Martirosyan A
  • Combined repeated-dose toxicity study of silver nanoparticles with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening test. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Hong JS
  • Assessment of orally dosed commercial silver nanoparticles on human ex vivo platelet aggregation. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Smock KJ
  • Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. Bindhu MR, Sathe V, Umadevi M. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013 Nov.
  • Bioaccumulation of silver nanoparticles into Daphnia magna from a freshwater algal diet and the impact of phosphate availability. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:McTeer J
  • Physicochemical properties of gelatin/silver nanoparticle antimicrobial composite films. Kanmani P, Rhim JW. Food Chem. 2014 Apr.
  • Formation and characterization of silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution via ultrasonic irradiation. He C, Liu L, Fang Z, Li J, Guo J, Wei J. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 Mar.
  • Nanogold/mesoporous carbon foam-mediated silver enhancement for graphene-enhanced electrochemical immunosensing of carcinoembryonic antigen. Lin D, Wu J, Ju H, Yan F. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014.
  • A novel luminol chemiluminescent method catalyzed by silver/gold alloy nanoparticles for determination of anticancer drug flutamide.
  • DNA-templated silver nanoclusters based label-free fluorescent molecular beacon for the detection of adenosine deaminase. Zhang K, Wang K, Xie M, Zhu X, Xu L, Yang R, Huang B, Zhu X. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Feb.
  • Graphene oxide as nanogold carrier for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of Shewanella oneidensis with silver enhancement strategy. Wen J, Zhou S, Yuan Y. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Feb.
  • Antimicrobial wound dressing nanofiber mats from multicomponent (chitosan/silver-NPs/polyvinyl alcohol) systems. Abdelgawad AM, Hudson SM, Rojas OJ. Carbohydr Polym. 2014 Jan.
  • Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle from leaf extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. and its biomedical potential. Thirunavoukkarasu M, Balaji U, Behera S, Panda PK, Mishra BK. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc.

Silver Isotopes


Naturally occurring silver (Ag) has two stable isotopes: 107Ag and 109Ag.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
107Ag 106.905097 Stable 1/2-
109Ag 108.904752 Stable 1/2-