Silver Elemental Symbol
Silver



French German Italian Portuguese Spanish Swedish
Argent Silber Argento Prata Plata Silver

Silver(Ag)atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolSilver is a Block D, Group 11, Period 5 element. Silver Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Silver's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 1 and its electron configuration is [Kr]4d10 5s1. Elemental SilverThe silver atom has a radius of 144.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 144.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-22-4, silver has a brilliant white metallic luster. It is a little harder than gold and is very ductile and malleable, being exceeded only by gold and perhaps palladium. Pure silver has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals, and possesses the lowest contact resistance. It is stable in pure air and water, but tarnishes when exposed to ozone, hydrogen sulfide, or air containing sulfur. Silver was first discovered by Early Man prior to 5000 BC. It is found in copper, copper-nickel, lead, and lead-zinc ores among others. Silver was named after the Anglo-Saxon word "seolfor" or "siolfur" meaning 'silver'.

Silver has a long history as a precious metal where it's been used in coins, ornaments, jewelry, and utensils (silverware). Silver is also used for electrical contacts and conductors. It's sometimes used as a catalysis of chemical reactions. Silver nitrate has wide application in painting, xerography, chemical electroplating and electric batteries. Silver chloride is another important compound, due to its ductility and malleability. High Purity (99.999%) Silver (Ag) Sputtering TargetThe organic compounds of the element are used in the coating of several metals and in dynamite or other explosive bars. Silver is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Silver Oxide (AgO)PowderSilver nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Silver is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Silver is not toxic although most silver salts are poisonous. Safety data for Silver and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Silver Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Ag Melting Point: 1234.93 K, 961.78 °C, 1763.2 °F
Atomic Number: 47 Boiling Point: 2435 K, 2162 °C, 3924 °F
Atomic Weight: 107.8682 Density: 10.49 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 9.320 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 11, 5, d Specific Heat: 0.23 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 257.7 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 11.3 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 47 Thermal Conductivity: 429 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 47 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 18.9 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 61 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 15.87 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d105s1 Electronegativity: 1.93 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 145 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 145±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.350 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 172 pm Young's Modulus: 83 GPa
Oxidation States: 1, 2, 3 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 30 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 100 GPa
Crystal Structure: Cubic face centered Poisson Ratio: 0.37
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 2.5
1st Ionization Energy: 731.01 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 251 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 2073.48 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 206 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2073.48 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 2680 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-22-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22394 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23954 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.6 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00003397 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.007 ppb
EC Number: 231-131-3 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: before 5000 BC
SMILES Identifier: [Ag]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ag Other Names: Argentum, Argent, Silber, Plata
InChI Key: BQCADISMDOOEFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Silver Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Silver Balls
Silver Bands
Silver Bars
Silver Bits
Silver Board
Silver Briquette
Silver Capsules
Silver Circle
Silver Coil
Silver Coins
Silver Concentrate
Silver Crucibles
Silver Cylinder
Silver Disc
Silver Dust
Silver Flake
Silver Flanges
Silver Foam
Silver Foil
Silver Fragments
Silver Grain
Silver Granules
Silver Honeycomb
Silver Ingot
Silver Inquarts
Silver Insulated Wire
Silver Lump
Silver Mesh
Silver Metal
Silver Microfoil
Silver Microleaf
Silver Needles
Silver Nugget
Silver Particles
Silver Parts
Silver Paste
Silver Pebbles
Silver Pellets
Silver Pieces
Silver Pills
Silver Plates
Silver Powder
Silver Precipitate
Silver Prisms
Silver Puck
Silver Residue
Silver Ribbon
Silver Rings
Silver Rocks
Silver Rod
Silver Samples
Silver Scraps
Silver Segments
Silver Shaving
Silver Sheets
Silver Shot
Silver Sleeves
Silver Slugs
Silver Specimens
Silver Spheres
Silver Sponge
Silver Spring
Silver Strip
Silver Tape
Silver Tube
Silver Wafer
Silver Wire
Silver Wool
Ultra Thin Silver Foil


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Silver Sputtering Target
Cerium Silver Sputtering Target
Neodymium Silver Sputtering Target
Silver Aluminum Sputtering Target
Silver Copper Sputtering Target
Silver Fluoride Sputtering Target
Silver Lanthanum Sputtering Target
Silver Lutetium Sputtering Target
Silver Magnesium Sputtering Target
Silver Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Silver Oxide Sputtering Target
Silver Phosphide Sputtering Target
Silver Rotatable Sputtering Target
Silver Selenide Sputtering Target
Silver Sputtering Target
Silver Sulfide Sputtering Target
Silver Telluride Sputtering Target
Silver Tin Sputtering Target


Oxide Forms

Silver Oxide Particles
Silver Oxide Pellets
Silver Oxide Pieces
Silver Oxide Powder
Silver Oxide Shot
Silver Oxide Tablets
Compounds

L-(+)-Lactic Acid Silver Salt
Mercury(II) Silver Iodide
Potassium Chloride/Silver Chloride Solution
Potassium Dicyanoargentate
Silver Acetate
Silver Acetate Solution
Silver Arsenate
Silver Benzoate
Silver Benzoate Hydrate
Silver Bromate
Silver Bromide
Silver Carbide
Silver Carbonate
Silver Chlorate
Silver Chloride
Silver Chloride, Ultra Dry
Silver Chloride Solution
Silver Chromate
Silver Cyanate
Silver Cyanide
Silver Difluoride
Silver Fluoride
Silver(II) Fluoride
Disilver Fluoride
Silver Hexafluoroanimonate(V)
Silver Hexafluoroarsenate(V)
Silver Hexafluorophosphate
Silver Hydrogen Fluoride
Silver Iodate
Silver Iodide
Silver Lactate
Silver Metavanadate
Silver Molybdate
Silver Molybdenum Oxide
Silver Nitrate
Silver Nitrate on Silica Gel
Silver Nitrate Solution
Silver Nitrite
Silver Oxalate
Silver(I) Oxide Ag2O
Silver(II) Oxide AgO
Disilver Oxide
Silver Pentafluoropropionate
Silver Perchlorate
Silver(I) Perchlorate, Anhydrous
Silver Perchlorate Hydrate
Silver Perchlorate Monohydrate
Silver Permanganate
Silver Perrhenate
Silver Phosphate
Silver Phthalocyanine
Silver Potassium Cyanide
Silver Potassium Iodide
Silver Salicylate Hydrate
Silver Selenate
Silver Selenite
Silver Stearate
Silver Sulfate
Silver Sulfate Solution
Silver(I) Sulfite
Silver(I) Tetraborate Hydrate
Silver Tetrafluoroborate
Silver Thiocyanate
Silver Trifluoroacetate
Silver Tungstate
Silver-exchanged Zeolite


Organometallic Compounds

(1,5-Cyclooctadiene) (hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver
Silver 2-Ethylhexanoate
Silver Acetylacetonate
Silver Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide
Silver Citrate Hydrate
Silver Cyclohexanebutyrate
Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate
Silver Heptafluorobutyrate
Silver Methanesulfonate
Silver Neodecanoate
Silver p-toluenesulfonate
Silver Perfluorooctanoate
Silver Pivalate
Silver Sulfadiazine
Silver Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Tetrakis(acetonitrile)silver(I) Tetrafluoroborate


Isotopes

Silver-107 Isotope
Silver-109 Isotope
Silver Cyanide-13C




Alloys

Bismuth Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Copper Tin Silver Alloy
Copper-Silver Inquarts
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Particles
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Powder
Gold Silver Copper Alloy
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Particles
Gold Silver Copper Alloy Powder
Gold Silver Tin Alloy
Indium Lead Silver Alloy
Indium Silver Alloy
Indium Silver Rod
Lead Indium Silver Alloy
Lead Silver Alloy
Lead Silver Antimony Alloy
Lead-Silver Inquarts
Lead Silver Tin Alloy
Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Lead Tin Silver Indium Alloy
Nickel Silver Foil
Nickel Silver Tube
Palladium Silver Foil
Silver Cadmium Zinc Copper Alloy Particles
Silver Cadmium Zinc Copper Alloy Powder
Silver Copper Alloy Particles
Silver Copper Alloy Powder
Silver/Copper Eutectic Brazing Paste
Silver Copper Foil
Silver Copper Indium Alloy
Silver Copper Manganese Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Tin Alloy
Silver Copper Tin Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Manganese Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Nickel Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Tin Alloy
Silver Copper Wire
Silver Gold Alloy
Silver Gold Hollow Spheres
Silver Gold Tube
Silver Indium Sulfur Granule
Silver Indium Sulfur Lump
Silver Indium Sulfur Powder
Silver Indium Tellurium Granules
Silver Indium Tellurium Powder
Silver Indium Tellurium Lump
Silver Lead Alloy
Silver Nickel
Silver/Palladium/Platinum Conductor Paste
Silver Palladium Foil
Silver/Platinum Conductor Paste
Silver Tungsten Electrode
Tin Bismuth Copper Silver Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Particles
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Powder
Tin Silver Alloy
Tin Silver Antimony Alloy
Tin Silver Bismuth Copper Alloy
Tin Silver Copper Alloy
Tin Silver Zinc Alloy
Tungsten Silver Alloy
Zirconium Silver Alloy


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Disilver Selenide
Disilver Sulfide
Silver Antimony Telluride
Silver Arsenide
Silver Gallium Selenide
Silver Gallium Sulfide
Silver Gallium Telluride Granules
Silver Indium Selenide Granules
Silver Indium Sulfide Granules
Silver Indium Telluride Granules
Silver Phosphide
Silver Selenide
Silver Sulfide
Silver Telluride
Silver Titanium Selenide Granules
Silver Titanium Telluride Granules


Nanomaterials

Decanethiol Functionalized Silver Nanoparticles Solution
Silver Copper Nanopowder
Silver Gold Hollow Nanospheres
Silver Gold Nanotubes
Silver Nanoparticle Ink
Silver Nanoparticles
Silver Nanoprisms
Silver Nanorods
Silver Nanotubes
Silver Nanowires
Silver Oxide Nanopowder
Silver Platinum Nanopowder
Silver Tin Alloy Nanopowder


Recent Research & Development for Silver

  • Mingzhong Zou, Jiaxin Li, WeiWei Wen, Luzhuo Chen, Lunhui Guan, Heng Lai, Zhigao Huang, Silver-incorporated composites of Fe2O3 carbon nanofibers as anodes for high-performance lithium batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 270, 15 December 2014
  • Qiyu Wang, Xiaoqiang CUI, Weiming Guan, Lei Zhang, Xiaofeng Fan, Zhan Shi, Weitao Zheng, Shape-dependent catalytic activity of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on silver nanodecahedra and nanocubes, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 269, 10 December 2014
  • Huang Lin-jun, Wang Yan-xin, Huang Zhen, Tang Jian-guo, Wang Yao, Liu Ji-xian, Jiao Ji-qing, Liu Jing-quan, Laurence A. Belfiore, Effects of graphene/silver nanohybrid additives on electrochemical properties of magnesium-based amorphous alloy, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 269, 10 December 2014
  • Nguyen Thi Lan, Do Thi Chi, Ngo Xuan Dinh, Nguyen Duy Hung, Hoang Lan, Pham Anh Tuan, Le Hong Thang, Nguyen Ngoc Trung, Nguyen Quang Hoa, Tran Quang Huy, Nguyen Van Quy, Thanh-Tung Duong, Vu Ngoc Phan, Anh-Tuan Le, Photochemical decoration of silver nanoparticles on graphene oxide nanosheets and their optical characterization, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 615, 5 December 2014
  • Liangtao Pu, Kexun Li, Zhihao Chen, Peng Zhang, Xi Zhang, Zhou Fu, Silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Yanan Yu, Mingzhe Jia, Huifeng Tian, Jingbo Hu, The fabrication of silver ion implantation-modified electrode and its application in electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Sandeep Nigam, Chiranjib Majumder, Comparison between cluster and slab model for Pt-group atom adsorption on gold and silver substrate, Surface Science, Volume 630, December 2014
  • Yuan-Fong Chau, Chih-Chan Hu, Ci-Yao Jheng, Yao-Tsung Tsai, Li-Zen Hsieh, Wayne Yang, Chien-Ying Chiang, Yuh-Sien Sun, Cheng-Min Lee, Numerical investigation of surface plasmon resonance effects on photocatalytic activities using silver nanobeads photodeposited onto a titanium dioxide layer, Optics Communications, Volume 331, 15 November 2014
  • Safaa N. Saud, E. Hamzah, T. Abubakar, H.R. Bakhsheshi-Rad, S. Farahany, A. Abdolahi, M.M. Taheri, Influence of Silver nanoparticles addition on the phase transformation, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloys, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 612, 5 November 2014
  • K. Thanigai Arul, J. Ramana Ramya, G.M. Bhalerao, S. Narayana Kalkura, Physicochemical characterization of the superhydrophilic, magnesium and silver ions co-incorporated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, synthesized by microwave processing, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 9, Part A, November 2014
  • Lorena Soria, Paloma Ovejero, Mercedes Cano, José A. Campo, M. Rosario Torres, Cristina Núñez, Carlos Lodeiro, Selecting pyrazole-based silver complexes for efficient liquid crystal and luminescent materials, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 110, November 2014
  • Osman Ozturk, Ozlem Oter, Serdar Yildirim, Elif Subasi, Kadriye Ertekin, Erdal Celik, Hamdi Temel, Tuning oxygen sensitivity of ruthenium complex exploiting silver nanoparticles, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 155, November 2014
  • Leila Farzampour, Mohammad Amjadi, Sensitive turn-on fluorescence assay of methimazole based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between acridine orange and silver nanoparticles, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 155, November 2014
  • Dennis Wittmaier, Norbert Wagner, K. Andreas Friedrich, Hatem M.A. Amin, Helmut Baltruschat, Modified carbon-free silver electrodes for the use as cathodes in lithium–air batteries with an aqueous alkaline electrolyte, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 265, 1 November 2014
  • Hemant P. Borase, Chandrashekhar D. Patil, Rahul B. Salunkhe, Rahul K. Suryawanshi, Bipinchandra K. Salunke, Satish V. Patil, Inhibition of restriction endonucleases by biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles: An in vitro study, Materials Letters, Volume 134, 1 November 2014
  • Hongsheng Luo, Zhiwei Li, Guobin Yi, Xihong Zu, Huan Wang, Yunjia Wang, Hailiang Huang, Jiwen Hu, Zhenfei Liang, Benbin Zhong, Electro-responsive silver nanowire-shape memory polymer composites, Materials Letters, Volume 134, 1 November 2014
  • Hui Liu, Tingting Liu, Xiaonan Dong, Zhenfeng Zhu, A novel fabrication of silver-modified 3D singlecrystal nanowires-assembled rutile TiO2 nanoflowers with enhanced visible photocatalytic activities, Materials Letters, Volume 134, 1 November 2014
  • Lang Pei, Weidong Xiang, Xiuli Zhao, Xiaojuan Liang, Xinyu Yang, Haitao Liu, Zhaoping Chen, Cuiping Xie, Xin Ma, Chenglong Zhang, Li Ma, Jialong Zhao, Sol–gel synthesis of silver nanocrystals embedded in sodium borosilicate monolithic transparent glass with giant third-order optical nonlinearities, Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 59, November 2014
  • J. Ashok Kumar, S. Perumal, K.R. Murali, Brush electrodeposited silver indium selenide films and their optical characteristics, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • Junwoo Kim, Navaneethan Duraisamy, Taik-Min Lee, Inyoung Kim, Kyung-Hyun Choi, Hybrid electrohydrodynamic atomization of nanostructured silver top contact for inverted organic solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 130, November 2014

Silver Isotopes


Naturally occurring silver (Ag) has two stable isotopes: 107Ag and 109Ag.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
107Ag 106.905097 Stable 1/2-
109Ag 108.904752 Stable 1/2-