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About Fluorides

Fluoride IonThe fluoride ion is the anion of fluorine, F-, and fluorides are compounds which contain this anion. Metallic mono-, di, and trifluorides usually exhibit ionic bonding, pentafluorides and higher exhibit covalent bonding, and tetrafluorides contain bonds with intermediate properties. Ionic-bonded fluorides may be soluble or insoluble: alkali fluorides are soluble, alkali earth metals form insoluble fluorides, transition metal difluorides are often soluble, and trifluorides are insoluble. An exception to some of these trends is beryllium difluoride, which features bonds with partially covalent character and the crystalline structure of a covalently bonded network solid, yet is soluble in water.

Covalently metal-bonded fluorides are typically either gases or volatile liquids or solids, and act chemically as oxidants and fluoridating agents. Tungsten hexafluoride is used routinely to deposit tungsten using chemical vapor deposition methods in semiconductor device fabrication. Uranium hexafluoride is of vital importance to the enrichment processed used to produce nuclear reactor fuels and material for nuclear weapons. Non-metal fluorides also exist, and all are volatile compounds, but their chemical properties vary widely. A number of important superacids contain fluorine, and are typically produced by mixing hydrogen fluoride, itself a highly reactive acid, with a metal fluoride.

Fluoride Products

American Elements manufactures multiple forms of fluorides compounds including solutions, nanopowders, submicron, and -325 mesh powders, and high surface area materials with particle distribution and particle size controlled and certified. We also produce larger -40 mesh, -100 mesh, -200 mesh range sizes and <0.5 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm and other sizes of shot, granules, lump, flake and pieces. Purities include 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999% and 99.9999% (2N, 3N, 4N, 5N and 6N).

American Elements maintains industrial scale production for all its fluorides products and will execute Non-Disclosure or Confidentiality Agreements to protect customer know-how.

Recent Research & Development for Fluorides

  • Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors. Pearcy K, Elphick J, Burnett-Seidel C. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015 Mar 2.
  • The influence of varnish and high fluoride on erosion and abrasion in a laboratory investigation. Sar Sancakli H, Austin R, Al-Saqabi F, Moazzez R, Bartlett D. Aust Dent J. 2015 Mar
  • The fin whale, a marine top consumer, exposes strengths and weaknesses of the use of fluoride as ecological tracer. Vighi M, García-Nisa I, Borrell A, Aguilar A. Chemosphere. 2015 Mar 3
  • Comparison of the Biological Impacts of the Fluoride Compounds by Graphical Risk Visualization Map Technique. Usuda K, Kono R, Ueno T, Ito Y, Dote T, Yokoyama H, Kono K, Tamaki J. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2015 Mar 8.
  • Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium. Bacquart T, Frisbie S, Mitchell E, Grigg L, Cole C, Small C, Sarkar B. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 4
  • Effect of silver diamine fluoride and potassium iodide on residual bacteria in dentinal tubules. Hamama H, Yiu C, Burrow M. Aust Dent J. 2015 Mar
  • Arginine promotes fluoride uptake into artificial carious lesions in vitro. Cheng X, Xu P, Zhou X, Deng M, Cheng L, Li M, Li Y, Xu X. Aust Dent J. 2015 Mar
  • Fluoride concentrations in the water of Maringá, Brazil, considering the benefit/risk balance of caries and fluorosis. Bergamo ET, Barbana M, Terada RS, Cury JA, Fujimaki M. Braz Oral Res. 2015 Mar
  • The Fluoride Content of Yerba Mate Depending on the Country of Origin and the Conditions of the Infusion. ?ukomska A, Jakubczyk K, Maciejewska D, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Janda K, Goschorska M, Chlubek D, Bosiacka B, Gutowska I. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2015 Mar 17.
  • Synthesis and characterization of fluoride-incorporated polyoxovanadates. Kikukawa Y, Yokoyama T, Kashio S, Hayashi Y. J Inorg Biochem. 2015 Feb 26.
  • Observation of color center peaks in calcium fluoride. Aoki T, Garvie LA, Rez P. Ultramicroscopy. 2015 Feb 18
  • An isotope hydrochemical approach to understand fluoride release into groundwaters of the Datong Basin, Northern China. Su C, Wang Y, Xie X, Zhu Y. Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2015 Mar 6.
  • Effect of Sodium Fluoride on the Proliferation and Gene Differential Expression in Human RPMI8226 Cells. He H, Wang H, Jiao Y, Ma C, Zhang H, Zhou Z. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2015 Mar 1.
  • Imaging Chronic Tuberculous Lesions Using Sodium [18F]Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography in Mice. Ordonez AA, DeMarco VP, Klunk MH, Pokkali S, Jain SK. Mol Imaging Biol. 2015 Mar 7.
  • Cerium fluoride nanoparticles protect cells against oxidative stress. Shcherbakov AB, Zholobak NM, Baranchikov AE, Ryabova AV, Ivanov VK. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2015 May
  • Airway Involvement of Relapsing Polychondritis Revealed by 18F-Fluoride PET/CT. Zhang W, Zhu Z. Clin Nucl Med. 2015 Apr
  • Self-oriented β-crystalline phase in the polyvinylidene fluoride ferroelectric and piezo-sensitive ultrathin Langmuir-Schaefer film. Maji S, Sarkar PK, Aggarwal L, Ghosh SK, Mandal D, Sheet G, Acharya S. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2015 Mar 11
  • Polyvinylidene Fluoride as a Suture Material: Evaluation of Comet Tail-Like Infiltrate and Foreign Body Granuloma. Lambertz A, Schröder KM, Schöb DS, Binnebösel M, Anurov M, Klinge U, Neumann UP, Klink CD. Eur Surg Res. 2015 Feb 25
  • Fluoride dose-response of human and bovine enamel artificial caries lesions under pH-cycling conditions. Lippert F, Juthani K. Clin Oral Investig. 2015 Mar 4.
  • Targeted Fluorination with the Fluoride Ion by Manganese-Catalyzed Decarboxylation. Huang X, Liu W, Hooker JM, Groves JT. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2015 Mar 3.