AE Fuel Cells™

Specializing in Cathode, Electrolyte, Anode and Interconnect Powders,
Nanopowders (Nanoparticles) and Inks for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs),
American Elements' fuel cell group provides the raw materials necessary
to produce a highly compatible thin film electrochemistry with
excellent thermal expansion matching.

32.4 (A)/00.012

  Hydrogen                                 Helium
  Lithium Beryllium                     Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
  Sodium Magnesium                     Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
  Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
  Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
  Cesium Barium Lanthanum Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
  Francium Radium Actinium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
      Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium    
      Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawerencium    

solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte cross section by SEMAmerican Elements manufactures numerous Perovskite-type fuel cell materials via solid state synthesis under the trademark AE Fuel Cells™. These materials include Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (LSM), Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite (LSF), Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite (LSCF), Lanthanum Strontium Chromite (LSC), and Lanthanum Strontium Gallate Magnesite (LSGM) with doping levels, surface areas and other parameters to customer specifications; Nickel Cermet compositions with YSZ (Yttria stabilized Zirconia) doping, physical levels, and PSDs (particles size distribution) controlled; and ionically conductive electrolytes such as YSZ, Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (SCZ), Gadolinium doped Ceria (GDC), Samarium doped Ceria (SDC), and Yttrium doped Ceria (YDC).

AE X-Ray Diffraction Unit for crystal structure analysis and certification Cathode Materials - Solid oxide fuel cell cathodes are electronically conductive and stable in oxidizing environments. They are crystalline Perovskite structures allowing for doping on both an "A" and "B" site. Lanthanum Manganite doped with Strontium is an example of a material with a single doping site; though greater strontium levels will enhance reactivity, levels too high can cause adhesion with the electrolyte during operation. Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite is an example of a material with dual doping sites. Lanthanum Strontium Manganite has an excellent thermal expansion match with Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes; it is highly electronically conductive and has proven long term stability. Lanthanum Strontium Chromite is available as both a cathode and as an interconnect. When fired in a fuel cell layer, American Elements' Cathode Powders, Nanopowders or Inks will partially sinter to form well-defined necks and open gas paths to permit simultaneous gas and electrical transfer.

Thin film sputtering target and foil evaporation materials validation test equipment
Electrolyte Materials - American Elements produces fuel cell electrolyte powders and nanopowders suitable for tape casting, air spray, extrusion, and sputtering applications. American Elements' Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, or Zirconium Oxide stabilized with Yttrium Oxide) makes a robust electrolyte that is purely ionically conductive (i.e. with no electronic conductivity) and operates in a wide range of partial pressures. Typical operating temperatures ranges from 900 - 1,000 ºC. Gadolinia doped Ceria or GDC (Cerium Oxide stabilized with Gadolinium Oxide, Yttria doped Ceria or YDC (Cerium Oxide stabilized with Yttrium Oxide), and Samaria doped Ceria or SDC (Cerium Oxide stabilized with Samarium Oxide) form a class of electrolytes with higher ionic conductivity and lower operating temperatures (< 700 ºC) than YSZ. They however operate at narrow partial pressure ranges and will electronically conduct if operated at lower partial pressures. Doped Ceria also tends to reduce from the cerous to the ceric state in open circuit conditions. Scandia Stabilized Zirconia or SCZ (Scandium Oxide stabilized with Zirconium Oxide) is three times more ionically conductive than yttria stabilized zirconia and operates efficiently below 800 °C.

Wet Chemistry and Atomic Absorption Analysis and CertificationAnode Materials - American Elements group of SOFC anode powders and Nanopowders are various Nickel Cermet compositions of nickel oxide and yttria stabilized zirconia to produce a fired thin film layer with optimal doping levels and particle mix. The proportion of Nickel to YSZ reflects a trade off between stability (YSZ) and conductivity (Nickel) which must be balanced to prevent coarsening during operations and maximize the long term stability of the fuel cell. American Elements provides guidance to help customers select an anode composition compatible with the balance of their chosen electrochemical system.

AE Fuel Cell™ Materials

American Elements works closely with the major U.S., European, Australian and Japanese efforts to develop a cost effective solid oxide fuel cell electrochemistry by manufacturing customer specified, and American Elements invented, proprietary compositions for research and data development. Release of the SOFC Product Group on American Elements online catalog reflects an American Elements desire to foster greater entrepreneurial research and funding of fuel cell development.

American Elements provides customer guidance on topics such as thermal compatibility of layers, thermal cycling, thermal expansion, electrolyte densities, co-firing conditions, long term stability, ink rheology, physical adhesion barriers, cermet microstructures, and circuit efficiency. A complete electrochemical lab allows for testing electrolyte resistivity, densities, coarsening and other parameters.

American Elements maintains industrial scale production for all its fuel cell products annually producing tonnage of anode and electrolyte powders and hundreds of kilograms of cathode materials.

American Elements will execute Non-Disclosure or Confidentiality Agreements to protect customer know-how.

Recent Research & Development for Fuel Cells

  • Young Ho Yu, Jun Woo Lim, Dai Gil Lee, Composite sandwich endplates with a compliant pressure distributor for a PEM fuel cell, Composite Structures, Volume 119, January 2015
  • Kingshuk Dutta, Suparna Das, Patit Paban Kundu, Partially sulfonated polyaniline induced high ion-exchange capacity and selectivity of Nafion membrane for application in direct methanol fuel cells, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 473, 1 January 2015
  • Yuanliang Zhang, Siguo Chen, Yao Wang, Wei Ding, Rui Wu, Li Li, Xueqiang Qi, Zidong Wei, Study of the degradation mechanisms of carbon-supported platinum fuel cells catalyst via different accelerated stress test, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015
  • Vincenzo Esposito, Christophe Gadea, Johan Hjelm, Debora Marani, Qiang Hu, Karsten Agersted, Severine Ramousse, Søren Højgaard Jensen, Fabrication of thin yttria-stabilized-zirconia dense electrolyte layers by inkjet printing for high performing solid oxide fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015
  • R. Fiala, M. Vaclavu, M. Vorokhta, I. Khalakhan, J. Lavkova, V. Potin, I. Matolinova, V. Matolin, Proton exchange membrane fuel cell made of magnetron sputtered Pt–CeOx and Pt–Co thin film catalysts, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015
  • Shuang Ma Andersen, Casper Frydendal Nørgaard, Mikkel Juul Larsen, Eivind Skou, Tin Dioxide as an Effective Antioxidant for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015
  • Sanying Hou, Shijun Liao, Ziang Xiong, Haobin Zou, Dai Dang, Ruiping Zheng, Ting Shu, Zhenxing Liang, Xiuhua Li, Yingwei Li, Improvement of proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in low-humidity conditions by adding hygroscopic agarose powder to the catalyst layer, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015
  • Felix Fleischhauer, Raul Bermejo, Robert Danzer, Andreas Mai, Thomas Graule, Jakob Kuebler, High temperature mechanical properties of zirconia tapes used for electrolyte supported solid oxide fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015
  • Shiquan Lü, Bo Yu, Xiangwei Meng, Xiaoyu Zhao, Yuan Ji, Chengwei Fu, Yongjun Zhang, Lili Yang, Hougang Fan, Jinghai Yang, Characterization of SrCo0.7Fe0.2Nb0.1O3-d cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015
  • Devin Todd, Walter Mérida, Morphologically controlled fuel cell transport layers enabled via electrospun carbon nonwovens, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015

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