AE Fuel Cells™

Specializing in Cathode, Electrolyte, Anode and Interconnect Powders,
Nanopowders (Nanoparticles) and Inks for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs),
American Elements' fuel cell group provides the raw materials necessary
to produce a highly compatible thin film electrochemistry with
excellent thermal expansion matching.

32.4 (A)/00.012

  Hydrogen                                 Helium
  Lithium Beryllium                     Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
  Sodium Magnesium                     Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
  Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
  Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
  Cesium Barium Lanthanum Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
  Francium Radium Actinium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
      Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium    
      Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawerencium    

solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte cross section by SEMAmerican Elements manufactures numerous Perovskite-type fuel cell materials via solid state synthesis under the trademark AE Fuel Cells™. These materials include Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (LSM), Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite (LSF), Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite (LSCF), Lanthanum Strontium Chromite (LSC), and Lanthanum Strontium Gallate Magnesite (LSGM) with doping levels, surface areas and other parameters to customer specifications; Nickel Cermet compositions with YSZ (Yttria stabilized Zirconia) doping, physical levels, and PSDs (particles size distribution) controlled; and ionically conductive electrolytes such as YSZ, Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (SCZ), Gadolinium doped Ceria (GDC), Samarium doped Ceria (SDC), and Yttrium doped Ceria (YDC).

AE X-Ray Diffraction Unit for crystal structure analysis and certification Cathode Materials - Solid oxide fuel cell cathodes are electronically conductive and stable in oxidizing environments. They are crystalline Perovskite structures allowing for doping on both an "A" and "B" site. Lanthanum Manganite doped with Strontium is an example of a material with a single doping site; though greater strontium levels will enhance reactivity, levels too high can cause adhesion with the electrolyte during operation. Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite is an example of a material with dual doping sites. Lanthanum Strontium Manganite has an excellent thermal expansion match with Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes; it is highly electronically conductive and has proven long term stability. Lanthanum Strontium Chromite is available as both a cathode and as an interconnect. When fired in a fuel cell layer, American Elements' Cathode Powders, Nanopowders or Inks will partially sinter to form well-defined necks and open gas paths to permit simultaneous gas and electrical transfer.

Thin film sputtering target and foil evaporation materials validation test equipment
Electrolyte Materials - American Elements produces fuel cell electrolyte powders and nanopowders suitable for tape casting, air spray, extrusion, and sputtering applications. American Elements' Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, or Zirconium Oxide stabilized with Yttrium Oxide) makes a robust electrolyte that is purely ionically conductive (i.e. with no electronic conductivity) and operates in a wide range of partial pressures. Typical operating temperatures ranges from 900 - 1,000 ºC. Gadolinia doped Ceria or GDC (Cerium Oxide stabilized with Gadolinium Oxide, Yttria doped Ceria or YDC (Cerium Oxide stabilized with Yttrium Oxide), and Samaria doped Ceria or SDC (Cerium Oxide stabilized with Samarium Oxide) form a class of electrolytes with higher ionic conductivity and lower operating temperatures (< 700 ºC) than YSZ. They however operate at narrow partial pressure ranges and will electronically conduct if operated at lower partial pressures. Doped Ceria also tends to reduce from the cerous to the ceric state in open circuit conditions. Scandia Stabilized Zirconia or SCZ (Scandium Oxide stabilized with Zirconium Oxide) is three times more ionically conductive than yttria stabilized zirconia and operates efficiently below 800 ºC.

Wet Chemistry and Atomic Absorption Analysis and CertificationAnode Materials - American Elements group of SOFC anode powders and Nanopowders are various Nickel Cermet compositions of nickel oxide and yttria stabilized zirconia to produce a fired thin film layer with optimal doping levels and particle mix. The proportion of Nickel to YSZ reflects a trade off between stability (YSZ) and conductivity (Nickel) which must be balanced to prevent coarsening during operations and maximize the long term stability of the fuel cell. American Elements provides guidance to help customers select an anode composition compatible with the balance of their chosen electrochemical system.

AE Fuel Cell™ Materials

American Elements works closely with the major U.S., European, Australian and Japanese efforts to develop a cost effective solid oxide fuel cell electrochemistry by manufacturing customer specified, and American Elements invented, proprietary compositions for research and data development. Release of the SOFC Product Group on American Elements online catalog reflects an American Elements desire to foster greater entrepreneurial research and funding of fuel cell development.

American Elements provides customer guidance on topics such as thermal compatibility of layers, thermal cycling, thermal expansion, electrolyte densities, co-firing conditions, long term stability, ink rheology, physical adhesion barriers, cermet microstructures, and circuit efficiency. A complete electrochemical lab allows for testing electrolyte resistivity, densities, coarsening and other parameters.

American Elements maintains industrial scale production for all its fuel cell products annually producing tonnage of anode and electrolyte powders and hundreds of kilograms of cathode materials.

American Elements will execute Non-Disclosure or Confidentiality Agreements to protect customer know-how.

Recent Research & Development for Fuel Cells

  • Xinhua Tang, Haoran Li, Zhuwei Du, How Yong Ng, A phosphorus-free anolyte to enhance coulombic efficiency of microbial fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • M.A. Deyab, Corrosion protection of aluminum bipolar plates with polyaniline coating containing carbon nanotubes in acidic medium inside the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Bosun Jang, Taek Hyun Oh, Sejin Kwon, Effect of heat treatment of electrodes on direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell performance, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • M.H.M.T. Assumpção, S.G. da Silva, R.F.B. De Souza, G.S. Buzzo, E.V. Spinacé, M.C. Santos, A.O. Neto, J.C.M. Silva, Investigation of PdIr/C electrocatalysts as anode on the performance of direct ammonia fuel cell, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Ziwu Liu, Qianqian Shi, Rufan Zhang, Quande Wang, Guojun Kang, Feng Peng, Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes supported low Pt loading catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Ningning Dai, Zhenhua Wang, Taizhi Jiang, Jie Feng, Wang Sun, Jinshuo Qiao, David Rooney, Kening Sun, A new family of barium-doped Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6−δ perovskites for application in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Shiro Tanaka, Toshio Shudo, Corrugated mesh flow channel and novel microporous layers for reducing flooding and resistance in gas diffusion layer-less polymer electrolyte fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • F.E. López-Suárez, A. Bueno-López, K.I.B. Eguiluz, G.R. Salazar-Banda, Pt–Sn/C catalysts prepared by sodium borohydride reduction for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells: Effect of the precursor addition order, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Nguyen Dang Nam, Mahesh Vaka, Nguyen Tran Hung, Corrosion behavior of TiN, TiAlN, TiAlSiN-coated 316L stainless steel in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Gustav Sievers, Steffen Mueller, Antje Quade, Florian Steffen, Sven Jakubith, Angela Kruth, Volker Brueser, Mesoporous Pt–Co oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts for low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell synthesized by alternating sputtering, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014

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