FUEL CELL MATERIALS INFORMATION CENTER
AE Fuel Cells™
Specializing in Cathode, Electrolyte, Anode and Interconnect Powders,
Nanopowders (Nanoparticles) and Inks for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs),
American Elements' fuel cell group provides the raw materials necessary
to produce a highly compatible thin film electrochemistry with
excellent thermal expansion matching.
American Elements manufactures numerous Perovskite-type fuel cell materials via solid state synthesis under the trademark AE Fuel Cells™. These materials include Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (LSM), Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite (LSF), Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite (LSCF), Lanthanum Strontium Chromite (LSC), and Lanthanum Strontium Gallate Magnesite (LSGM) with doping levels, surface areas and other parameters to customer specifications; Nickel Cermet compositions with YSZ (Yttria stabilized Zirconia) doping, physical levels, and PSDs (particles size distribution) controlled; and ionically conductive electrolytes such as YSZ, Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (SCZ), Gadolinium doped Ceria (GDC), Samarium doped Ceria (SDC), and Yttrium doped Ceria (YDC).
Cathode Materials - Solid oxide fuel cell cathodes are electronically conductive and stable in oxidizing environments. They are crystalline Perovskite structures allowing for doping on both an "A" and "B" site. Lanthanum Manganite doped with Strontium is an example of a material with a single doping site; though greater strontium levels will enhance reactivity, levels too high can cause adhesion with the electrolyte during operation. Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite is an example of a material with dual doping sites. Lanthanum Strontium Manganite has an excellent thermal expansion match with Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes; it is highly electronically conductive and has proven long term stability. Lanthanum Strontium Chromite is available as both a cathode and as an interconnect. When fired in a fuel cell layer, American Elements' Cathode Powders, Nanopowders or Inks will partially sinter to form well-defined necks and open gas paths to permit simultaneous gas and electrical transfer.
Electrolyte Materials - American Elements produces fuel cell electrolyte powders and nanopowders suitable for tape casting, air spray, extrusion, and sputtering applications. American Elements' Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, or Zirconium Oxide stabilized with Yttrium Oxide) makes a robust electrolyte that is purely ionically conductive (i.e. with no electronic conductivity) and operates in a wide range of partial pressures. Typical operating temperatures ranges from 900 - 1,000 ºC. Gadolinia doped Ceria or GDC (Cerium Oxide stabilized with Gadolinium Oxide, Yttria doped Ceria or YDC (Cerium Oxide stabilized with Yttrium Oxide), and Samaria doped Ceria or SDC (Cerium Oxide stabilized with Samarium Oxide) form a class of electrolytes with higher ionic conductivity and lower operating temperatures (< 700 ºC) than YSZ. They however operate at narrow partial pressure ranges and will electronically conduct if operated at lower partial pressures. Doped Ceria also tends to reduce from the cerous to the ceric state in open circuit conditions. Scandia Stabilized Zirconia or SCZ (Scandium Oxide stabilized with Zirconium Oxide) is three times more ionically conductive than yttria stabilized zirconia and operates efficiently below 800 ºC.
Anode Materials - American Elements group of SOFC anode powders and Nanopowders are various Nickel Cermet compositions of nickel oxide and yttria stabilized zirconia to produce a fired thin film layer with optimal doping levels and particle mix. The proportion of Nickel to YSZ reflects a trade off between stability (YSZ) and conductivity (Nickel) which must be balanced to prevent coarsening during operations and maximize the long term stability of the fuel cell. American Elements provides guidance to help customers select an anode composition compatible with the balance of their chosen electrochemical system.
AE Fuel Cell™ Materials
American Elements works closely with the major U.S., European, Australian and Japanese efforts to develop a cost effective solid oxide fuel cell electrochemistry by manufacturing customer specified, and American Elements invented, proprietary compositions for research and data development. Release of the SOFC Product Group on American Elements online catalog reflects an American Elements desire to foster greater entrepreneurial research and funding of fuel cell development.
American Elements provides customer guidance on topics such as thermal compatibility of layers, thermal cycling, thermal expansion, electrolyte densities, co-firing conditions, long term stability, ink rheology, physical adhesion barriers, cermet microstructures, and circuit efficiency. A complete electrochemical lab allows for testing electrolyte resistivity, densities, coarsening and other parameters.
American Elements maintains industrial scale production for all its fuel cell products annually producing tonnage of anode and electrolyte powders and hundreds of kilograms of cathode materials.
American Elements will execute Non-Disclosure or Confidentiality Agreements to protect customer know-how.
Recent Research & Development for Fuel Cells
- Stabilizing Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode with Atomic Layer Deposition. Gong Y, Palacio D, Song X, Patel RL, Liang X, Zhao X, Goodenough JB, Huang K. Nano Lett. 2013 Aug 7.
- Superior power density solid oxide fuel cells by enlarging the three-phase boundary region of a NiO-Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 composite anode through optimized surface structure. Yoon D, Su Q, Wang H, Manthiram A. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Aug 2.
- Progress in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Nickel-Based Anodes Operating on Methane and Related Fuels. Wang W, Su C, Wu Y, Ran R, Shao Z. Chem Rev. 2013 Jul 31.
- The properties of Co- and Fe-doped GDC for low-temperature processing of solid oxide fuel cell by electron-beam evaporation. Yang SH, Kim KH, Choi HW. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013 Aug;13(8):5794-9.
- A green lead hydrometallurgical process based on a hydrogen-lead oxide fuel cell. Pan J, Sun Y, Li W, Knight J, Manthiram A. Nat Commun. 2013 Jul 19;4:2178.
- Spark plasma sintered Ni-YSZ/YSZ bi-layers for solid oxide fuel cell. Bezdorozhev O, Borodianska H, Sakka Y, Vasylkiv O. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013 Jun;13(6):4150-7.
- Modeling cascading diffusion of new energy technologies: case study of residential solid oxide fuel cells in the u.s. And internationally. Herron S, Williams E. Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Aug 6;47(15):8097-104.
- Microanalysis of a grain boundary's blocking effect in lanthanum silicate electrolyte for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Yan P, Mineshige A, Mori T, Wu Y, Auchterlonie GJ, Zou J, Drennan J. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 Jun 12;5(11):5307-13.
- Effect of Al2O3 nano-filler on properties of glass-based seals for solid oxide fuel cells. Lee DB, Choi MJ, Park S, Lee JC. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013 Jan;13(1):628-31.
- Oxidation stages of Ni electrodes in solid oxide fuel cell environments. El Gabaly F, McCarty KF, Bluhm H, McDaniel AH. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Jun 7;15(21):8334-41.