Tin (Sn) Elemental Symbol

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Étain Zinn Stagno Estanho Estaño Tenn

Tin(Sn) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolTin is a Block P, Group 14, Period 5 element. Tin Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Tin's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 4 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. The tin atom has a radius of 140.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 217.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-31-5, tin has a silvery or gray appearance. High Purity (99.9999%) Tin (Sn) MetalTin is commonly extracted from the mineral cassiterite, SnO2. The origin of the word tin comes from the Latin word Stannum which translates to the Anglo-Saxon word tin. Tin information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity (99.999%) Tin Oxide (SnO) PowderTin salts and organometallic compounds of tin are very toxic, but tin in the form of single atoms or molecules is not toxic. Tin compounds sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings. These have been used for panel lighting and for frost-free windshields. Most window glass is now made by floating molten glass on molten tin (float glass) to produce a flat surface. Crystalline tin-niobium alloy is superconductive at very low temperatures. This promises to be important in the construction of superconductive magnets that generate enormous field strengths but use practically no power. Tin is the basis for many eutectic alloys. The discovery by early man that copper could be better formed and crafted if tin were added produced the first bronze and launched what we refer to as the "Bronze Age". An important tin compound is the chloride, which is used as a reducing agent and as a mordant in calico printing. High Purity (99.9999%) Tin (Sn) Sputtering TargetTin is also used in various metal alloys (See AE Alloys). Tin is available in many specific states, forms and shapes including pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Tin is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Safety data for tin metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific aluminum material or compound referenced in the “Tin Products” tab below.

  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Tin Properties

Symbol: Sn Melting Point: 231.93 oC, 449.474 oF, 505.08 K
Atomic Number: 50 Boiling Point: 2586 oC, 4686.8 oF, 2859.15 K
Atomic Weight: 118.710 Density: 7285
Element Category: post-transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.99 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 14, 5, p Specific Heat: 0.21 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 296.1 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 7.03 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 50 Thermal Conductivity: 66.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 50 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 22.0 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 69 Electrical Resistivity: (0 °C) 115 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d105s25p2 Electronegativity: 1.960
Atomic Radius: 2.170 Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 139±4 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.99
Van der Waals radius: 217.pm Young's Modulus: 46.9
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1, -4 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 18.4
Phase: solid Bulk Modulus: 58.2
Crystal Structure: tetragonal Poisson Ratio: 0.36
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 1.5
1st Ionization Energy: 708.58 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: VHN10=7 - 9 kg/mm2
2nd Ionization Energy: 1411.81 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: ~350 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2943.07 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: 2730 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7440-31-5  Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 200 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4509318 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 11 ppb
PubChem CID: 5352426 Abundance in universe, by weight: 4 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00133862  Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.04 ppb
EC Number: 231-141-8 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Ancient
SMILES Identifier: [Sn]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Sn Other Names: N/A

Tin Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes


Ammonium Hexachlorostannate
Ammonium Hexafluorostannate
Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO)
Barium Stannate
Bismuth Tin Eutectic Lump
Cadmium Stannate
Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)
Indium Tin Oxide Pieces
Potassium Stannate Trihydrate
Stannane (Tin Hydride)
Strontium Stannate
Strontium Tin Oxide
Tin Acetate
Tin Acetate Solution
Tin Antimonide
Tin Antimony Particles
Tin Antimony Powder
Tin Arsenide
Tin Bromide
Tin Carbide
Tin Chloride SnCl2
Tin Chloride, Ultra Dry SnCl2
Tin Chloride SnCl4
Tin(II) Chloride Dihydrate
Tin(IV) Chloride Pentahydrate
Tin Chloride Solution
Tin Chromate
Tin Fluoride SnF2
Tin Fluoride SnF4
Tin(II) Iodide SnI2
Tin(II) Iodide, Ultra Dry
Tin(IV) Iodide SnI4
Tin Nitrate
Tin Nitrate Solution
Tin(II) Oxide SnO
Tin(IV) Oxide SnO2
Tin Phosphide
Tin(II) Pyrophosphate
Tin Selenite
Tin Sulfate
Tin Sulfate Solution
Tin(II) Sulfide SnS
Tin(IV) Sulfide SnS2
Tin Telluride
Tin(II) Tetrafluoroborate Solution
Zinc Tin Phosphorus Granules
Zinc Tin Phosphorus Lump
Zinc Tin Phosphorus Powder

Organometallic Compounds

Bis(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)tin Oxide
Dibutyltin bis(acetylacetonate)
Tricyclohexyltin Hydride
Tin(II) 2,3-naphthalocyanine
Tin(IV) 2,3-naphthalocyanine Dichloride
Tin 2-Ethylhexanoate
Tin Acetylacetonate
Tin(II) Oleate
Tin Oxalate
Tin(II) Palmitate
Tin(IV) Phthalocyanine Dichloride
Tin(IV) Phthalocyanine Oxide
Tin(II) Stearate
Tin(IV) tert-butoxide
Tin Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Tris(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nonafluorohexyl)tin Bromide
Tris(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nonafluorohexyl)tin Hydride
Tris(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)tin Azide
Tris(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)tin Bromide
Tris(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)tin Hydride
Tributyltin Hydride

Sputtering Targets

Antimony doped Zinc Tin Sputtering Target
Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO) Sputtering Target
Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Sputtering Target
Tin Arsenide Sputtering Target
Tin Phosphide Sputtering Target
Tin Oxide Sputtering Target
Tin Rotatable Sputtering Target
Tin Selenide Sputtering Target
Tin Sputtering Target
Tin Sulfide Sputtering Target
Tin Telluride Sputtering Target
Zinc Tin Oxide Sputtering Target


Aluminium Tin Copper Alloy Particles
Aluminum Tin Copper Alloy Powder
Bismuth Indium Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Ingot
Bismuth Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Tin Indium Lead Alloy
Bismuth Indium Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin
Bismuth Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Indium Alloy
Bismuth Tin Alloy
Bismuth Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bronze Electrodes
Copper Titanium Tin Alloy Particles
Copper Titanium Tin Alloy Powder
Copper Tin Silver Alloy
Copper Tin Alloy Spherical Powder
Gold Silver Tin Alloy
Gold Tin Alloy
Gold Tin Foil
Gold Tin Metal
Gold Tin Pellets
Indium Bismuth Tin Alloy
Indium Silver Foil Indium Tin Alloy
Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Alloy
Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Foil
Indium Tin Lead Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Metal
Lead Telluride Tin Telluride/Lead Selenide Solid Solution
Lead Antimony Tin Alloy
Lead Bismuth Tin Cadmium Alloy
Lead Silver Tin Alloy
Lead Tin Alloy
Lead Tin Antimony Alloy
Lead Tin Arsenic Granules
Lead Tin Arsenic Lump
Lead Tin Arsenic Powder
Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Lead Tin Silver Indium Alloy
Lithium Borohydride/Magnesium/Tin/Tin
Silver Copper Tin Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Tin Alloy
Tin Antimony Alloy
Tin Antimony Gold Alloy
Tin Bismuth Copper Silver Alloy
Tin Bismuth Silver Alloy
Tin Bismuth Zinc Alloy
Tin Cadmium Alloy
Tin Copper Alloy
Tin Indium Alloy
Tin Indium Silver Alloy
Tin Indium Silver Bismuth Alloy
Tin Lead Alloy
Tin Lead Antimony Alloy
Tin Lead Antimony Foil
Tin Lead Indium Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Alloy
Tin Silver Copper Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Particles
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Powder
Tin Silver Alloy
Tin Silver Antimony Alloy
Tin Silver Bismuth Copper Alloy
Tin Silver Zinc Alloy
Tin Zinc Alloy
Tinned Copper Foil
Tinned Copper Wire Titanium Beta III Alloy Foil
Titanium Based Molybdenum Zirconium Tin Alloy
Titanium Beta III Alloy Foil

Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide Coated Glass Slide
Indium Tin Oxide Coated Glass Slide
Indium Tin Oxide Coated PET
Tin Antimonide
Tin Arsenide
Tin Arsenide Sputtering Target
Tin Phosphide
Tin Phosphide Sputtering Target
Tin(II) Selenide SnSe
Tin(IV) Selenide SnSe2
Tin Lead Cadmium Alloy
Tin Sulfide
Tin Telluride


Tin-112 Isotope
Tin-116 Isotope
Tin-117 Isotope
Tin-118 Isotope
Tin-119 Isotope
Tin-119 Oxide Isotope

Recent Research & Development for Tin

  • The use of isotopically enriched tin tracers to follow the transformation of organotin compounds in landfill leachate. Peeters K, Zuliani T, Scancar J, Milacic R. Water Res. 2014.
  • The role of surface and deep-level defects on the emission of tin oxide quantum dots. Kumar V, Kumar V, Som S, Neethling JH, Lee M, Ntwaeaborwa OM, Swart HC. Nanotechnology. 2014 Apr.
  • Experimental design based response surface methodology optimization of ultrasonic assisted adsorption of safaranin O by tin sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon. Roosta M, Ghaedi M, Daneshfar A, Sahraei R. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Mar.
  • Inorganic tin compounds do not induce micronuclei in human lymphocytes in the absence of metabolic activation. Damati A, Vlastos D, Philippopoulos AI, Matthopoulos DP. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2014.
  • Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of cellulose acetate-tin (IV) phosphate nanocomposite. Rathore BS, Sharma G, Pathania D, Gupta VK. Carbohydr Polym. 2014 Mar.
  • Application of ZnO/graphene and S6 aptamers for sensitive photoelectrochemical detection of SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells based on a disposable indium tin oxide device. Liu F, Zhang Y, Yu J, Wang S, Ge S, Song X. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Jan.
  • Electrochemical serotonin monitoring of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide by predeposition of self-assembled 4-pyridylporphyrin. Song MJ, Kim S, Ki Min N, Jin JH. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Feb.
  • Four coordinate tin complexes: Synthesis, characterization, thermodynamic and theoretical calculations. Mohammadikish M. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Jan.
  • A visible light photoelectrochemical sensor for tumor marker detection using tin dioxide quantum dot-graphene as labels. Analyst. 2013 create date:2013/10/18 | first author:Wang Y
  • Optimization of a hydride generation metallic furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-MF-AAS) method for tin determination: Analytical and morphological parameters of a metallic atomizer. Moretto Galazzi R, Arruda MA. Talanta. 2013 Dec.
  • Immune stimulation following dermal exposure to unsintered indium tin oxide. J Immunotoxicol. 2013 create date:2013/10/30 | first author:Brock K.
  • Gallium-Doped Tin Oxide Nano-Cuboids for Improved Dye Sensitized Solar Cell. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 | first author:Teh JJ
  • Inorganic tin compounds do not induce micronuclei in human lymphocytes in the absence of metabolic activation. Drug Chem Toxicol. | first author:Damati A
  • Fabrication of Highly Transparent and Conductive Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films with a High Figure of Merit via Solution Processing. Langmuir. | first author:Chen Z
  • Comparison between GC-MS and GC-ICPMS using isotope dilution for the simultaneous monitoring of inorganic and methyl mercury, butyl and phenyl tin compounds in biological tissues. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 create date:2013/10/19 | first author:Cavalheiro J
  • Interconnected Tin Disulfide Nanosheets Grown on Graphene for Li-ion Storage and Photocatalytic Applications. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 | first author:Chen P
  • Mitigation of CO poisoning on functionalized Pt-TiN surfaces. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 | first author:Zhang RQ
  • Cytochrome P450 Modified Polycrystalline Indium Tin Oxide Film as a Drug Metabolizing Electrochemical Biosensor with a Simple Configuration. Anal Chem. 2013 | first author:Yoshioka K
  • New understanding of hardening mechanism of TiN/SiNx-based nanocomposite films. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2013 | first author:Li W
  • Micro-Fabricated Tin-Film Electrodes for Protein and DNA Sensing Based on Stripping Voltammetric Detection of Cd(II) Released from Quantum Dots Labels. Anal Chem. 2013 | first author:Kokkinos C
  • Electrochemical serotonin monitoring of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide by predeposition of self-assembled 4-pyridylporphyrin. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013 | first author:Song MJ

Tin Isotopes

Twenty-two isotopes of tin are known. Ten of the twenty-two are stable and have a wide variety of commercial applications. Tin has more stable isotopes than any other element.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
112Sn 111.904826 Stable 0+
114Sn 113.902784 Stable 0+
115Sn 114.903348 Stable 1/2+
116Sn 115.901747 Stable 0+
117Sn 116.902956 Stable 1/2+
118Sn 117.901609 Stable 0+
119Sn 118.903311 Stable 1/2+
120Sn 119.902199 Stable 0+
122Sn 121.903440 Stable 0+
124Sn 123.905274 Stable 0+