Tin (Sn) Elemental Symbol
Tin



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Étain Zinn Stagno Estanho Estaño Tenn

Tin(Sn) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolTin is a Block P, Group 14, Period 5 element. Tin Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Tin's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 4 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2. The tin atom has a radius of 140.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 217.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-31-5, tin has a silvery or gray appearance. High Purity (99.9999%) Tin (Sn) MetalTin is commonly extracted from the mineral cassiterite, SnO2. The origin of the word tin comes from the Latin word Stannum which translates to the Anglo-Saxon word tin. Tin information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity (99.999%) Tin Oxide (SnO) PowderTin salts and organometallic compounds of tin are very toxic, but tin in the form of single atoms or molecules is not toxic. Tin compounds sprayed onto glass are used to produce electrically conductive coatings. These have been used for panel lighting and for frost-free windshields. Most window glass is now made by floating molten glass on molten tin (float glass) to produce a flat surface. Crystalline tin-niobium alloy is superconductive at very low temperatures. This promises to be important in the construction of superconductive magnets that generate enormous field strengths but use practically no power. Tin is the basis for many eutectic alloys. The discovery by early man that copper could be better formed and crafted if tin were added produced the first bronze and launched what we refer to as the "Bronze Age". An important tin compound is the chloride, which is used as a reducing agent and as a mordant in calico printing. High Purity (99.9999%) Tin (Sn) Sputtering TargetTin is also used in various metal alloys (See AE Alloys). Tin is available in many specific states, forms and shapes including pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Tin is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Safety data for tin metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific aluminum material or compound referenced in the “Tin Products” tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Tin Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Sn Melting Point: 231.93 oC, 449.474 oF, 505.08 K
Atomic Number: 50 Boiling Point: 2586 oC, 4686.8 oF, 2859.15 K
Atomic Weight: 118.710 Density: 7285
Element Category: post-transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.99 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 14, 5, p Specific Heat: 0.21 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 296.1 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 7.03 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 50 Thermal Conductivity: 66.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 50 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 22.0 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 69 Electrical Resistivity: (0 °C) 115 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d105s25p2 Electronegativity: 1.960
Atomic Radius: 2.170 Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 139±4 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.99
Van der Waals radius: 217.pm Young's Modulus: 46.9
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1, -4 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 18.4
Phase: solid Bulk Modulus: 58.2
Crystal Structure: tetragonal Poisson Ratio: 0.36
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 1.5
1st Ionization Energy: 708.58 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: VHN10=7 - 9 kg/mm2
2nd Ionization Energy: 1411.81 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: ~350 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2943.07 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: 2730 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-31-5  Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 200 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4509318 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 11 ppb
PubChem CID: 5352426 Abundance in universe, by weight: 4 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00133862  Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.04 ppb
EC Number: 231-141-8 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Ancient
SMILES Identifier: [Sn]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Sn Other Names: N/A
InChI Key: ATJFFYVFTNAWJD-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Tin Products


Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Compounds

Ammonium Hexachlorostannate
Ammonium Hexafluorostannate
Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO)
Barium Stannate
Cadmium Stannate
Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)
Indium Tin Oxide Pieces
Lithium Tin Phosphorous Sulfide
Potassium Stannate Trihydrate
Stannane (Tin Hydride)
Strontium Stannate
Strontium Tin Oxide
Tin Acetate
Tin Acetate Solution
Tin Antimonide
Tin Antimony Particles
Tin Antimony Powder
Tin Arsenide
Tin Bromide
Tin Carbide
Tin Chloride SnCl2
Tin Chloride, Ultra Dry SnCl2
Tin Chloride SnCl4
Tin(II) Chloride Dihydrate
Tin(IV) Chloride Pentahydrate
Tin Chloride Solution
Tin Chromate
Tin Fluoride SnF2
Tin Fluoride SnF4
Tin(II) Iodide SnI2
Tin(II) Iodide, Ultra Dry
Tin(IV) Iodide SnI4
Tin Nitrate
Tin Nitrate Solution
Tin(II) Oxide SnO
Tin(IV) Oxide SnO2
Tin Phosphide
Tin(II) Pyrophosphate
Tin Selenite
Tin Sulfate
Tin Sulfate Solution
Tin(II) Sulfide SnS
Tin(IV) Sulfide SnS2
Tin Telluride
Tin(II) Tetrafluoroborate Solution
Zinc Tin Phosphide Granules
Zinc Tin Phosphide Lump
Zinc Tin Phosphide Powder


Organometallic Compounds

2-(Tributylstannyl)pyridine
Bis(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)tin Oxide
Bis(N,N'-di-i-propylacetamidinato)tin(II)
Dibutyldimethoxytin
Dibutyldiphenyltin
Dibutyltin bis(acetylacetonate)
Dimethylhydroxy(oleate)tin
Dimethyltin Dichloride
Dimethyltin Oxide
Di-n-Butyldilauryltin
Hexaphenylditin(IV)
Tetraallyltin
Tetramethyltin
Tetravinyltin
Tricyclohexyltin Hydride
Tetrabutyltin
Tetraphenyltin
Tin(II) 2,3-naphthalocyanine
Tin(IV) 2,3-naphthalocyanine Dichloride
Tin 2-Ethylhexanoate
Tin Acetylacetonate
Tin(II) Oleate
Tin Oxalate
Tin(II) Palmitate
Tin(IV) Phthalocyanine Dichloride
Tin(IV) Phthalocyanine Oxide
Tin(II) Stearate
Tin(IV) tert-butoxide
Tin Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Tributyl(1-ethoxyvinyl)tin
Tributyl(1-propynyl)tin
Tributyl(3-methyl-2-butenyl)tin
Tributyl(phenylethynyl)tin
Tributyl(vinyl)tin
Tris(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nonafluorohexyl)tin Bromide
Tris(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,6-nonafluorohexyl)tin Hydride
Tris(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)tin Azide
Tris(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)tin Bromide
Tris(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)tin Hydride
Tributyltin Hydride
Hexamethylditin
Tributyl(trimethylsilyl)stannane


Sputtering Targets

Antimony doped Zinc Tin Sputtering Target
Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO) Sputtering Target
Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Sputtering Target
Niobium Stannide Sputtering Target
Tin Arsenide Sputtering Target
Tin Phosphide Sputtering Target
Tin Oxide Sputtering Target
Tin(II) Oxide Sputtering Target
Tin Rotatable Sputtering Target
Tin Selenide Sputtering Target
Tin Sputtering Target
Tin Sulfide Sputtering Target
Tin Telluride Sputtering Target
Zinc Tin Oxide Sputtering Target

Alloys

Aluminium Tin Copper Alloy Particles
Aluminum Tin Copper Alloy Powder
Bismuth Indium Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Ingot
Bismuth Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Tin Indium Lead Alloy
Bismuth Indium Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin
Bismuth Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Indium Alloy
Bismuth Tin Alloy
Bismuth Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Tin Eutectic Lump
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bronze Electrodes
Copper Titanium Tin Alloy Particles
Copper Titanium Tin Alloy Powder
Copper Tin Silver Alloy
Copper Tin Alloy Spherical Powder
Gold Silver Tin Alloy
Gold Tin Alloy
Gold Tin Foil
Gold Tin Metal
Gold Tin Pellets
Indium Bismuth Tin Alloy
Indium Silver Foil Indium Tin Alloy
Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Alloy
Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Foil
Indium Tin Lead Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Metal
Lead Telluride Tin Telluride/Lead Selenide Solid Solution
Lead Antimony Tin Alloy
Lead Bismuth Tin Cadmium Alloy
Lead Silver Tin Alloy
Lead Tin Alloy
Lead Tin Antimony Alloy
Lead Tin Arsenic Granules
Lead Tin Arsenic Lump
Lead Tin Arsenic Powder
Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Lead Tin Silver Indium Alloy
Lithium Borohydride/Magnesium/Tin/Tin
Niobium Tin Alloy
Niobium Tin Powder
Niobium Tin Wire
Silver Copper Tin Alloy
Silver Copper Zinc Tin Alloy
Tin Antimony Alloy
Tin Antimony Gold Alloy
Tin Bismuth Copper Silver Alloy
Tin Bismuth Silver Alloy
Tin Bismuth Zinc Alloy
Tin Cadmium Alloy
Tin Copper Alloy
Tin Indium Alloy
Tin Indium Silver Alloy
Tin Indium Silver Bismuth Alloy
Tin Lead Alloy
Tin Lead Antimony Alloy
Tin Lead Antimony Foil
Tin Lead Indium Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Alloy
Tin Silver Copper Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Particles
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Powder
Tin Silver Alloy
Tin Silver Antimony Alloy
Tin Silver Bismuth Copper Alloy
Tin Silver Zinc Alloy
Tin Zinc Alloy
Tinned Copper Foil
Tinned Copper Wire
Titanium Based Molybdenum Zirconium Tin Alloy
Titanium Beta III Alloy Foil


Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide Coated Glass Slide
Indium Tin Oxide Coated Glass Slide
Indium Tin Oxide Coated PET
Tin Antimonide
Tin Arsenide
Tin Arsenide Sputtering Target
Tin Phosphide
Tin Phosphide Sputtering Target
Tin(II) Selenide SnSe
Tin(IV) Selenide SnSe2
Tin Lead Cadmium Alloy
Tin Sulfide
Tin Telluride


Isotopes

Tin-112 Isotope
Tin-116 Isotope
Tin-117 Isotope
Tin-118 Isotope
Tin-119 Isotope
Tin-119 Oxide Isotope




Recent Research & Development for Tin

  • Nguyen Dang Nam, Mahesh Vaka, Nguyen Tran Hung, Corrosion behavior of TiN, TiAlN, TiAlSiN-coated 316L stainless steel in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • M.A. Deyab, Hydrogen generation by tin corrosion in lactic acid solution promoted by sodium perchlorate, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Feng Gu, Wenjuan Huang, Shufen Wang, Xing Cheng, Yanjie Hu, Chunzhong Li, Improved photoelectric conversion efficiency from titanium oxide-coupled tin oxide nanoparticles formed in flame, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • C. Tholander, B. Alling, F. Tasnádi, J.E. Greene, L. Hultman, Effect of Al substitution on Ti, Al, and N adatom dynamics on TiN(001), (011), and (111) surfaces, Surface Science, Volume 630, December 2014
  • A. Elrefaey, J. Janczak-Rusch, M.M. Koebel, Direct glass-to-metal joining by simultaneous anodic bonding and soldering with activated liquid tin solder, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 214, Issue 11, November 2014
  • Xiang Lei Shi, Jian Tao Wang, Jian Nong Wang, Roughness improvement of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films by using different alcohol solvents, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 611, 25 October 2014
  • K. Vijayarangamuthu, Shyama Rath, Nanoparticle size, oxidation state, and sensing response of tin oxide nanopowders using Raman spectroscopy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 610, 15 October 2014
  • Caitian Gao, Xiaodong Li, Xupeng Zhu, Lulu Chen, Zemin Zhang, Youqing Wang, Zhenxing Zhang, Huigao Duan, Erqing Xie, Branched hierarchical photoanode of titanium dioxide nanoneedles on tin dioxide nanofiber network for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 264, 15 October 2014
  • Shu Wei, Dong-Dong Han, Li Guo, Yinyan He, Hong Ding, Yong-Lai Zhang, Feng-Shou Xiao, In situ immobilization of tin dioxide nanoparticles by nanoporous polymers scaffold toward monolithic humidity sensing devices, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 431, 1 October 2014
  • G. Kilibarda, S. Schlabach, V. Winkler, M. Bruns, T. Hanemann, D.V. Szabó, Electrochemical performance of tin-based nano-composite electrodes using a vinylene carbonate-containing electrolyte for Li-ion cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • Kehua Dai, Hui Zhao, Zhihui Wang, Xiangyun Song, Vince Battaglia, Gao Liu, Toward high specific capacity and high cycling stability of pure tin nanoparticles with conductive polymer binder for sodium ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • Atasheh Soleimani-Gorgani, Ehsan Bakhshandeh, Farhood Najafi, Effect of dispersant agents on morphology and optical–electrical properties of nano indium tin oxide ink-jet ink, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 12, October 2014
  • Bhupendra Singh, Ji-Hye Kim, Jun-Young Park, Sun-Ju Song, Ionic conductivity of Mn2+ doped dense tin pyrophosphate electrolytes synthesized by a new co-precipitation method, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 12, October 2014
  • Shihyun Ahn, Anh Huy Tuan Le, Sunbo Kim, Cheolmin Park, Chonghoon Shin, Youn-Jung Lee, Jaehyeong Lee, Chaehwan Jeong, Vinh Ai Dao, Junsin Yi, The effects of orientation changes in indium tin oxide films on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell with shallow-emitter, Materials Letters, Volume 132, 1 October 2014
  • Faheem K. Butt, Chuanbao Cao, Tariq Mahmood, Faryal Idrees, Muhammad Tahir, Waheed S. Khan, Zulfiqar Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, M. Tanveer, Sajad Hussain, Imran Aslam, Dapeng Yu, Metal-catalyzed synthesis of ultralong tin dioxide nanobelts: Electrical and optical properties with oxygen vacancy-related orange emission, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Zhou Xu, Peng Chen, Zhenlong Wu, Feng Xu, Guofeng Yang, Bin Liu, Chongbin Tan, Lin Zhang, Rong Zhang, Youdou Zheng, Influence of thermal annealing on electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin films, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • L.P. Chikhale, J.Y. Patil, A.V. Rajgure, R.C. Pawar, I.S. Mulla, S.S. Suryavanshi, Synthesis, characterization and LPG response of Pd loaded Fe doped tin oxide thick films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 608, 25 September 2014
  • Monika Madej, The effect of TiN and CrN interlayers on the tribological behavior of DLC coatings, Wear, Volume 317, Issues 1–2, 15 September 2014
  • Bhim Singh Rathore, Deepak Pathania, Styrene–tin (IV) phosphate nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of organic dye in presence of visible light, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 606, 5 September 2014
  • Brian Cardineau, Ryan Del Re, Miles Marnell, Hashim Al-Mashat, Michaela Vockenhuber, Yasin Ekinci, Chandra Sarma, Daniel A. Freedman, Robert L. Brainard, Photolithographic properties of tin-oxo clusters using extreme ultraviolet light (13.5 nm), Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 127, 5 September 2014

Tin Isotopes


Twenty-two isotopes of tin are known. Ten of the twenty-two are stable and have a wide variety of commercial applications. Tin has more stable isotopes than any other element.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
112Sn 111.904826 Stable 0+
114Sn 113.902784 Stable 0+
115Sn 114.903348 Stable 1/2+
116Sn 115.901747 Stable 0+
117Sn 116.902956 Stable 1/2+
118Sn 117.901609 Stable 0+
119Sn 118.903311 Stable 1/2+
120Sn 119.902199 Stable 0+
122Sn 121.903440 Stable 0+
124Sn 123.905274 Stable 0+