Lithium Elemental Symbol (Li)

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Lithium (Li) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolLithium is a Block S, Group 1, Period 2 element. The number of electrons in each of Lithium's shells is 2, 1 and its electronic configuration is [He] 2s1. Lithium Bohr ModelThe lithium atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7439-93-2, lithium has a silvery white appearance. Lithium is a member of the alkali group of metals. It has the highest specific heat and electrochemical potential of any material, making it important in applications involving heat transfer and as the anode in batteries. Elemental Lithium Because of its high reactivity, Lithium does not occur naturally in elemental form. Lithium was first discovered by Johann Arvedson in 1817. The origin of the name Lithium comes from the Greek word lithose which means "stone". Lithium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

Lithium is used as alloy with aluminum and magnesium to form light weight metals. It is also used in batteries, optical glasses, and in medicine. High Purity (99.999%) Lithium (Li) Sputtering TargetHigh Purity (99.999%) Lithium Oxide (Li2O) PowderLithium stearate is a common high temperature lubricant. Elemental or metallic forms of lithium include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet forms for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Lithium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Lithium is both toxic and corrosive. Safety data for Lithium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

  • Lithium Properties
  • Lithium Safety Data
  • Lithium Products
  • Lithium Research
  • Lithium Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Lithium Properties

Symbol: Li Melting Point: 453.69 K, 180.54 °C, 356.97 °F
Atomic Number: 3 Boiling Point: 1615 K, 1342 °C, 2448 °F
Atomic Weight: 6.94 Density: 0.534 g·cm−3
Element Category: alkali metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 0.512 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 1, 2, s Specific Heat: 3.56 (at 25oC in J/goC)
    Heat of Vaporization 147.1 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 3.00 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 3 Thermal Conductivity: 84.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 3 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 46 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 4 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 92.8 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [He] 2s1 2, 1 Electronegativity: 0.98 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 152 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 128±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.860 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 182 pm Young's Modulus: 4.9 GPa
Oxidation States: +1 (strongly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 4.2 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 11 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 0.6
1st Ionization Energy: 520.23 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 7298.22 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 11815.13 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 6000 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7439-93-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 30 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 2293625 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 27 ppb
PubChem CID: 3028194 Abundance in universe, by weight: 6 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134051 Abundance in universe, by atom: 1 ppb
EC Number: 231-102-5 Discovered By: Johan August Arfwedson
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1817
SMILES Identifier: [Li]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Li Other Names: N/A

Lithium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Lithium Balls
Lithium Bands
Lithium Bar
Lithium Bits
Lithium Board
Lithium Briquette
Lithium Capsules
Lithium Chunk
Lithium Circle
Lithium Coil
Lithium Coin
Lithium Concentrate
Lithium Cylinder
Lithium Disc
Lithium Dust
Lithium Flake
Lithium Flanges
Lithium Fluoride Lump
Lithium Foil
Lithium Fragments
Lithium Grain
Lithium Granules
Lithium Ingot
Lithium Lump
Lithium Metal
Lithium Microfoil
Lithium Microleaf
Lithium Nugget
Lithium Parts
Lithium Particles
Lithium Pebbles
Lithium Pellets
Lithium Pieces
Lithium Pills
Lithium Plate
Lithium Powder
Lithium Precipitate
Lithium Prism
Lithium Puck
Lithium Residue
Lithium Ribbon
Lithium Rings
Lithium Rocks
Lithium Rod
Lithium Samples
Lithium Scraps
Lithium Segments
Lithium Shaving
Lithium Sheet
Lithium Shot
Lithium Sleeves
Lithium Slugs
Lithium Specimens
Lithium Spheres
Lithium Spring
Lithium Strip
Lithium Tape
Lithium Tubes
Lithium Wafer
Lithium Wire


Aluminum Lithium Alloy Particles
Aluminum Lithium Alloy Powder
Lithium Aluminum Alloy


Lithium Carbonate Nanoparticles
Lithium Iron Phosphate Nanopowder
Lithium Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles
Lithium Oxide Nanoparticles
Lithium Nanoparticles
Lithium Nanoprisms
Lithium Titanate Nanoparticles
Lithium Titanate Spinel, Nanopowder
Lithium Vanadate Nanoparticles

Lithium Oxide Forms

Lithium Oxide Nanoparticles
Lithium Oxide Pellets
Lithium Oxide Pieces
Lithium Oxide Powder
Lithium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lithium Oxide Shot
Lithium Oxide Sputtering Target
Lithium Oxide Tablets


Lithium 6 Carbonate Isotope
Lithium 6 Metal Isotope
Lithium 7 Metal Isotope
Lithium Hydroxide H2O Isotope


Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amine lithium salt
Dilithium Tetrachlorocuprate(II) Solution
Lithium Acetate
Lithium Acetate Dihydrate
Lithium Acetate Solution
Lithium Aluminate
Lithium Aluminum Deuteride
Lithium Aluminum Deuteride Solution
Lithium Aluminum Hydride
Lithium Aluminum Hydride Solution
Lithium Aluminum Hexahydride
Lithium Amide
Lithium Amide Powder
Lithium Ammonia Borane
Lithium Arsenate
Lithium Azide Solution
Lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide
Lithium Borate
Lithium Borodeuteride
Lithium Borohydride
Lithium Borohydride/Aluminum
Lithium Borohydride/Magnesium Hydride
Lithium Borohydride/Magnesium/Tin/Tin
Lithium Borohydride Solution
Lithium Bromate
Lithium Bromide
Lithium Bromide, Ultra Dry
Lithium Bromide Hydrate
Lithium Carbide
Lithium Carbonate
Lithium Carbonate Solution
Lithium Chloride
Lithium Chloride, Ultra Dry
Lithium Chloride Solution
Lithium Chromate
Lithium Chromate Hydrate
Lithium Cobalt Oxide
Lithium Cobalt Phosphate
Lithium Deuteride
Lithium Difluoro(oxalato)borate
Lithium Fluoride
Lithium Fluoride Granules
Lithium Fluoride Pieces
Lithium Fluoride Powder
Lithium Fluoride, Ultra Dry
Lithium Gallium Oxide
Lithium Germanium Oxide
Lithium Hexachloriridate
Lithium Hexafluoroaluminate
Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate(V)
Lithium Hexafluorophosphate
Lithium Hexafluorotitanate
Lithium Hydride
Lithium Hydroxide
Lithium Hydroxide Anhydrous
Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate
Lithium Hypochlorite
Lithium Iodate
Lithium Iodide
Lithium Iodide Hydrate
Lithium Iodide Trihydrate
Lithium Iodide, Ultra Dry
Lithium Iron(III) Oxide
Lithium Iron Phosphate
Lithium Manganate
Lithium Manganese Dioxide Particles
Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide
Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide Electrode Sheet
Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide Spinel, Powder
Lithium Manganese Oxide
Lithium Manganese Oxide Powder
Lithium Manganese Oxide, Spinel Electrode Sheet
Lithium Metaborate
Lithium Metaborate Dihydrate
Lithium Metasilicate
Lithium Molybdate
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Electrode Sheet
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Oxide
Lithium Nickel Dioxide
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC)
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Electrode Sheet
Lithium Niobate
Lithium Niobium Oxide
Lithium Nitrate
Lithium Oxide
Lithium Perchlorate
Lithium Perchlorate Trihydrate
Lithium Periodate
Lithium Periodate Dihydrate

Compounds, continued

Lithium Peroxide
Lithium Phosphate
Lithium Phosphate Monobasic
Lithium Phosphide
Lithium Potassium Chloride
Lithium Selenate
Lithium Selenite
Lithium Sulfate
Lithium Sulfate Monohydrate
Lithium Sulfate Solution
Lithium Sulfide
Lithium Tantalate
Lithium Tetrabromonickelate(II) Solution
Lithium Tetrachloroaluminate
Lithium Tetrachloroaurate(III) Hydrate
Lithium Tetrachlorogallate
Lithium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Lithium Tetracyanoplatinate(II) Hydrate
Lithium Tetrafluoroborate
Lithium Thiocyanate
Lithium Thiocyanate Hydrate
Lithium Tin Phosphorous Sulfide
Lithium Titanate
Lithium Titanate, Spinel (LTO) Electrode Sheet
Lithium Triborate
Lithium Tri-oxorhodate
Lithium Tungstate
Lithium Zirconate
Yttrium Lithium Fluoride

Organometallic Compounds

Copper(I) Chloride - Bis(Lithium Chloride) Complex
Lithium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Lithium 2-methyl-2-butoxide
Lithium 9-BBN Hydride Solution
Lithium Acetylacetonate
Lithium Aluminum Hydride Bis(tetrahydrofuran) Solution
Lithium Benzoate
Lithium bis(oxalato)borate
Lithium Bis(trimethylsilyl)amide Solution
Lithium Citrate
Lithium Citrate Tribasic Tetrahydrate
Lithium Diisopropylamide
Lithium Dimethylaminoborohydride Solution
Lithium Formate Monohydrate
Lithium Lactate
Lithium Morpholinoborohydride Solution
Lithium Methoxide
Lithium Niobium Ethoxide
Lithium Niobium Isopropoxide
Lithium Niobium Methoxide
Lithium Niobium Tert-butoxide
Lithium Nitrate Solution
Lithium Oxalate
Lithium Potassium Acetyl Phosphate
Lithium Pyrrolidinoborohydride Solution
Lithium Succinate
Lithium Tetra(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)boron
Lithium Tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate Ethyl Etherate
Lithium Tetraphenylborate tris(1,2-dimethoxyethane) Lithium Triethylborohydride
Lithium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Lithium Trimethylsilanolate
n-Butyllithium Solution

Lithium Targets

Lithium Carbonate Sputtering Target
Lithium Cobalt Oxide Sputtering Target
Lithium Niobate Sputtering Target
Lithium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lithium Oxide Sputtering Target
Lithium Phosphate Sputtering Target
Lithium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Lithium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lithium Selenide Sputtering Target
Lithium Sputtering Target
Lithium Tantalate Sputtering Target
Lithium Telluride Sputtering Target

Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Cr-doped Colquiriite
Holmium-doped Yttrium Lithium Fluoride
Lithium Arsenide
Lithium Niobate Wafer
Lithium Nitride
Lithium Ferrite
Lithium Carbonate
Lithium Phosphide
Lithium Selenide
Lithium Sulfide
Lithium Tantalate Wafer
Lithium Telluride
Magnesium Doped Lithium Niobate
Neodymium-doped Yttrium Lithium Fluoride
Thulium-doped Yttrium Lithium Fluoride

Recent Research & Development for Lithium

  • Qingshui Xie, Yating Ma, Xiaoqiang Zhang, Laisen Wang, Guanghui Yue, Dong-Liang Peng, ZnO/Ni/C composite hollow microspheres as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 2015
  • Jie Li, Xingxing Zhao, Zhian Zhang, Yanqing Lai, Facile synthesis of hollow carbonized polyaniline spheres to encapsulate selenium for advanced rechargeable lithium–selenium batteries, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 2015
  • Qiao Liu, Zhiqiang Guo, Hongfei Han, Hongbo Tong, Xuehong Wei, Lithium, magnesium, zinc complexes supported by tridentate pincer type pyrrolyl ligands: Synthesis, crystal structures and catalytic activities for the cyclotrimerization of isocyanates, Polyhedron, Volume 85, 8 January 2015
  • Meng Yang, Xiangyu Zhao, Liqun Ma, Hui Yang, Xiaodong Shen, Yajuan Bian, Electrochemical performance of nanocrystalline Li2CoTiO4 cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 618, 5 January 2015
  • Renheng Wang, Xinhai Li, Zhixing Wang, Huajun Guo, Tao Hou, Guochun Yan, Bin Huang, Lithium carbonate as an electrolyte additive for enhancing the high-temperature performance of lithium manganese oxide spinel cathode, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 618, 5 January 2015
  • Enshan Han, Qiming Jing, Lingzhi Zhu, Guowei Zhang, Shuqian Ma, The effects of sodium additive on Li1.17Ni0.10Co0.10Mn0.63O2 for lithium ion batteries, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 618, 5 January 2015
  • Fang Fu, Yiyin Huang, Peng Wu, Yakun Bu, Yaobing Wang, Jiannian Yao, Controlled synthesis of lithium-rich layered Li1.2Mn0.56Ni0.12Co0.12O2 oxide with tunable morphology and structure as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries by solvo/hydrothermal methods, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 618, 5 January 2015
  • A.P. Voitovich, V.S. Kalinov, A.P. Stupak, A.N. Novikov, L.P. Runets, Near-surface layer radiation color centers in lithium fluoride nanocrystals: Luminescence and composition, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 157, January 2015
  • G.D. Patra, S.G. Singh, A.K. Singh, M. Tyagi, D.G. Desai, B. Tiwari, S. Sen, S.C. Gadkari, Silver doped lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) single crystals as efficient dosimeter material with sub-micro-Gy sensitivity, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 157, January 2015
  • Xue Li, Qian Xiao, Bo Liu, Huangchang Lin, Jinbao Zhao, One-step solution-combustion synthesis of complex spinel titanate flake particles with enhanced lithium-storage properties, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015

Lithium Isotopes

Lithium (L) has two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7. Of the two, Lithium-7 is more common making up about 92.5% of lithium atoms.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
6Li 6.015122795 Stable 1+
7Li 7.016004550 Stable 3/2-