Lithium Elemental Symbol (Li)

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Lithium (Li) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolLithium is a Block S, Group 1, Period 2 element. The number of electrons in each of Lithium's shells is 2, 1 and its electronic configuration is [He] 2s1. Lithium Bohr ModelThe lithium atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7439-93-2, lithium has a silvery white appearance. Lithium is a member of the alkali group of metals. It has the highest specific heat and electrochemical potential of any material, making it important in applications involving heat transfer and as the anode in batteries. Elemental Lithium Because of its high reactivity, Lithium does not occur naturally in elemental form. Lithium was first discovered by Johann Arvedson in 1817. The origin of the name Lithium comes from the Greek word lithose which means "stone". Lithium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

Lithium is used as alloy with aluminum and magnesium to form light weight metals. It is also used in batteries, optical glasses, and in medicine. High Purity (99.999%) Lithium (Li) Sputtering TargetHigh Purity (99.999%) Lithium Oxide (Li2O) PowderLithium stearate is a common high temperature lubricant. Elemental or metallic forms of lithium include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet forms for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Lithium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Lithium is both toxic and corrosive. Safety data for Lithium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

  • Lithium Properties
  • Lithium Safety Data
  • Lithium Products
  • Lithium Research
  • Lithium Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Lithium Properties

Symbol: Li Melting Point: 453.69 K, 180.54 °C, 356.97 °F
Atomic Number: 3 Boiling Point: 1615 K, 1342 °C, 2448 °F
Atomic Weight: 6.94 Density: 0.534 g·cm−3
Element Category: alkali metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 0.512 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 1, 2, s Specific Heat: 3.56 (at 25oC in J/goC)
    Heat of Vaporization 147.1 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 3.00 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 3 Thermal Conductivity: 84.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 3 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 46 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 4 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 92.8 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [He] 2s1 2, 1 Electronegativity: 0.98 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 152 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 128±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.860 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 182 pm Young's Modulus: 4.9 GPa
Oxidation States: +1 (strongly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 4.2 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 11 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 0.6
1st Ionization Energy: 520.23 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 7298.22 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 11815.13 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 6000 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7439-93-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 30 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 2293625 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 27 ppb
PubChem CID: 3028194 Abundance in universe, by weight: 6 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134051 Abundance in universe, by atom: 1 ppb
EC Number: 231-102-5 Discovered By: Johan August Arfwedson
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1817
SMILES Identifier: [Li]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Li Other Names: N/A

Lithium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Lithium Balls
Lithium Bands
Lithium Bar
Lithium Bits
Lithium Board
Lithium Briquette
Lithium Capsules
Lithium Chunk
Lithium Circle
Lithium Coil
Lithium Coin
Lithium Concentrate
Lithium Cylinder
Lithium Disc
Lithium Dust
Lithium Flake
Lithium Flanges
Lithium Fluoride Lump
Lithium Foil
Lithium Fragments
Lithium Grain
Lithium Granules
Lithium Ingot
Lithium Lump
Lithium Metal
Lithium Microfoil
Lithium Microleaf
Lithium Nugget
Lithium Parts
Lithium Particles
Lithium Pebbles
Lithium Pellets
Lithium Pieces
Lithium Pills
Lithium Plate
Lithium Powder
Lithium Precipitate
Lithium Prism
Lithium Puck
Lithium Residue
Lithium Ribbon
Lithium Rings
Lithium Rocks
Lithium Rod
Lithium Samples
Lithium Scraps
Lithium Segments
Lithium Shaving
Lithium Sheet
Lithium Shot
Lithium Sleeves
Lithium Slugs
Lithium Specimens
Lithium Spheres
Lithium Spring
Lithium Strip
Lithium Tape
Lithium Tubes
Lithium Wafer
Lithium Wire


Aluminum Lithium Alloy Particles
Aluminum Lithium Alloy Powder
Lithium Aluminum Alloy


Lithium Carbonate Nanoparticles
Lithium Iron Phosphate Nanopowder
Lithium Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles
Lithium Oxide Nanoparticles
Lithium Nanoparticles
Lithium Nanoprisms
Lithium Titanate Nanoparticles
Lithium Titanate Spinel, Nanopowder
Lithium Vanadate Nanoparticles

Lithium Oxide Forms

Lithium Oxide Nanoparticles
Lithium Oxide Pellets
Lithium Oxide Pieces
Lithium Oxide Powder
Lithium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lithium Oxide Shot
Lithium Oxide Sputtering Target
Lithium Oxide Tablets


Lithium 6 Carbonate Isotope
Lithium 6 Metal Isotope
Lithium 7 Metal Isotope
Lithium Hydroxide H2O Isotope


Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amine lithium salt
Dilithium Tetrachlorocuprate(II) Solution
Lithium Acetate
Lithium Acetate Dihydrate
Lithium Acetate Solution
Lithium Aluminate
Lithium Aluminum Deuteride
Lithium Aluminum Deuteride Solution
Lithium Aluminum Hydride
Lithium Aluminum Hydride Solution
Lithium Aluminum Hexahydride
Lithium Amide
Lithium Amide Powder
Lithium Ammonia Borane
Lithium Arsenate
Lithium Azide Solution
Lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide
Lithium Borate
Lithium Borodeuteride
Lithium Borohydride
Lithium Borohydride/Aluminum
Lithium Borohydride/Magnesium Hydride
Lithium Borohydride/Magnesium/Tin/Tin
Lithium Borohydride Solution
Lithium Bromate
Lithium Bromide
Lithium Bromide, Ultra Dry
Lithium Bromide Hydrate
Lithium Carbide
Lithium Carbonate
Lithium Carbonate Solution
Lithium Chloride
Lithium Chloride, Ultra Dry
Lithium Chloride Solution
Lithium Chromate
Lithium Chromate Hydrate
Lithium Cobalt Oxide
Lithium Cobalt Phosphate
Lithium Deuteride
Lithium Difluoro(oxalato)borate
Lithium Fluoride
Lithium Fluoride Granules
Lithium Fluoride Pieces
Lithium Fluoride Powder
Lithium Fluoride, Ultra Dry
Lithium Gallium Oxide
Lithium Germanium Oxide
Lithium Hexachloriridate
Lithium Hexafluoroaluminate
Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate(V)
Lithium Hexafluorophosphate
Lithium Hexafluorotitanate
Lithium Hydride
Lithium Hydroxide
Lithium Hydroxide Anhydrous
Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate
Lithium Hypochlorite
Lithium Iodate
Lithium Iodide
Lithium Iodide Hydrate
Lithium Iodide Trihydrate
Lithium Iodide, Ultra Dry
Lithium Iron(III) Oxide
Lithium Iron Phosphate
Lithium Manganate
Lithium Manganese Dioxide Particles
Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide
Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide Electrode Sheet
Lithium Manganese Nickel Oxide Spinel, Powder
Lithium Manganese Oxide
Lithium Manganese Oxide Powder
Lithium Manganese Oxide, Spinel Electrode Sheet
Lithium Metaborate
Lithium Metaborate Dihydrate
Lithium Metasilicate
Lithium Molybdate
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Electrode Sheet
Lithium Nickel Cobalt Oxide
Lithium Nickel Dioxide
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC)
Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide Electrode Sheet
Lithium Niobate
Lithium Niobium Oxide
Lithium Nitrate
Lithium Oxide
Lithium Perchlorate
Lithium Perchlorate Trihydrate
Lithium Periodate
Lithium Periodate Dihydrate

Compounds, continued

Lithium Peroxide
Lithium Phosphate
Lithium Phosphate Monobasic
Lithium Phosphide
Lithium Potassium Chloride
Lithium Selenate
Lithium Selenite
Lithium Sulfate
Lithium Sulfate Monohydrate
Lithium Sulfate Solution
Lithium Sulfide
Lithium Tantalate
Lithium Tetrabromonickelate(II) Solution
Lithium Tetrachloroaluminate
Lithium Tetrachloroaurate(III) Hydrate
Lithium Tetrachlorogallate
Lithium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Lithium Tetracyanoplatinate(II) Hydrate
Lithium Tetrafluoroborate
Lithium Thiocyanate
Lithium Thiocyanate Hydrate
Lithium Tin Phosphorous Sulfide
Lithium Titanate
Lithium Titanate, Spinel (LTO) Electrode Sheet
Lithium Triborate
Lithium Tri-oxorhodate
Lithium Tungstate
Lithium Zirconate
Yttrium Lithium Fluoride

Organometallic Compounds

Copper(I) Chloride - Bis(Lithium Chloride) Complex
Lithium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Lithium 2-methyl-2-butoxide
Lithium 9-BBN Hydride Solution
Lithium Acetylacetonate
Lithium Aluminum Hydride Bis(tetrahydrofuran) Solution
Lithium Benzoate
Lithium bis(oxalato)borate
Lithium Bis(trimethylsilyl)amide Solution
Lithium Citrate
Lithium Citrate Tribasic Tetrahydrate
Lithium Diisopropylamide
Lithium Dimethylaminoborohydride Solution
Lithium Formate Monohydrate
Lithium Lactate
Lithium Morpholinoborohydride Solution
Lithium Methoxide
Lithium Niobium Ethoxide
Lithium Niobium Isopropoxide
Lithium Niobium Methoxide
Lithium Niobium Tert-butoxide
Lithium Nitrate Solution
Lithium Oxalate
Lithium Potassium Acetyl Phosphate
Lithium Pyrrolidinoborohydride Solution
Lithium Succinate
Lithium Tetra(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)boron
Lithium Tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate Ethyl Etherate
Lithium Tetraphenylborate tris(1,2-dimethoxyethane) Lithium Triethylborohydride
Lithium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Lithium Trimethylsilanolate
n-Butyllithium Solution

Lithium Targets

Lithium Carbonate Sputtering Target
Lithium Cobalt Oxide Sputtering Target
Lithium Niobate Sputtering Target
Lithium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lithium Oxide Sputtering Target
Lithium Phosphate Sputtering Target
Lithium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Lithium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lithium Selenide Sputtering Target
Lithium Sputtering Target
Lithium Tantalate Sputtering Target
Lithium Telluride Sputtering Target

Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Cr-doped Colquiriite
Holmium-doped Yttrium Lithium Fluoride
Lithium Arsenide
Lithium Niobate Wafer
Lithium Nitride
Lithium Ferrite
Lithium Carbonate
Lithium Phosphide
Lithium Selenide
Lithium Sulfide
Lithium Tantalate Wafer
Lithium Telluride
Magnesium Doped Lithium Niobate
Neodymium-doped Yttrium Lithium Fluoride
Thulium-doped Yttrium Lithium Fluoride

Recent Research & Development for Lithium

  • Jan Brückner, Sören Thieme, Hannah Tamara Grossmann, Susanne Dörfler, Holger Althues, Stefan Kaskel, Lithium–sulfur batteries: Influence of C-rate, amount of electrolyte and sulfur loading on cycle performance, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Jun-chao Zheng, Xing Ou, Bao Zhang, Chao Shen, jia-feng Zhang, Lei Ming, Ya-dong Han, Effects of Ni2+ doping on the performances of lithium iron pyrophosphate cathode material, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Jianguo Duan, Yanbing Cao, Jianbing Jiang, Ke Du, Zhongdong Peng, Guorong Hu, Novel efficient synthesis of nanosized carbon coated LiMnPO4 composite for lithium ion batteries and its electrochemical performance, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Patrick Röder, Barbara Stiaszny, Jörg C. Ziegler, Nilüfer Baba, Paul Lagaly, Hans-Dieter Wiemhöfer, The impact of calendar aging on the thermal stability of a LiMn2O4–Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2/graphite lithium-ion cell, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Xiao Zhang, Bin Jiang, Jinxue Guo, Yaping Xie, Lin Tang, Large and stable reversible lithium-ion storages from mesoporous SnO2 nanosheets with ultralong lifespan over 1000 cycles, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Xinlu Li, Yonglai Zhang, Tongtao Li, Qineng Zhong, Hongyi Li, Jiamu Huang, Graphene nanoscrolls encapsulated TiO2 (B) nanowires for lithium storage, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Bao Qiu, Jun Wang, Yonggao Xia, Zhen Wei, Shaojie Han, Zhaoping Liu, Temperature dependence of the initial coulombic efficiency in Li-rich layered Li[Li0.144Ni0.136Co0.136Mn0.544]O2 oxide for lithium-ions batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Wei Sun, Renzong Hu, Hui Liu, Meiqin Zeng, Lichun Yang, Haihui Wang, Min Zhu, Embedding nano-silicon in graphene nanosheets by plasma assisted milling for high capacity anode materials in lithium ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Xuebing Han, Minggao Ouyang, Languang Lu, Jianqiu Li, A comparative study of commercial lithium ion battery cycle life in electric vehicle: Capacity loss estimation, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Shaojie Han, Bao Qiu, Zhen Wei, Yonggao Xia, Zhaoping Liu, Surface structural conversion and electrochemical enhancement by heat treatment of chemical pre-delithiation processed lithium-rich layered cathode material, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Mulan Qin, Qiang Liang, Anqiang Pan, Shuquan Liang, Qing Zhang, Yan Tang, Xiaoping Tan, Template-free synthesis of vanadium oxides nanobelt arrays as high-rate cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Hiroyuki Usui, Kazuma Nouno, Yuya Takemoto, Kengo Nakada, Akira Ishii, Hiroki Sakaguchi, Influence of mechanical grinding on lithium insertion and extraction properties of iron silicide/silicon composites, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Ming Liu, Yan-Bing He, Wei Lv, Chen Zhang, Hongda Du, Baohua Li, Quan-Hong Yang, Feiyu Kang, High catalytic activity of anatase titanium dioxide for decomposition of electrolyte solution in lithium ion battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Abbas Tourani, Peter White, Paul Ivey, Analysis of electric and thermal behaviour of lithium-ion cells in realistic driving cycles, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Amardeep Singh, Afshin Izadian, Sohel Anwar, Model based condition monitoring in lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Min-Hsuan Hung, Chang-Hua Lin, Liang-Cheng Lee, Chien-Ming Wang, State-of-charge and state-of-health estimation for lithium-ion batteries based on dynamic impedance technique, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Wanjun Cao, Yangxing Li, Brian Fitch, Jonathan Shih, Tien Doung, Jim Zheng, Strategies to optimize lithium-ion supercapacitors achieving high-performance: Cathode configurations, lithium loadings on anode, and types of separator, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Xiao Jin, Weifu Sun, Zihan Chen, Yue Li, Pinjiang Li, Xingdao He, Yongbiao Yuan, Shibing Zou, Yuancheng Qin, Qinghua Li, Efficient electron/hole transport in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by lithium ion and molybdenum trioxide codoping, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Bo Liang, Yanping Liu, Yunhua Xu, Silicon-based materials as high capacity anodes for next generation lithium ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Lin Chen, Leon L. Shaw, Recent advances in lithium–sulfur batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014

Lithium Isotopes

Lithium (L) has two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7. Of the two, Lithium-7 is more common making up about 92.5% of lithium atoms.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
6Li 6.015122795 Stable 1+
7Li 7.016004550 Stable 3/2-