Sodium Elemental Symbol (Na)

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Sodium Natrium Sodio Sódio Sodio Natrium

Sodium Bohr Model
Sodium is a Block D, Group 5, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Sodium's shells is 2, 8, 1 and its electron configuration is [Ne] 3s1. The sodium atom has a radius of and it's Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7440-23-5, sodium has a silvery white metallic appearance. Sodium was first discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1807. It is the sixth most abundant element making up 2.6 % of the earth's crust. Sodium does not occur in nature and must be extracted from its compounds. The name Sodium comes from the Latin word "natrium" which means sodium carbonate. Sodium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity Sodium ChlorideSodium is primarily used in its metallic form in the production of chemical esters and in the manufacturing of various other organic compounds.High Purity (99.999%) sodium Oxide (NaO2)Powder The metal is used in the alloy of tin, nickel and copper for its structural characteristics. Sodium compounds are also used in low tech applications throughout industry. Elemental or metallic forms of sodium include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet forms for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Sodium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Safety data for sodium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Sodium Properties

Symbol: Na Melting Point: 97.794 oC, 208.029 oF, 370.944 K
Atomic Number: 11 Boiling Point: 882.94 oC, 1621.292 oF, 1156.09 K
Atomic Weight: 22.98976928 Density: 0.968 g·cm−3
Element Category: alkali metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 0.927 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 1 (alkali metals), 3, s Specific Heat: 0.3 kcal/kgoC
    Heat of Vaporization 99.2 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.64 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 11 Thermal Conductivity: 142 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 11 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 71 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 12 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 47.7 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Ne] 3s1 Electronegativity: 0.93 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 186 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 166±9 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 28.230 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 227 pm Young's Modulus: 10 GPa
Oxidation States: +1, -1 (strongly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 3.3 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 6.3 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 0.5
1st Ionization Energy: 495.85 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 4562.48 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 0.69 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 6910.33 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 3200 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7440-23-5 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 1400000 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4514534 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 380000 ppb
PubChem CID: 5360545 Abundance in universe, by weight: 20000 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00085307 Abundance in universe, by atom: 1000 ppb
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Humphry Davy
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1807
SMILES Identifier: [Na]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Na Other Names: N/A

Sodium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes


Aluminum Calcium Sodium Silicate
Aluminum Sodium Sulfate
Aluminum Sodium Sulfate Dodecahydrate
Ammonium Disodium Amminepentacyanoferrate(II) Hydrate
Ammonium Disodium Pentacyanoammineferrate Dihydrate
Barium Sodium Niobium Oxide
Diammonium Sodium Hexanitrorhodate(III)
Europium Sodium Sulfate
Gold(I) Sodium Cyanide
Gold(I) Sodium Thiosulfate Hydrate
Osmium Sodium Chloride
Potassium Sodium
Sodium (meta)arsenite
Sodium Acetate
Sodium Acetate Solution
Sodium Acetate Trihydrate
Sodium Acetate, Anhydrous
Sodium Aluminate
Sodium Aluminosilicate Hydrate
Sodium Aluminum Fluoride (Cryolite)
Sodium Aluminum Hydride
Sodium Aluminum Hydride Solution
Sodium Amide
Sodium Ammonium Phosphate
Sodium Ammonium Vanadate
Sodium Antimonate
Sodium Arsenate
Sodium Arsenate Heptahydrate
Sodium Arsenite
Sodium Azide
Sodium Bicarbonate
Sodium Bifluoride
Sodium Bismuth Oxide
Sodium Bismuthate
Sodium Bisulfate Monohydrate
Sodium Bisulfite
Sodium Borodeuteride
Sodium Borohydride
Sodium Borohydride Caplets
Sodium Borohydride Granules
Sodium Borohydride On Aluminum Oxide
Sodium Borohydride Particles
Sodium Borohydride Pellets
Sodium Borohydride Powder
Sodium Borohydride Solution
Sodium Borohydride/Magnesium Hydride
Sodium Bromate
Sodium Bromide
Sodium Bromide Hydrate
Sodium Bromide, Ultra Dry
Sodium Carbide
Sodium Carbonate
Sodium Carbonate Decahydrate
Sodium Carbonate Monohydrate
Sodium Carbonate, Anhydrous
Sodium Chlorate
Sodium Chloride
Sodium Chloride, Ultra Dry
Sodium Chloride Solution
Sodium Chlorite
Sodium Chloroplatinate
Sodium Chromate
Sodium Chromate Tetrahydrate
Sodium Cobaltinitrite
Sodium Cyanide
Sodium Cyanoborohydride Reagent Grade
Sodium Cyanoborohydride Solution
Sodium Dichromate
Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate
Sodium Dithionite
Sodium Ferrocyanide Decahydrate
Sodium Fluoride
Sodium Fluoroborate
Sodium Fluorophosphate
Sodium Hexabromoiridate(IV)
Sodium Hexabromoosmiate(IV)
Sodium Hexabromoplatinate(IV) Hexahydrate
Sodium Hexabromorhodate(III) Hydrate
Sodium Hexachloroiridate(III) Hydrate
Sodium Hexachloroiridate(IV) Hexahydrate
Sodium Hexachloroosmiate(IV) Dihydrate
Sodium Hexachloropalladate(IV) Hydrate
Sodium Hexachloroplatinate(IV) Hexahydrate
Sodium Hexachlororhodate(III) Dodecahydrate
Sodium Hexafluoroacetylacetonate
Sodium Hexafluoroantimonate(V)
Sodium Hexafluoroaluminate
Sodium Hexafluoroarsenate(V)
Sodium Hexafluoroferrate(III)
Sodium Hexafluorophosphate
Sodium Hexahydroxoantimonate
Sodium Hexahydroxyplatinate(IV)
Sodium Hexaiodoplatinate(IV) Hexahydrate
Sodium Hexanitritocobaltate(III)
Sodium Hexanitroiridate(III)
Sodium Hydride
Sodium Hydrogen Arsenate Heptahydrate
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
Sodium Hydrogencyanamide
Sodium Hydrogen Periodate
Sodium Hydrogen Phosphate
Sodium Hydrogen Phosphate Heptahydrate
Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate
Sodium Hydrogen Sulfide
Sodium Hydrosulfide Hydrate
Sodium Hydroxide Solution
Sodium Hydroxide, Anhydrous
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution
Sodium Hypophosphite Monohydrate
Sodium Iodate
Sodium Iodide
Sodium Iodide, Ultra Dry
Sodium Iodide Hydrate
Sodium Meta Periodate
Sodium Meta Vanadate
Sodium Metabisulfite
Sodium Metaborate Octahydrate
Sodium Metaborate Tetrahydrate
Sodium Metasilicate Anhydrous
Sodium Metasilicate Hydrate
Sodium Metasilicate Nonahydrate
Sodium Metasilicate Pentahydrate
Sodium Metatitanate
Sodium Metatungstate Hydrate
Sodium Metavanadate Hydrate
Sodium Molybdate
Sodium Molybdenum Oxide, Anhydrous
Compounds (continued)

Sodium Niobate
Sodium Niobium Oxide
Sodium Nitrate
Sodium Nitrate Solution
Sodium Nitrite
Sodium Nitroferricyanide(III) Dihydrate
Sodium Nitroprusside Dihydrate
Sodium Orthovanadate
Sodium Oxide
Sodium Pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III) Dihydrate
Sodium Perborate, Monohydrate
Sodium Perborate Tetrahydrate
Sodium Percarbonate
Sodium Perchlorate Anyhydrous
Sodium Perchlorate, Hydrate
Sodium Perchlorate Monohydrate
Sodium Permanganate
Sodium Permanganate Monohydrate
Sodium Permanganate Solution
Sodium Peroxide
Sodium Perrhenate
Sodium Persulfate
Sodium Phosphate
Sodium Phosphate Dibasic
Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Anhydrous
Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Dihydrate
Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate
Sodium Phosphate Tribasic Anhydrous
Sodium Phosphate Tribasic Dodecahydrate
Sodium Phosphomolybdate Hydrate
Sodium Phosphotungstate Dibasic Hydrate
Sodium Polyphosphate
Sodium Polytungstate
Sodium Pyrophosphate Decahydrate
Sodium Pyrophosphate Tetrabasic
Sodium Pyrovanadate
Sodium Selenate
Sodium Selenite
Sodium Selenite Pentahydrate
Sodium Silicide
Sodium Silicofluoride
Sodium Sulfate
Sodium Sulfate Anhydrous
Sodium Sulfate Decahydrate
Sodium Sulfate Solution
Sodium Sulfide Nonahydrate
Sodium Sulfite
Sodium Tantalate
Sodium Tellurate
Sodium Telluride
Sodium Tellurite
Sodium Tetraborate Decahydrate
Sodium Tetraborate, Anhydrous
Sodium Tetrabromoaurate(III) Hydrate
Sodium Tetrabromopalladate(II)
Sodium Tetrachloroaluminate
Sodium Tetrachloroaurate(III) Dihydrate
Sodium Tetrachloroaurate(III) Hydrate
Sodium Tetrachloropalladate(II)
Sodium Tetrachloropalladate(II) Hydrate
Sodium Tetracyanoplatinate(II) Hydrate
Sodium Tetrafluoroborate
Sodium Thioantimonate(V) Nonahydrate
Sodium Thiocyanate
Sodium Thiosulfate Anhydrous
Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate
Sodium Thiosulfate Solution
Sodium Titanate Na2TiO3
Sodium Titanium Oxide Na2Ti4O9
Sodium Tungstate
Sodium Tungstate Dihydrate
Sodium Tungsten Oxide Dihydrate
Sodium Yttrium Fluoride, Ytterbium And Erbium Doped
Sodium Yttrium Fluoride, Ytterbium And Thulium Doped
Sodium Yttrium Oxyfluoride, Ytterbium And Erbium Doped

Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Sodium Arsenide
Sodium Phosphide
Sodium Nitride
Sodium Sulfide
Sodium Sulfide Nonahydrate


Sodium Oxide Nanopowder

Sodium Oxide Forms

Sodium Oxide Nanopowder
Sodium Oxide Particles
Sodium Oxide Pellets
Sodium Oxide Pieces
Sodium Oxide Powder
Sodium Oxide Shot
Sodium Oxide Sputtering Target
Sodium Oxide Tablets


Sodium 35 Chloride Isotope
Sodium 79 Bromide Isotope
Sodium 81 Bromide Isotope

Sputtering Targets

Sodium Oxide Sputtering Target

Metal Forms

Sodium Cubes
Sodium Ingots
Sodium Lump
Sodium Sticks

Organometallic Compounds

3-(2-pyridyl)-5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine Sulfonated, Disodium Salt
3-(4-phenyl-2-pyridyl)-5,6-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazine Trisulfonic Acid, Trisodium Salt
3-(4-phenyl-2-pyridyl)-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazine Disulfonic Acid, Disodium Salt
4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-biquinoline, Sodium Salt
4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic Acid, Disodium Salt Monohydrate
Organometallic Compounds, Continued

Alizarin Red S
Alizarin Yellow R Sodium Salt
Bathocuproine Sulfonated Sodium Salt
Bathophenanthroline Sulfonated
Brilliant Ponceau
Brilliant Yellow
Bromcresol Green Solution
Bromcresol Purple Solution
Bromphenol Blue Solution
Bromthymol Blue Solution
Cacodylic Acid Sodium Salt
Cacodylic Acid Sodium Salt Trihydrate
Chlorotris[(3,3',3''-phosphinidynetris(benzenesulfonato)] rhodium(I) Nonasodium Salt Hydrate
Chlorophyllin Sodium Copper Salt
Copper Disodium Ethylenediaminetetraacetate
Copper Phthalocyanine-3,4',4",4"'-tetrasulfonic Acid Tetrasodium Salt
Cresol Red Solution
Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Iron(III) Disodium Salt Hydrate
Dioctyl Sulfosuccinate Sodium Salt
Disodium bis(4-chloro-3-sulfophenyl)sulfone
Disodium Dihydrogen Ethylenediaminetetraacetate Dihydrate
Disodium Dihydrogen Ethylenediaminetetraacetate Solution
Disodium Magnesium Ethylenediaminetetraacetate
Disodium tetracarbonylferrate Dioxane Complex
D-Ribose-5-Phosphate Disodium Salt Dihydrate
Eosin Y
Eriochrome Black T
Eriochrome Blue Black R
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Copper(II) Disodium Salt
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Ferric Sodium Salt
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron(III) Sodium Salt Hydrate
Fast Sulphon Black F
Hydroxy Naphthol Blue
Hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic Acid Trisodium Salt
Iron(III) Phthalocyanine-4,4',4'',4'''-tetrasulfonic Acid, compound with Oxygen Monosodium Salt Hydrate
Magnesium Disodium EDTA
Magnesium Disodium EDTA Tetrahydrate
Mercury Dibromofluorescein Disodium Salt
Methyl Orange Solution
Methyl Red Solution
MOPS Sodium Salt
Naphthol Blue Black
Naphthol Green B
Naphthylazoxine S
Nickel(II) Phthalocyanine-Tetrasulfonic Acid Tetrasodium Salt
Nitroso R Salt
PDT Disulfonate Monosodium Salt Hydrate
Phenol Red Solution
Potassium Sodium L-tartrate Tetrahydrate
Potassium Sodium Tartrate Solution
Resazurin Sodium Salt
Sodium 1-Hexanesulfonate Monohydrate
Sodium 1-Octanesulfonate Monohydrate
Sodium 1-Pentanesulfonate Monohydrate
Sodium 2-Hydroxybutyrate
Sodium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Sodium 2-Furyldimethylsilanolate
Sodium 3-Nitrobenzenesulfonate
Sodium Acetylacetonate
Sodium Acetylide
Sodium Arsenyl Tartrate Hydrate
Sodium Aurothiomalate(I)
Sodium Benzoate
Sodium Benzyloxide Solution
Sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide
Sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide Solution
Sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide
Sodium Bitartrate Monohydrate
Sodium Butyrate
Sodium Cholesteryl Sulfate
Sodium Citrate Dihydrate
Sodium Cyclohexanebutyrate
Sodium Dibudinate
Sodium Dibunate
Sodium Diethyldithiocarbamate
Sodium Diethyldithiocarbamate Trihydrate
Sodium Dimethylglyoxime
Sodium Dimethylphenylsilanolate Hydrate
Sodium Diphenylamine-4-sulfonate
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Sodium Ethanethiolate
Sodium Ethoxide
Sodium Formate
Sodium Galacturonate
Sodium Glucoheptonate
Sodium Gluconate
Sodium Glutamate Monohydrate
Sodium Hydroxide Pellets
Sodium Isobutyrate
Sodium L-(+)-tartrate Dihydrate
Sodium Methoxide
Sodium Octoate
Sodium Oxalate
Sodium p-toluenesulfinate
Sodium p-toluenesulfinate Hydrate
Sodium p-toluenesulfonate
Sodium Salicylate
Sodium Stannate Trihydrate
Sodium Sulfanilate Dihydrate
Sodium Tartrate Dihydrate
Sodium Tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl)borate Dihydrate
Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate
Sodium Tetraethylborate
Sodium Tetraphenylborate
Sodium Triacetoxyborohydride
Sodium Triethylborohydride Solution
Sodium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Sodium Trifluoromethanesulfonimide
Sodium Trimethoxyborohydride
Tetrasodium Ethylenediaminetetraacetate Dihydrate
Thymol Blue Sodium Salt
Thymol Blue Solution
Tris(bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate)ruthenium(II) Solution, Sodium Salt
Xylenol Orange Solution

Recent Research & Development for Sodium

  • Controlled porosity osmotic pump system for the delivery of diclofenac sodium: in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation. Emara LH, Taha NF, El-Ashmawy AA, Raslan HM, Mursi NM. Pharm Dev Technol. 2014 Sep.
  • The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals. Lou H, Liu M, Qu W, Johnson J, Brunson E, Almoazen H. Pharm Dev Technol. 2014 Aug.
  • Diclofenac sodium sustained release hot melt extruded lipid matrices. Vithani K, Cuppok Y, Mostafa S, Slipper IJ, Snowden MJ, Douroumis D. Pharm Dev Technol. 2014 Aug.
  • Incompatibility of croscarmellose sodium with alkaline excipients in a tablet formulation. Bindra DS, Stein D, Pandey P, Barbour N. Pharm Dev Technol. 2014 May.
  • Comprehensive assessment of nephrotoxicity of intravenously administered sodium-oleate-coated ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in rats. Sebeková K, Dušinská M, Simon Klenovics K, Kollárová R, Boor P, Kebis A, Staruchová M, Vlková B, Celec P, Hodosy J, Baciak L, Tušková R, Beno M, Tulinská J, Príbojová J, Bilanicová D, Pojana G, Marcomini A, Volkovová K. Nanotoxicology. 2014 Mar.
  • Taste masking of naproxen sodium granules by fluid-bed coating. Stange U, Führling C, Gieseler H. Pharm Dev Technol 2014.
  • Facile synthesis of calcium silicate hydrate using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant assisted by ultrasonic irradiation. Mehrali M, Seyed Shirazi SF, Baradaran S, Mehrali M, Metselaar HS, Kadri NA, Osman NA. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 Mar.
  • A novel sodium iodide and ammonium molybdate co-catalytic system for the efficient synthesis of 2-benzimidazoles using hydrogen peroxide under ultrasound irradiation. Bai GY, Lan XW, Chen GF, Liu XF, Li TY, Shi LJ. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 Mar.
  • Water-solid interactions between amorphous maltodextrins and crystalline sodium chloride. Ghorab MK, Marrs K, Taylor LS, Mauer LJ. Food Chem. 2014 Feb.
  • Electrochemical serotonin monitoring of poly(ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide by predeposition of self-assembled 4-pyridylporphyrin. Song MJ, Kim S, Ki Min N, Jin JH. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 Feb.
  • The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content. Boisard L, Andriot I, Martin C, Septier C, Boissard V, Salles C, Guichard E. Food Chem. 2014 Feb.
  • Lee J, Ashokkumar M, Kentish SE. Influence of mixing and ultrasound frequency on antisolvent crystallisation of sodium chloride. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 Jan.
  • Relationship between urinary sodium excretion and serum aldosterone in patients with diabetes in the presence and absence of modifiers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Libianto R, Jerums G, Lam Q, Chen A, Baqar S, Pyrlis F, Macisaac RJ, Moran J, Ekinci EI. Clin Sci (Lond). 2014 Jan.
  • Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough. - Van Steertegem B, Pareyt B, Brijs K, Delcour JA.
  • Zhang Y, Niu Y, Luo Y, Ge M, Yang T, Yu LL, Wang Q. Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers. Food Chem. 2014.
  • Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of sodium benzoate, a food preservative, with calf thymus DNA. 2013 - Zhang G, Ma Y.
  • Yang HM, Chu WM. Esterification of sodium 4-hydroxybenzoate by ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid phase-transfer catalysis using dual-site phase-transfer catalyst. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 Jan.
  • The concomitant consumption of cod liver oil causes a reduction in the daily diclofenac sodium usage in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study. Gupta VK, Khan ZY, Ahmad M.
  • Improved Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis using bleach Microscopy Method. Mindolli PB, Salmani MP, Parandekar PK.
  • NIR fluorescence studies of neodymium ions doped sodium fluoroborate glasses for 1.06µm laser applications. Madhukar Reddy C, Vijaya N, Deva Prasad Raju B.

Sodium Isotopes

Sodium (Na) has 20 isotopes ranging from 18Na to 37Na. Only 23Na is stable.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
23Na 22.9897692809 Stable 3/2+