Lead (Pb) Elemental Symbol

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Lead(Pb) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolLead is a Block P, Group 14, Period 6 element. Lead Bohr Model The number of electrons in each of Lead's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. The lead atom has a radius of 175.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 202.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7439-92-1, lead has a metallic gray appearance. Lead occurs naturally as a mixture of four stable isotopes: 204Pb (1.48%), 206Pb (23.6%), 207Pb (22.6%), and 208Pb (52.3%). Elemental Lead Lead is obtained mainly from galena (PbS) by a roasting process. Anglesite, cerussite, and minim are other common lead minerals. Lead was first discovered by Early Man. Lead information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity (99.99999%) Lead (Pb) Sputtering TargetLarge quantities of lead, both the dioxide and the metal, are used in batteries, cable covering, plumbing, and ammunition. Lead is highly resistant to corrosion and can be used to contain corrosive liquids such as sulfuric acid. Lead is also extremely effective at absorbing sound and vibration. It is used as radiation shielding for X-ray equipment and nuclear reactors. Lead High Purity (99.999%) Lead Oxide (Pb3O4) PowderAlloys include solder, type metal, and various anti-friction metals and compounds. Oxides of Lead are used in producing fine "crystal glass" and "flint glass" of a high index of refraction for achromatic lenses. Lead ceramics and crystalline material have a wide range of industrial and optical applications, including infrared detection and imaging. Lead-based semiconductors, such as lead telluride, lead selenide and lead antimonide are finding application in photovoltaic (solar energy) cells and infrared detectors. White lead, the basic carbonate, sublimed white lead, chrome yellow, and other lead compounds are used in paints- although the use of lead in paints has been drastically curtailed in recent years to reduce health hazards. Lead is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Lead is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Safety data for Lead metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific Lead material or compound referenced in the “Lead Products” tab below.

  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Lead Properties

Symbol: Pb Melting Point: 327.46 °C
Atomic Number: 82 Boiling Point: 1749 °C
Atomic Weight: 207.2 Density: 11.34 g/cm3
Element Category: post-transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 10.66 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 14, 6, p Specific Heat:  
    Heat of Vaporization 179.5 kJ·mol−1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.77 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 82 Thermal Conductivity: 35.3 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 82 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 28.9 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 125 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 208 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4 Electronegativity: 2.33 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 175 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 146±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.650 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 202 pm Young's Modulus: 16 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1 (Amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 5.6 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 46 GPa
Crystal Structure: face-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.44
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 1.5
1st Ionization Energy: 715.60 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1450.40 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 5.0 HB = 38.3 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 3081.50 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: 1190 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7439-92-1 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 1700 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4509317 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 50 ppb
PubChem CID: 5352425 Abundance in universe, by weight: 10 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134050 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.06 ppb
EC Number: 231-100-4 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Ancient
SMILES Identifier: [Pb]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pb Other Names:  

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Lead

Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H302-H332-H360Df-H373-H410
Hazard Codes T, N
Risk Codes 61-33-40-48/20-51/53-62
Safety Precautions 53-36/37-45
RTECS Number OF7525000
Transport Information N 3077 9/PG 3
WGK Germany nwg
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Health Hazard Environment-Hazardous to the aquatic environment  

Lead Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes


Lead Acetate
Lead(II) Acetate Basic
Lead Acetate Solution
Lead(II) Acetate Trihydrate
Lead Arsenate
Lead Arsenide
Lead Bromate
Lead Bromide
Lead Bromide, Ultra Dry
Lead Carbide
Lead Carbonate
Lead Carbonate, Basic
Lead Chloride
Lead Chloride, Ultra Dry
Lead Chloride Solution
Lead Chromate
Lead Chromate Oxide
Lead Dioxide
Lead Fluoride
Lead Iodate
Lead Iodide
Lead Iodide, Ultra Dry
Lead Magnesium Niobate
Lead Magnesium Niobate/Lead Titanate (PMN-PT)
Lead(II) Metavanadate
Lead Molybdate
Lead Niobate
Lead Nitrate
Lead Nitrate Solution
Lead(II) Oxide PbO
Lead(II,IV) Oxide Pb3O4
Lead(II) Perchlorate Hydrate
Lead Perchlorate Trihydrate
Lead Phosphate
Lead Potassium Niobium Oxide
Lead Selenate
Lead Selenite
Lead Sulfate
Lead Sulfate Solution
Lead Sulfide Hollow Satellites
Lead Tantalate
Lead Telluride/ Antimony Selenide Solid Solution
Lead Telluride/ Tin Telluride/Lead Selenide Solid Solution
Lead Tetrafluoroborate
Lead Titanate
Lead Tungstate
Lead Zirconate
Lead Zirconium Oxide
Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT)
Lindlar Catalyst Magnesium Plumbide Granules
Pigment Yellow 34
Plumbane (Lead Hydride)

Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Lead Antimonide
Lead Arsenide
Lead Phosphide
Lead Selenide
Lead Phosphide Sputtering Target
Lead Telluride

Lead Oxide Forms

Lead Oxide Pellets
Lead Oxide Pieces
Lead Oxide Powder
Lead Oxide Red Powder
Lead Oxide Ribbon
Lead Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lead Oxide Shot
Lead Oxide Sputtering Target
Lead Oxide Tablets
Lead Oxide Yellow Powder


Lead Nanopowder
Lead Nanoprisms
Lead Nanorods
Lead Nanowires
Lead Selenide Quantum Dots
Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots
Lead Sulfur Hollow Nanospheres


Aluminum Lead Alloy
Antimonial Lead Rod
Antimonial Lead Sheet
Antimonial Lead Ingot
Antimonial Lead Foil
Bismuth Indium Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide
Bismuth Lead Tin
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Ingot
Bismuth Lead Tin Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Bismuth Tin Indium Lead Alloy
Indium Lead Alloy
Indium Lead Silver Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Cadmium Alloy
Lead Antimony Alloy
Lead Antimony Tin Alloy
Lead Bismuth Tin Cadmium Alloy
Lead Cadmium Alloy
Lead Indium Alloy
Lead Indium Antimony Alloy
Lead Indium Silver Alloy
Lead Selenium Granule
Lead Silver Alloy
Lead Silver Antimony Alloy
Lead-Silver Inquarts
Lead Silver Tin Alloy
Lead Sulfur Hollow Spheres
Lead Tin Alloy
Lead Tin Antimony Alloy
Lead Tin Arsenic Granules
Lead Tin Arsenic Lump
Lead Tin Arsenic Powder
Lead Tin Silver Alloy
Lead Tin Silver Indium Alloy
Silver Lead Alloy
Tin Lead Alloy
Tin Lead Antimony Foil
Tin Lead Antimony Alloy
Tin Lead Cadmium
Tin Lead Indium Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Alloy
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Particles
Tin Lead Silver Bismuth Alloy Powder
Woods Metal Stick

Organometallic Compounds

Lead Acetylacetonate
Lead B-Resorcylate
Lead Citrate Trihydrate
Lead 2 - Ethylhexanoate
Lead Formate
Lead Naphthenate
Lead Octoate
Lead Oxalate
Lead(II) Salicylate
Lead Subacetate
Lead(II) Tartrate
Lead Trifluoromethanesulfonate

Sputtering Targets

Lead Antimonide Sputtering Target
Lead Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lead Oxide Sputtering Target
Lead Phosphide Sputtering Target
PZT Sputtering Target
Lead Rotatable Sputtering Target
Lead Selenide Sputtering Target
Lead Sputtering Target
Lead Sulfide Sputtering Target
Lead Telluride Sputtering Target

Recent Research & Development for Lead

  • Baoxiang He, Hua Wang, Xie He, Vibration test methods and their experimental research on the performance of the lead-acid battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Yue Li, Zheng Shen, Asok Ray, Christopher D. Rahn, Real-time estimation of lead-acid battery parameters: A dynamic data-driven approach, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Olawale L. Osifeko, Tebello Nyokong, Applications of lead phthalocyanines embedded in electrospun fibers for the photoinactivation of Escherichia coli in water, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 111, December 2014
  • A.A. El-Daly, A.E. Hammad, G.S. Al-Ganainy, M. Ragab, Properties enhancement of low Ag-content Sn–Ag–Cu lead-free solders containing small amount of Zn, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 614, 25 November 2014
  • Xing Liu, Min Zhu, Zhihui Chen, Bijun Fang, Jianning Ding, Xiangyong Zhao, Haiqing Xu, Haosu Luo, Structure and electrical properties of Li-doped BaTiO3–CaTiO3–BaZrO3 lead-free ceramics prepared by citrate method, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 613, 15 November 2014
  • Matthew Sorge, Thomas Bean, Travis Woodland, John Canning, I. Frank Cheng, Dean B. Edwards, Investigating the use of porous, hollow glass microspheres in positive lead acid battery plates, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 266, 15 November 2014
  • Pengran Gao, Yi Liu, Weixin Lv, Rui Zhang, Wei Liu, Xianfu Bu, Guanghua Li, Lixu Lei, Methanothermal reduction of mixtures of PbSO4 and PbO2 to synthesize ultrafine a-PbO powders for lead acid batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 265, 1 November 2014
  • M.L.V. Mahesh, V.V. Bhanu Prasad, A.R. James, Enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free Ba(Zr0.15Ti0.85)O3 ceramics compacted by cold isostatic pressing, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 611, 25 October 2014
  • Yuanyu Wang, Qilong Zhang, New K0.48Na0.52NbO3–Bi(Zn0.5Zr0.5)O3 lead-free ceramics: Microstructure and piezoelectricity, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 611, 25 October 2014
  • S.I. Sadovnikov, A.I. Gusev, Effect of particle size on the thermal expansion of nanostructured lead sulfide films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 610, 15 October 2014
  • L. Rus, S. Rada, V. Rednic, E. Culea, M. Rada, A. Bot, N. Aldea, T. Rusu, Structural and optical properties of the lead based glasses containing iron (III) oxide, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 402, 15 October 2014
  • A. Oury, A. Kirchev, Y. Bultel, Cycling of soluble lead flow cells comprising a honeycomb-shaped positive electrode, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 264, 15 October 2014
  • Bo Wang, Shifang Xiao, Xianglai Gan, Huiqiu Deng, Xiaofan Li, Xuegui Sun, Wangyu Hu, Diffusion properties of liquid lithium–lead alloys from atomistic simulation, Computational Materials Science, Volume 93, October 2014
  • A.F. Zatsepin, H.-J. Fitting, E.A. Buntov, V.A. Pustovarov, B. Schmidt, Defects and localized states in silica layers implanted with lead ions, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • Admira Bosnjakovic, Marek Danilczuk, Shulamith Schlick, Pa N. Xiong, Gregory M. Haugen, Steven J. Hamrock, An attempt to generate anion exchange membranes by amination of the perfluorinated 3M precursor leads to the hydrolysis of the precursor, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 467, 1 October 2014
  • Yi Liu, Pengran Gao, Xianfu Bu, Guizhi Kuang, Wei Liu, Lixu Lei, Nanocrosses of lead sulphate as the negative active material of lead acid batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • Jun Gou, Anson Lee, Jan Pyko, Modeling of the cranking and charging processes of conventional valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries in micro-hybrid applications, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • S. Mostafa Hosseinpour-Mashkani, Majid Ramezani, Morteza Vatanparast, Synthesis and characterization of lead selenide nanostructure through simple sonochemical method in the presence of novel precursor, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Rajkumar Nirmala, Kyung Soo Jeon, Rangaswamy Navamathavan, Hak Yong Kim, Soo-Jin Park, Synthesis and characterization of electrospun cadmium sulfide- and lead sulfide-blended poly(vinyl acetate) composite nanofibers, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Srimala Sreekantan, Syazwani Mohd. Zaki, Chin Wei Lai, Teoh Wah Tzu, Copper-incorporated titania nanotubes for effective lead ion removal, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014

Lead Isotopes

Lead (Pb) has four stable isotopes. Lead-204 is a primordial nuclide. Lead-206, Lead-207, and Lead-208 result from the uranium (or radium) series, the actinium series, and the thorium series decay chains respectively.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
204Pb 203.9730436 Stable 0+
206Pb 205.9744653 Stable 0+
207Pb 206.9758969 Stable 1/2-
208Pb 207.9766521 Stable 0+