Cadmium Elemental Symbol
Cadmium



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Cadmium Cadmium Cadmio Cádmio Cadmio Kadmium

Cadmium(Cd) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCadmium is a Block D, Group 12, Period 5 element. Cadmium Bohr ModelElemental CadmiumThe number of electrons in each of Cadmium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2. The cadmium atom has a radius of 148.9.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 158.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-43-9, cadmium has a silvery bluish gray metallic appearance. Cadmium makes up about 0.1 ppm of the earth's crust. No significant deposits of cadmium containing ores are known, however, it is sometimes found in its metallic form. It is a common impurity in zinc ores and is isolated during the production of zinc. Cadmium was first discovered by Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer in 1817. The name Cadmium originates from the Latin word 'cadmia' and the Greek word 'kadmeia'. See Cadmium research below.

Cadmium is a key component in battery production, it is present in cadmium pigments, coatings, and it's commonly used in electroplating. Cadmium oxide is used in phosphors for television picture tubes. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is used as a photoconductive surface coating for photocopier drums. Cadmium is also used to control neutrons in nuclear fission. Cadmium in glass and ceramic glazes create a distinctive cadmium yellow. High Purity (99.99999%) Cadmium (Cd)Sputtering TargetCadmium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Cadmium Oxide (CdO) PowderCadmium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Cadmium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Cadmium and its compounds are toxic. Safety data for Cadmium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Cadmium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Cd Melting Point: 594.22 K, 321.07 °C, 609.93 °F
Atomic Number: 48 Boiling Point: 1040 K, 767 °C, 1413 °F
Atomic Weight: 112.411 Density: 8.65 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 7.996 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 12, 5, d Specific Heat: 0.23 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 100 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 6.11 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 48 Thermal Conductivity: 96.6 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 48 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 30.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 64 Electrical Resistivity: (22 °C) 72.7 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d105s2 Electronegativity: 1.69 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 151 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 144±9 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.020 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 158.pm Young's Modulus: 50 GPa
Oxidation States: 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 19 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 42 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.30
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 2.0
1st Ionization Energy: 867.78 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1631.42 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 203 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 3616.30 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2310 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-43-9 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 700 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22410 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 39 ppb
PubChem CID: 23973 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010914 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.02 ppb
EC Number: 231-152-8 Discovered By: Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer
Beilstein Number: 8137359 Discovery Date: 1817
SMILES Identifier: [Cd]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Cd Other Names: Cadmio, Cádmio, Kadmium,
InChI Key: BDOSMKKIYDKNTQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Cadmium


Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H330-H341-H350-H361fd-H372-H410
Hazard Codes T+,N
Risk Codes 45-26-48/23/25-50/53-62-63-68
Safety Precautions 53-45-60-61
RTECS Number EU9800000
Transport Information UN 2570 6.1/PG 1
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Environment-Hazardous to the aquatic environment Health Hazard Skull and Crossbones-Acute Toxicity   

Cadmium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Compounds

Cadmium Acetate
Cadmium Acetate Dihydrate
Cadmium Acetate Solution
Cadmium Bromide
Cadmium Bromide, Ultra Dry
Cadmium Carbide
Cadmium Carbonate
Cadmium Chloride
Cadmium Chloride, Ultra Dry
Cadmium Chloride Hemi(pentahydrate)
Cadmium Chloride Hydrate
Cadmium Chloride Solution
Cadmium Chromate
Cadmium Diphosphide
Cadmium Fluoride
Cadmium Hydroxide
Cadmium Iodate
Cadmium Iodide
Cadmium Iodide, Ultra Dry
Cadmium Molybdate
Cadmium Nitrate
Cadmium Nitrate Solution
Cadmium Nitride
Cadmium Oxide
Cadmium Oxalate
Cadmium Perchlorate Hydrate
Cadmium Phosphate
Cadmium Selenate
Cadmium Selenite
Cadmium Stannate
Cadmium Sulfate Hydrate
Cadmium Sulfate Octahydrate
Cadmium Sulfate Solution
Cadmium Sulfate, Anhydrous
Cadmium Tantalate CdTa2O6
Cadmium Tantalate Cd2Ta2O7
Cadmium Tellurite
Cadmium Tungstate
Cadmium Vanadate


Organometallic Compounds

Cadmium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Cadmium Acetylacetonate
Cadmium Diethyldithiocarbamate
Cadmium Formate
Cadmium Phthalocyanine
Cadmium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Dimethylcadmium


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Cadmium Antimonide CdSb
Cadmium Antimonide Cd3Sb2
Cadmium Arsenide Cd3As2
Cadmium(IV) Arsenide CdAs2
Cadmium Indium Tellurium Granules
Cadmium Indium Tellurium Powder
Cadmium Indium Tellurium Lump
Cadmium Phosphide CdP2
Cadmium Phosphide Cd3P2
Cadmium Selenide
Cadmium Selenide Hollow Spheres
Cadmium Selenide Tube
Cadmium Sulfide
Cadmium Telluride
Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT)
Zinc Cadmium Telluride Granule
Zinc Cadmium Telluride Lump
Zinc Cadmium Telluride Powder
Alloys

Bismuth Indium Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Ingot
Bismuth Cadmium
Bismuth Tin Cadmium
Cadmium Zinc Alloy
Indium Bismuth Cadmium Alloy
Indium Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Cadmium Alloy
Lead Bismuth Tin Cadmium Alloy
Lead Cadmium Alloy
Mercury Cadmium Telluride Granules
Mercury Cadmium Telluride Powder
Mercury Cadmium Telluride Lump
Silver Cadmium Zinc Copper Alloy Particles
Silver Cadmium Zinc Copper Alloy Powder
Tin Cadmium Alloy
Tin Lead Cadmium
Woods Metal Stick


Nanomaterials

Cadmium Nanoprisms
Cadmium Nanorods
Cadmium Oxide Nanopowder
Cadmium Selenide Hollow Nanospheres
Cadmium Selenide Nanotubes
Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots
Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots
CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots
ZnCdSe/ZnS Sulfide Quantum Dots


Isotopes

Cadmium-106 Isotope
Cadmium-106 Oxide Isotope
Cadmium-108 Isotope
Cadmium-108 Oxide Isotope
Cadmium-110 Oxide Isotope
Cadmium-111 Chloride Isotope
Cadmium-111 Oxide Isotope
Cadmium-112 Isotope
Cadmium-112 Oxide Isotope
Cadmium-113 Chloride Isotope
Cadmium-113 Isotope
Cadmium-113 Oxide Isotope
Cadmium-114 Oxide Isotope
Cadmium-116 Oxide Isotope


Sputtering Targets

Cadmium Antimonide Sputtering Target
Cadmium Arsenide Sputtering Target
Cadmium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Cadmium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Cadmium Oxide Sputtering Target
Cadmium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Cadmium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Cadmium Selenide Sputtering Target
Cadmium Sputtering Target
Cadmium Sulfide Sputtering Target
Cadmium Telluride Sputtering Target
Cadmium Tin Sputtering Target
Cadmium Zinc Sulfide Sputtering Target


Recent Research & Development for Cadmium

  • Jingfu Zhang, Jingen Pan, Lianyi Shao, Jie Shu, Mingjiong Zhou, Jianguo Pan, Micro-sized cadmium tungstate as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 614, 25 November 2014
  • Bakhtiar Ul Haq, Rashid Ahmed, Souraya Goumri-Said, DFT characterization of cadmium doped zinc oxide for photovoltaic and solar cell applications, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 130, November 2014
  • Prasanta Kumar Bhaumik, Sumit Roy, Klaus Harms, Shouvik Chattopadhyay, Formation of novel cadmium(II) tetrazolato complexes with Schiff bases as co-ligands via in situ [3+2] cyclo-addition, Polyhedron, Volume 81, 15 October 2014
  • Ankita Solanki, Sujit Baran Kumar, Syntheses and structural studies of cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) selenocyanate complexes with a tetradentate N4-donor ligand, Polyhedron, Volume 81, 15 October 2014
  • Ali Badawi, N. Al-Hosiny, S. Abdallah, Amar Merazga, H. Talaat, Single wall carbon nanotube/titania nanocomposite photoanodes enhance the photovoltaic performance of cadmium selenide quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Natalia Maticiuc, Jaan Hiie, Valdek Mikli, Tamara Potlog, Vello Valdna, Structural and optical properties of cadmium sulfide thin films modified by hydrogen annealing, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Y.J. Zhai, J.H. Li, X. Fang, X.Y. Chen, F. Fang, X.Y. Chu, Z.P. Wei, X.H. Wang, Preparation of cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoflowers with enhanced photocatalytic activity, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • A.M. El Sayed, Ali Ibrahim, Structural and optical characterizations of spin coated cobalt-doped cadmium oxide nanostructured thin films, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • A.A. Dakhel, M. Bououdina, Development of transparent conducting copper and iron co-doped cadmium oxide films: Effect of annealing in hydrogen atmosphere, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Rajkumar Nirmala, Kyung Soo Jeon, Rangaswamy Navamathavan, Hak Yong Kim, Soo-Jin Park, Synthesis and characterization of electrospun cadmium sulfide- and lead sulfide-blended poly(vinyl acetate) composite nanofibers, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Nancy Mahendru, Ruchika Bagga, Kuldeep Sharma, G.P. Kothiyal, Mauro Falconieri, Gopi Sharma, On the influence of lead and cadmium fluoride content on thermal, optical and structural properties of oxyfluoride glass, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 608, 25 September 2014
  • Alexander Rabkin, Yuval Golan, Time, illumination and solvent dependent stability of cadmium sulfide nanoparticle suspensions, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 430, 15 September 2014
  • W.S. Wang, L. Zhen, W.Z. Shao, Z.L. Chen, Sodium chloride induced formation of square-shaped cadmium molybdate nanoplates, Materials Letters, Volume 131, 15 September 2014
  • Barbara Skolyszewska-Kühberger, Thomas L. Reichmann, Herbert Ipser, Phase equilibria in the neodymium–cadmium binary system, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 606, 5 September 2014
  • Kai Chen, Yan-Shang Kang, Li Luo, Yue Zhao, Peng Wang, Qing Liu, Yi Lu, Wei-Yin Sun, Cadmium(II) and cobalt(II) coordination polymers constructed from 4,4'-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)biphenyl and varied multicarboxylate ligands: Synthesis, structure and property, Polyhedron, Volume 79, 5 September 2014
  • Bhaskar Nath, Jubaraj B. Baruah, Cadmium (II) dicarboxylate complexes of 2,2'-[2-fluoro-phenylmethylidenebis(3,5-methyl-2-phenyleneoxy)]diacetic acid formed in different solvents, Polyhedron, Volume 79, 5 September 2014
  • Harpreet Kaur, Jashanpreet Singh, B.S. Randhawa, Essence of superparamagnetism in cadmium ferrite induced by various organic fuels via novel solution combustion method, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part A, September 2014
  • Nicolai Burzlaff, A. Sigel, H. Sigel, R.K.O. Sigel (Eds.), “Cadmium: From Toxicity to Essentiality”, Metal Ions in Life Sciences (ISSN: 1559-0836), vol. 11, 2013, Springer S+B Media, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 560 pp., ISBN: 978-94-007-5178-1, , Hardback, Price: €181.85, also available as e-book (€142.79)., Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 421, 1 September 2014
  • Guangrui Yang, Dezhi Qin, Xian Du, Li Zhang, Ganqing Zhao, Qiuxia Zhang, Jiulin Wu, Aqueous synthesis and characterization of bovine hemoglobin-conjugated cadmium sulfide nanocrystals, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 604, 15 August 2014
  • Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Kwangsoo Kim, Manwoo Lee, Guinyun Kim, Investigation of activation cross-sections of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 333, 15 August 2014

Cadmium Isotopes


Naturally occurring cadmium (Cd) has six stable isotopes: 106Cd, 108Cd, 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd, and 114Cd.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
106Cd 105.906459 Observationally Stable 0+
108Cd 107.904184 Observationally Stable 0+
110Cd 109.9030021 Stable 0+
111Cd 110.9041781 Stable 1/2+
112Cd 111.9027578 Stable 0+
114Cd 113.9033585 Observationally Stable 0+