Osmium is a Block D, Group 8, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of osmium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2. The osmium atom has a radius of 133.8.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 216.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-04-2, Osmium has a silvery blue cast apperance.Osmium has the highest melting point and the lowest vapor pressure of any of the platinum group of metals. Osmium is the least abundant stable element in the earth's crust and is the densest stable element. It is found in the alloys osmiridium and iridiosmium and as an uncombined element. Osmium was first discovered by Smithson Tennant in 1803. The origin of the name Osmium comes from the Greek word osme meaning a smell or odor.
Osmium metal is almost entirely used to produce very hard alloys with other metals of the platinum group. Osmium tetroxide has recently been used to detect fingerprints and as an aid to stain fatty tissue for microscope slides. Osmium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Osmium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Osmium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.
Osmium is extremely volatile and toxic in its oxide state. Safety data for Osmium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.
- Safety Data
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|GENERAL PROPERTIES||PHYSICAL PROPERTIES|
|Symbol:||Os||Melting Point:||3306 K, 3033 °C, 5491 °F|
|Atomic Number:||76||Boiling Point:||5285 K, 5012 °C, 9054 °F|
|Atomic Weight:||190.23||Density:||22.59 g·cm−3|
|Element Category:||transition metal||Liquid Density @ Melting Point:||20 g·cm−3|
|Group, Period, Block:||8, 6, d||Specific Heat:||0.13 (kJ/kg K)|
|Heat of Vaporization||738.06 kJ mol-1|
|CHEMICAL STRUCTURE||Heat of Fusion||29.3 kJ mol-1|
|Electrons:||76||Thermal Conductivity:||87.6 W·m−1·K−1|
|Protons:||76||Thermal Expansion:||(25 °C) 5.1 µm·m−1·K−1|
|Neutrons:||114||Electrical Resistivity:||(0 °C) 81.2 nΩ·m|
|Electron Configuration:||[Xe] 4f145d66s2||Electronegativity:||2.2 (Pauling scale)|
|Atomic Radius:||135 pm||Tensile Strength:||N/A|
|Covalent Radius:||144±4 pm||Molar Heat Capacity:||24.7 J·mol−1·K−1|
|Van der Waals radius:||216.pm||Young's Modulus:||N/A|
|Oxidation States:||8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 (mildly acidic oxide)||Shear Modulus:||222 GPa|
|Phase:||Solid||Bulk Modulus:||462 GPa|
|Crystal Structure:||hexagonal close-packed||Poisson Ratio:||0.25|
|Magnetic Ordering:||paramagnetic||Mohs Hardness:||7.0|
|1st Ionization Energy:||840 kJ·mol−1||Vickers Hardness:||3920 MPa|
|2nd Ionization Energy:||1600 kJ·mol−1||Brinell Hardness:||N/A|
|3rd Ionization Energy:||N/A||Speed of Sound:||(20 °C) 4940 m·s−1|
|CAS Number:||7440-04-2||Abundance in typical human body, by weight:||N/A|
|ChemSpider ID:||23937||Abundance in typical human body, by atom:||N/A|
|PubChem CID:||22379||Abundance in universe, by weight:||3 ppb|
|MDL Number:||MFCD00011147||Abundance in universe, by atom:||0.02 ppb|
|EC Number:||231-114-0||Discovered By:||Smithson Tennant|
|Beilstein Number:||N/A||Discovery Date:||1803|
|InChI Identifier:||InChI=1S/Os||Other Names:||Osmio|
Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Osmium
|Material Safety Data Sheet||MSDS|
|Hazard Codes||F, Xi|
|Transport Information||UN 3089 4.1/PG 2|
|Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Osmium Chloride Solution
Osmium Tetroxide OsO4
Osmium Tetroxide Solution
Potassium Osmium(VI) Oxide Dihydrate
Sodium Hexabromoosmiate(VI) Oxide Dihydrate
Sodium Hexachloroosmiate(IV) Dihydrate
Osmium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Osmium Oxide Sputtering Target
Osmium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Osmium Rotatable Sputtering Targets
Osmium Selenide Sputtering Target
Osmium Sputtering Target
Osmium Telluride Sputtering Target
Osmium Oxide Nanopowder
Osmium(VI) Oxide OsO2
Osmium Oxide Powder
Osmium Oxide Particles
Osmium Oxide Pellets
Osmium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Osmium Oxide Sputtering Target
Osmium Oxide Pieces
Osmium Oxide Shot
Osmium Oxide Tablets
Pentaammine(trifluoromethanesulfonato) Osmium(III) Triflate
Recent Research & Development for Osmium
- Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide with osmium(VIII) and m-carboxyphenylfluorone. Hoshino M, Kamino S, Doi M, Takada S, Mitani S, Yanagihara R, Asano M, Yamaguchi T, Fujita Y. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Jan 3.
- Anion Sensing by Solution- and Surface-Assembled Osmium(II) Bipyridyl Rotaxanes. Lehr J, Lang T, Blackburn OA, Barendt TA, Faulkner S, Davis JJ, Beer PD. Chemistry. 2013 Nov 18.
- Ruthenium(ii) and osmium(ii) 1,2,3-triazolylidene organometallics: a preliminary investigation into the biological activity of 'click' carbene complexes. Kilpin KJ, Crot S, Riedel T, Kitchen JA, Dyson PJ. Dalton Trans. 2013 Nov 8.
- Synthesis and antitumor activity of a series of osmium(VI) nitrido complexes bearing quinolinolato ligands. Tang Q, Ni WX, Leung CF, Man WL, Lau KK, Liang Y, Lam YW, Wong WY, Peng SM, Liu GJ, Lau TC. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 Nov 4
- Mirror-image organometallic osmium arene iminopyridine halido complexes exhibit similar potent anticancer activity. Chemistry. 2013 create date:2013/10/12 | first author:Fu Y
- MRT Letter: High resolution SEM imaging of nano-architecture of cured urea-formaldehyde resin using plasma coating of osmium. Microsc Res Tech. 2013 create date:2013/08/08 | first author:Park BD
- Rapid and direct determination of fructose in food: a new osmium-polymer mediated biosensor. Food Chem. 2013 create date:2013/05/23 | first author:Antiochia R
- Anion Sensing by Solution- and Surface-Assembled Osmium(II) Bipyridyl Rotaxanes. Chemistry. 2013 create date:2013/10/16 | first author:Lehr J
- High energy resolution core-level X-ray spectroscopy for electronic and structural characterization of osmium compounds. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 create date:2013/08/30 | first author:Lomachenko KA
- Osmium Tetroxide Labeling of (Poly)Methyl Methacrylate Corrosion Casts for Enhancement of Micro-CT Microvascular Imaging. Microsc Microanal. 2013 create date:2013/10/10 | first author:Mondy WL
- Molecular Dyads of Ruthenium(II)- or Osmium(II)-Bis(terpyridine) Chromophores and Expanded Pyridinium Acceptors: Equilibration between MLCT and Charge-Separated Excited States. Inorg Chem. 2013 create date:2013/10/05 | first author:Fortage J
- Electrochemical communication between heterotrophically grown Rhodobacter capsulatus with electrodes mediated by an osmium redox polymer. Bioelectrochemistry. 2013 create date:2012/07/04 | first author:Hasan K
- A comparative DFT study on aquation and nucleobase binding of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) arene complexes. Wang H, Zeng X, Zhou R, Zhao C. J Mol Model. 2013 Sep 15.
- Synthesis and antitumor activity of a series of osmium(vi) nitrido complexes bearing quinolinolato ligands. Tang Q, Ni WX, Leung CF, Man WL, Lau KK, Liang Y, Lam YW, Wong WY, Peng SM, Liu GJ, Lau TC. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 Nov 4
- Rapid and direct determination of fructose in food: a new osmium-polymer mediated biosensor. Antiochia R, Vinci G, Gorton L. Food Chem. 2013 Oct 15
- High energy resolution core-level X-ray spectroscopy for electronic and structural characterization of osmium compounds. Lomachenko KA, Garino C, Gallo E, Gianolio D, Gobetto R, Glatzel P, Smolentsev N, Smolentsev G, Soldatov AV, Lamberti C, Salassa L. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Oct 14.
- Electrochemical communication between heterotrophically grown Rhodobacter capsulatus with electrodes mediated by an osmium redox polymer. Hasan K, Patil SA, Górecki K, Leech D, Hägerhäll C, Gorton L. Bioelectrochemistry. 2013 Oct.
- Tuning Excited State Isomerization Dynamics through Ground State Structural Changes in Analogous Ruthenium and Osmium Sulfoxide Complexes. Garg K, Engle JT, Ziegler CJ, Rack JJ. Chemistry. 2013 Aug 26
- The osmium-silicon triple bond: synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of an osmium silylyne complex. Hayes PG, Xu Z, Beddie C, Keith JM, Hall MB, Tilley TD. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Aug 14.
- Structure and Reactivity of Distannametallocenophanes of Ruthenium and Osmium. Braunschweig H, Hupp F, Kramer T, Mager J. Inorg Chem. 2013 Aug 5.
Osmium (Os) has seven naturally occurring isotopes. Six of them are stable: 184Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, and (most abundant) 192Os. One of them, 186Os, has an extremely long half-life (2×1015 years)
|Nuclide Symbol||Isotopic Mass||Half-Life||Nuclear Spin|