Osmium Elemental Symbol
Osmium



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Osmium Osmium Osmio Ósmio Osmio Osmium

Osmium(Os) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolOsmium is a Block D, Group 8, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of osmium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2. Elemental OsmiumThe osmium atom has a radius of 133.8.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 216.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-04-2, Osmium has a silvery blue cast apperance.Osmium has the highest melting point and the lowest vapor pressure of any of the platinum group of metals. Osmium Bohr ModelOsmium is the least abundant stable element in the earth's crust and is the densest stable element. It is found in the alloys osmiridium and iridiosmium and as an uncombined element. Osmium was first discovered by Smithson Tennant in 1803. The origin of the name Osmium comes from the Greek word osme meaning a smell or odor.

Osmium metal is almost entirely used to produce very hard alloys with other metals of the platinum group. Osmium tetroxide has recently been used to detect fingerprints and as an aid to stain fatty tissue for microscope slides. Osmium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Osmium (Os) Sputtering TargetElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Osmium Oxide (OsO) PowderOsmium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Osmium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Osmium is extremely volatile and toxic in its oxide state. Safety data for Osmium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Osmium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Os Melting Point: 3306 K, 3033 °C, 5491 °F
Atomic Number: 76 Boiling Point: 5285 K, 5012 °C, 9054 °F
Atomic Weight: 190.23 Density: 22.59 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 20 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 8, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.13 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 738.06 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 29.3 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 76 Thermal Conductivity: 87.6 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 76 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 5.1 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 114 Electrical Resistivity: (0 °C) 81.2 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d66s2 Electronegativity: 2.2 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 135 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 144±4 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.7 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 216.pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 (mildly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: 222 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 462 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.25
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 7.0
1st Ionization Energy: 840 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: 3920 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1600 kJ·mol−1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 4940 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-04-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 23937 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 22379 Abundance in universe, by weight: 3 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011147 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.02 ppb
EC Number: 231-114-0 Discovered By: Smithson Tennant
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1803
SMILES Identifier: [Os]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Os Other Names: Osmio
InChI Key: SYQBFIAQOQZEGI-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Osmium


Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H228-H315-H318-H335
Hazard Codes F, Xi
Risk Codes 11-37/38-41
Safety Precautions 16-26-36/37/39
RTECS Number RN1100000
Transport Information UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany nwg
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Corrosion-Corrosive to metals Flame-Flammables  

Osmium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Osmium

  • Europium phosphomolybdate and osmium metallopolymer multi-functional LbL films: Redox and electrocatalytic properties. Fernandes DM, Vos JG, Freire C. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014
  • Helicene-grafted vinyl- and carbene-osmium complexes: an example of acid-base chiroptical switching. Anger E, Srebro M, Vanthuyne N, Roussel C, Toupet L, Autschbach J, Réau R, Crassous J. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014
  • Ruthenium, Rhodium, Osmium, and Iridium Complexes of Osazones (Osazones = Bis-Arylhydrazones of Glyoxal): Radical versus Nonradical States. Patra SC, Weyhermüller T, Ghosh P. Inorg Chem. 2014
  • Rapid adaptation of some phytoplankton species to osmium as a result of spontaneous mutations. Marvá F, García-Balboa C, Baselga-Cervera B, Costas E. Ecotoxicology. 2014
  • Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen-Atom Insertion into Metal-Methyl Bonds of Iron(II), Ruthenium(II), and Osmium(II) Complexes: Study of Metal-Mediated C-O Bond Formation. Pardue DB, Mei J, Cundari TR, Gunnoe TB. Inorg Chem. 2014
  • Rapid determination of osmium concentrations and 187Os/188Os of crude oils and source rocks by coupling high pressure, high temperature digestion with sparging OsO4 into a multi-collector ICPMS. Sen IS, Peucker-Ehrenbrink B. Anal Chem. 2014
  • Ruthenium(ii) and osmium(ii) 1,2,3-triazolylidene organometallics: a preliminary investigation into the biological activity of 'click' carbene complexes. Kilpin KJ, Crot S, Riedel T, Kitchen JA, Dyson PJ. Dalton Trans. 2014 Jan.
  • A multinuclear (1)H, (13)C and (11)B solid-state MAS NMR study of 16- and 18-electron organometallic ruthenium and osmium carborane complexes. Barry NP, Kemp TF, Sadler PJ, Hanna JV. Dalton Trans. 2014
  • Reactivity of Nitrido Complexes of Ruthenium(VI), Osmium(VI), and Manganese(V) Bearing Schiff Base and Simple Anionic Ligands. Man WL, Lam WW, Lau TC. Acc Chem Res. 2014
  • Spectrophotometric determination of hydrogen peroxide with osmium(VIII) and m-carboxyphenylfluorone. Hoshino M, Kamino S, Doi M, Takada S, Mitani S, Yanagihara R, Asano M, Yamaguchi T, Fujita Y. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Jan.
  • Anion Sensing by Solution- and Surface-Assembled Osmium(II) Bipyridyl Rotaxanes. Lehr J, Lang T, Blackburn OA, Barendt TA, Faulkner S, Davis JJ, Beer PD. Chemistry. 2013 Nov.
  • Ruthenium(ii) and osmium(ii) 1,2,3-triazolylidene organometallics: a preliminary investigation into the biological activity of 'click' carbene complexes. Kilpin KJ, Crot S, Riedel T, Kitchen JA, Dyson PJ. Dalton Trans. 2013 Nov.
  • Osmium Tetroxide Labeling of (Poly)Methyl Methacrylate Corrosion Casts for Enhancement of Micro-CT Microvascular Imaging. Microsc Microanal. 2013 | first author:Mondy WL
  • Synthesis and antitumor activity of a series of osmium(VI) nitrido complexes bearing quinolinolato ligands. Tang Q, Ni WX, Leung CF, Man WL, Lau KK, Liang Y, Lam YW, Wong WY, Peng SM, Liu GJ, Lau TC. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 Nov.
  • Mirror-image organometallic osmium arene iminopyridine halido complexes exhibit similar potent anticancer activity. Chemistry. 2013 create date:2013/10/12 | first author:Fu Y
  • A comparative DFT study on aquation and nucleobase binding of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) arene complexes. Wang H, Zeng X, Zhou R, Zhao C. J Mol Model. 2013 Sep.
  • MRT Letter: High resolution SEM imaging of nano-architecture of cured urea-formaldehyde resin using plasma coating of osmium. Microsc Res Tech. 2013 create date:2013/08/08 | first author:Park BD
  • Rapid and direct determination of fructose in food: a new osmium-polymer mediated biosensor. Food Chem. 2013 | first author:Antiochia R
  • Anion Sensing by Solution- and Surface-Assembled Osmium(II) Bipyridyl Rotaxanes. Chemistry. 2013 | first author:Lehr J
  • High energy resolution core-level X-ray spectroscopy for electronic and structural characterization of osmium compounds. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 | first author:Lomachenko KA

Osmium Isotopes


Osmium (Os) has seven naturally occurring isotopes. Six of them are stable: 184Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, and (most abundant) 192Os. One of them, 186Os, has an extremely long half-life (2×1015 years)

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
184Os 183.9524891 Observationally Stable 0+
186Os 185.9538382 2.0(11)×1015 a 0+
187Os 186.9557505 Observationally Stable 1/2-
188Os 187.9558382 Observationally Stable 0+
189Os 188.9581475 Observationally Stable 3/2-
190Os 189.9584470 Observationally Stable 0+
192Os 191.9614807 Observationally Stable 0+