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About Carbon

Carbon Bohr

Carbon in its purest form has very low toxicity. Carbon black dust, such as soot or coal dust, can cause irritation and damage to the lungs when inhaled in large quantities. Safety data for Carbon and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

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Carbides
Organometallics
Semiconductor & Optical

Due to their extreme hardness and resistance to heat and pressure, diamond and diamond micropowder have numerous industrial applications in geological drilling Ultra High Purity (99.999%) Carbon (C) Powderbits, grinding media and as a high-strength/ high-temperature abrasive. Carbon also finds application in steel alloys, in various filtering and purification technologies, and as a neutron moderator in nuclear power plants. Carbon is available in its elemental form and as compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Carbon nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Carbon is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Carbon Properties

Carbon (C) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCarbon is a Block P, Group 12, Period 2 element. Carbon Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Carbon's shells is 2, 4 and its electron configuration is [He] 2s2 2p2. In its elemental form, carbon's CAS number is 7440-44-0. Carbon is at the same time one of the softest (graphite) and hardest (diamond) materials found in nature. It is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element (by mass) in the universe after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon was discovered by the Egyptians and Sumerians circa 3750 BC. It was first recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisierby in 1789.

Symbol: C
Atomic Number: 6
Atomic Weight: 12.01
Element Category: nonmetal
Group, Period, Block: 14, 2, p
Color: black (graphite), transparent/colourless (diamond)
Other Names: Carbone, Carbonio
Melting Point: 3825 °C, 6917 °F, 4098.15 K
Boiling Point: Sublimes
Density: 2.267 g/cm3 @ 20 °C
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Density @ 20°C: 2.267 g/cm3 (gr), 3.513 g/cm3(di)
Density of Solid: 2267 kg·m3
Specific Heat: N/A
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: 4600 K, 10800 kPa
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 105
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 710.9
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 711.2
Thermal Conductivity: 119-165 W/m/K
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond) µm·m-1·K-1
Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 8.517 (graphite) J·mol-1·K-1, 6.155 (diamond) J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 1050 (diamond) GPa
Shear Modulus: 478 (diamond) GPa
Bulk Modulus: 442 (diamond) GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.1 (diamond)
Mohs Hardness: 10 (diamond) 1-2 (graphite)
Vickers Hardness: N/A
Brinell Hardness: N/A
Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 2.55
Sanderson Electronegativity: 2.75
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 2.5
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: 2.48 (sp3 orbital)
Allen Electronegativity: 2.544
Pauling Electropositivity: 1.45
Reflectivity (%): 27
Refractive Index: 2.417 (diamond)
Electrons: 6
Protons: 6
Neutrons: 6
Electron Configuration: [He] 2s2 2p2
Atomic Radius: N/A
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
1.7
Covalent Radius: 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 0.75
Van der Waals Radius: N/A
Oxidation States: 170 pm
Phase: 2, 4, -4
Crystal Structure: Solid
Magnetic Ordering: simple hexagonal
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 121.733
1st Ionization Energy: 1086.46 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1086.46 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2352.6 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-44-0
EC Number: 231-153-3
MDL Number: MFCD00133992
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: C
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/C
InChI Key: OKTJSMMVPCPJKN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
PubChem CID: 297
ChemSpider ID: 4575370
Earth - Total: 446 ppm
Mercury - Total: 5.1 ppm
Venus - Total: 468 ppm
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 28000
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 14400
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 1800000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 3100000
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 3000000
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 300000
Stream, ppb by weight: 1200
Stream, ppb by atoms: 100
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 15000000
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 18000000
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: N/A
Universe, ppb by atom: N/A
Discovered By: Egyptians and Sumerians
Discovery Date: circa 3750 BC
First Isolation: N/A

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Carbon

Carbon in its purest form has very low toxicity. Carbon black dust, such as soot or coal dust, can cause irritation and damage to the lungs when inhaled in large quantities. Safety data for Carbon and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab.

Safety Data
Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Precautions N/A
RTECS Number FF5250100
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
N/A

Carbon Isotopes

Carbon has two stable isotopes: 12C and 13C.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
8C 8.037675(25) 2.0(4) x 10-21 s [230(50) keV] 2p to 6Be 0+ N/A 22.87 -
9C 9.0310367(23) 126.5(9) ms EC to 9B; EC + p to 8Be; EC + 2a to 2H (3/2-) N/A 37.1 -
10C 10.0168532(4) 19.290(12) s EC to 10B 0+ N/A 59.15 -
11C 11.0114336(10) 20.334(24) min EC to 11B 3/2- -0.964 71.89 -
12C 12 exactly STABLE - 0+ 0 90.21 98.93
13C 13.0033548378(10) STABLE - 1/2- 0.702411 95.5 1.07
14C 14.003241989(4) 5.70(3) x 103 yeyrs ß- to 14N 0+ N/A 103.57 -
15C 15.0105993(9) 2.449(5) s ß- to 15N 1/2+ 1.32 105.13 -
16C 16.014701(4) 0.747(8) s ß- to 16N 0+ N/A 109.48 -
17C 17.022586(19) 193(5) ms ß- to 17N; ß- + n to 16N (3/2+) N/A 110.11 -
18C 18.02676(3) 92(2) ms ß- to 18N; ß- + n to 17N 0+ N/A 114.46 -
19C 19.03481(11) 46.2(23) ms ß- + n to 18N; ß- to 19N; ß- + 2n to 17N (1/2+) N/A 115.09 -
20C 20.04032(26) 16(3) ms [14(+6-5) ms] ß- + n to 19N; ß- to 20N 0+ N/A 117.58 -
21C 21.04934(54)# <30 ns n to 20C (1/2+)# N/A 117.27 -
22C 22.05720(97)# 6.2(13) ms [6.1(+14-12) ms] ß- to 22N 0+ N/A 117.9 -
Carbon Elemental Symbol

Recent Research & Development for Carbon

  • Fluxome study of Pseudomonas fluorescens reveals major reorganisation of carbon flux through central metabolic pathways in response to inactivation of the anti-sigma factor MucA. Lien SK, Niedenführ S, Sletta H, Nöh K, Bruheim P. BMC Syst Biol. 2015 Feb 18: BMC Syst Biol
  • Effects of 7.5% Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Inhalation and Ethnicity on Face Memory. Attwood AS, Catling JC, Kwong AS, Munafò MR. Physiol Behav. 2015 Apr 15.: Physiol Behav
  • High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae. Mesarič T, Gambardella C, Milivojević T, Faimali M, Drobne D, Falugi C, Makovec D, Jemec A, Sepčić K. Aquat Toxicol. 2015 Mar 19: Aquat Toxicol
  • Effects of magnesium sulfate on hemodynamic response to carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Paul S, Biswas P, Bhattacharjee DP, Sengupta J. Anesth Essays Res. 2013 May-Aug: Anesth Essays Res
  • Differences in Chemical Composition of Soil Organic Carbon Resulting From Long-Term Fertilization Strategies. Li Z, Zhao B, Wang Q, Cao X, Zhang J. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 17: PLoS One
  • Novel pegylated silver coated carbon nanotubes kill Salmonella but they are non-toxic to eukaryotic cells. Chaudhari AA, Jasper SL, Dosunmu E, Miller ME, Arnold RD, Singh SR, Pillai S. J Nanobiotechnology. 2015 Mar 22: J Nanobiotechnology
  • Sandwich-Structured Graphene-Fe3O4-Carbon Nanocomposites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries. Zhao L, Gao M, Yue W, Jiang Y, Wang Y, Ren Y, Hu F. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015 Apr 17. : ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
  • Super-hydrophobic multi-walled carbon nanotube coatings for stainless steel. Nicola F, Castrucci P, Scarselli M, Nanni F, Cacciotti I, Crescenzi M. Nanotechnology. 2015 Mar 16
  • Synthesis and Photochemical Applications of Processable Polymers Enclosing Photoluminescent Carbon Quantum Dots. Mosconi D, Mazzier D, Silvestrini S, Privitera A, Marega C, Franco L, Moretto A. ACS Nano. 2015 Mar 15.
  • Non-metal single/dual doped carbon quantum dots: a general flame synthetic method and electro-catalytic properties. Han Y, Tang D, Yang Y, Li C, Kong W, Huang H, Liu Y, Kang Z. Nanoscale. 2015 Mar 16.