Carbon Elemental Symbol
Carbon



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Carbone Carbon Carbonio Carbono Carbono Carbon

Carbon(C)atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCarbon is a Block P, Group 12, Period 2 element. Carbon Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Carbon's shells is 2, 4 and its electron configuration is [He] 2s2 2p2. In its elemental form, carbon's CAS number is 7440-44-0. Carbon is at the same time one of the softest (graphite) and hardest (diamond) materials found in nature. It is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element (by mass) in the universe after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon was discovered by the Egyptians and Sumerians circa 3750 BC. It was first recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisierby in 1789.

Due to their extreme hardness and resistance to heat and pressure, diamond and diamond micropowder have numerous industrial applications in geological drilling bits, grinding media and as a high-strength/ high-temperature abrasive. Carbon also finds application in steel alloys, in various filtering and purification technologies, and as a neutron moderator in nuclear power plants. Carbon is available in its elemental form and as compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Ultra High Purity (99.999%) Carbon (C) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Carbon nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Carbon is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Carbon in its purest form has very low toxicity. Carbon black dust, such as soot or coal dust, can cause irritation and damage to the lungs when inhaled in large quantities. Safety data for Carbon and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Carbon Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: C Melting Point: 3825 oC, 6917 oF, 4098.15 K
Atomic Number: 6 Boiling Point: Sublimes
Atomic Weight: 12.01 Density: 2.267 g.cm-3 at 20 °C
Element Category: nonmetal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 14, 2, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 710.9 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 105 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 6 Thermal Conductivity: 119-165 W/m/K
Protons: 6 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond) µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 6 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [He]2s22p2 Electronegativity: 2.55 Paulings
Atomic Radius: N/A Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm Molar Heat Capacity: 6.155 (diamond) J·mol−1·K−1
8.517 (graphite) J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 170 pm Young's Modulus: 1050 (diamond) GPa
Oxidation States: 2, 4, -4 Shear Modulus: 478 (diamond) GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 442 (diamond) GPa
Crystal Structure: simple hexagonal Poisson Ratio: 0.1 (diamond)
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 10 (diamond) 1-2 (graphite)
1st Ionization Energy: 1086.46 kJ.mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 2352.6 kJ.mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 4620.5 kJ.mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-44-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4575370 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 297 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00133992 Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: 231-153-3 Discovered By: Egyptians and Sumerians
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: circa 3750 BC
SMILES Identifier: C  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/C Other Names: Carbone, Carbonio
InChI Key: OKTJSMMVPCPJKN-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Carbon Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Carbon

  • Kazuhiro Tamura, Ratna Surya Alwi, Solubility of anthraquinone derivatives in supercritical carbon dioxide, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 113, February 2015
  • Li Wang, Fengping Ruan, Ting Lv, Yanqiang Liu, Degang Deng, Shilong Zhao, Huanping Wang, Shiqing Xu, One step synthesis of Al/N co-doped carbon nanoparticles with enhanced photoluminescence, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 158, February 2015
  • Yi-Ting Shih, Kuei-Yi Lee, Ying-Sheng Huang, Characterization of iridium dioxide–carbon nanotube nanocomposites grown onto graphene for supercapacitor, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 2015
  • Yongguang Zhang, Yan Zhao, Aishuak Konarov, Zhi Li, P. Chen, Effect of mesoporous carbon microtube prepared by carbonizing the poplar catkin on sulfur cathode performance in Li/S batteries, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 2015
  • Xiulan Hu, Junjun Shi, Jianbo Zhang, Weiping Tang, Haikui Zhu, Xiaodong Shen, Nagahiro Saito, One-step facile synthesis of carbon-supported PdAu nanoparticles and their electrochemical property and stability, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 2015
  • Z. Karoly, J. Szepvolgyi, W. Kaszuwara, O. Łabędź, M. Bystrzejewski, Influence of ferrite stabilizing elements and Co on structure and magnetic properties of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles synthesized in thermal plasma jet, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 2015
  • Jihoon Kim, Shinyoung Yeo, Jae-Deok Jeon, Seung-Yeop Kwak, Enhancement of hydrogen storage capacity and hydrostability of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with surface-loaded platinum nanoparticles and carbon black, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 202, 15 January 2015
  • Shenghai Zhou, Jin Li, Feng Zhang, Tianyi Zhang, Hao Huang, Wenbo Song, Dispersible mesoporous carbon nanospheres as active electrode materials for biomolecular sensing, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 202, 15 January 2015
  • Liqun Duan, Qingsong Ma, Lin Mei, Zhaohui Chen, Fabrication and electrochemical performance of nanoporous carbon derived from silicon oxycarbide, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 202, 15 January 2015
  • Y.F. Liu, G.H. Yuan, Z.H. Jiang, Z.P. Yao, M. Yue, Preparation of Ni(OH)2-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite as electrode material for supercapacitors, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 618, 5 January 2015

Carbon Isotopes


Carbon has two stable isotopes: 12C and 13C.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
12C 12.0000000000 Stable 0+
13C 13.0033548378 Stable 1/2-