Carbon Elemental Symbol
Carbon



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Carbone Carbon Carbonio Carbono Carbono Carbon

Carbon(C)atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCarbon is a Block P, Group 12, Period 2 element. Carbon Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Carbon's shells is 2, 4 and its electron configuration is [He] 2s2 2p2. In its elemental form, carbon's CAS number is 7440-44-0. Carbon is at the same time one of the softest (graphite) and hardest (diamond) materials found in nature. It is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element (by mass) in the universe after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon was discovered by the Egyptians and Sumerians circa 3750 BC. It was first recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisierby in 1789.

Due to their extreme hardness and resistance to heat and pressure, diamond and diamond micropowder have numerous industrial applications in geological drilling bits, grinding media and as a high-strength/ high-temperature abrasive. Carbon also finds application in steel alloys, in various filtering and purification technologies, and as a neutron moderator in nuclear power plants. Carbon is available in its elemental form and as compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Ultra High Purity (99.999%) Carbon (C) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Carbon nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Carbon is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Carbon in its purest form has very low toxicity. Carbon black dust, such as soot or coal dust, can cause irritation and damage to the lungs when inhaled in large quantities. Safety data for Carbon and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Carbon Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: C Melting Point: 3825 oC, 6917 oF, 4098.15 K
Atomic Number: 6 Boiling Point: Sublimes
Atomic Weight: 12.01 Density: 2.267 g.cm-3 at 20 °C
Element Category: nonmetal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 14, 2, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 710.9 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 105 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 6 Thermal Conductivity: 119-165 W/m/K
Protons: 6 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond) µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 6 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [He]2s22p2 Electronegativity: 2.55 Paulings
Atomic Radius: N/A Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm Molar Heat Capacity: 6.155 (diamond) J·mol−1·K−1
8.517 (graphite) J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 170 pm Young's Modulus: 1050 (diamond) GPa
Oxidation States: 2, 4, -4 Shear Modulus: 478 (diamond) GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 442 (diamond) GPa
Crystal Structure: simple hexagonal Poisson Ratio: 0.1 (diamond)
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 10 (diamond) 1-2 (graphite)
1st Ionization Energy: 1086.46 kJ.mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 2352.6 kJ.mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 4620.5 kJ.mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-44-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4575370 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 297 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00133992 Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: 231-153-3 Discovered By: Egyptians and Sumerians
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: circa 3750 BC
SMILES Identifier: C  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/C Other Names: Carbone, Carbonio
InChI Key: OKTJSMMVPCPJKN-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Carbon Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Carbon

  • Vasoactive effects of stable aqueous suspensions of single walled carbon nanotubes in hamsters and mice. Nanotoxicology. 2014 Dec. | first author:Frame MD
  • Nano-molybdenum carbide/carbon nanotubes composite as bifunctional anode catalyst for high-performance Escherichia coli-based microbial fuel cell. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 | first author:Wang Y
  • Histometric changes and epidermal FGF9 expression in carbon photoenhancer-assisted Nd:YAG laser treatment. Zheng Z, Kim J, Choi MJ, Goo B, Chun SI, Cho SB. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014.
  • Gastrointestinal actions of orally-administered single-walled carbon nanohorns. M Nakamura, Y Tahara, T Murakami, S Iijima - Carbon, 2014 - Elsevier
  • Three human cell types respond to multi-walled carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide nanobelts with cell-specific transcriptomic and proteomic expression patterns. Nanotoxicology. 2014 create date:2013/05/11 | first author:Tilton SC
  • Neoplastic-like transformation effect of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes compared to asbestos on human lung small airway epithelial cells. Nanotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Wang L
  • Porous aerosil loading probucol using supercritical carbon dioxide: preparation, in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Pharm Dev Technol. 2014 create date:2013/06/01 | first author:Chu C
  • Determination of sulfonylureas in cereal samples with electrophoretic method using ionic liquid with dispersed carbon nanotubes as electrophoretic buffer. Springer VH, Aprile F, Lista AG. Food Chem. 2014 Jan.
  • Effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube surface modification on bioactivity in the C57BL/6 mouse model. Nanotoxicology. 2014 create date:2013/02/26 | first author:Sager TM
  • Simple electrochemical sensor for caffeine based on carbon and Nafion-modified carbon electrodes. Food Chem. 2014 create date:2013/12/04 | first author:Carolina Torres A
  • Use of β-cyclodextrin and activated carbon for quantification of Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis from ground beef by conventional PCR without enrichment. Food Microbiol. 2014 | first author:Opet NJ
  • Sensitive HIV-1 detection in a homogeneous solution based on an electrochemical molecular beacon coupled with a nafion-graphene composite film modified screen-printed carbon electrode. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/10/09 | first author:Li B
  • Amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on the direct electrochemistry of cholesterol oxidase and catalase on a graphene/ionic liquid-modified glassy carbon electrode. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 2 | first author:Gholivand MB
  • Rapid and effective sample clean-up based on magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 2014 | first author:Deng X
  • Covalent fabrication of methyl parathion hydrolase on gold nanoparticles modified carbon substrates for designing a methyl parathion biosensor. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 | first author:Liu G
  • Direct electrochemistry of myoglobin at reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes-platinum nanoparticles nanocomposite and biosensing towards hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 | first author:Mani V
  • electrophoresis with a multiwall carbon nanotube/poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite electrode. Food Chem. MIP-graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of trimethoprim. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 | first author:da Silva H
  • Fabrication of 2D ordered mesoporous carbon nitride and its use as electrochemical sensing platform for H2O2, nitrobenzene, and NADH detection. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 | first author:Zhang Y
  • Magnesium oxide grafted carbon nanotubes based impedimetric genosensor for biomedical application. Patel MK, Ali MA, Srivastava S, Agrawal VV, Ansari SG, Malhotra BD. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013 Dec.
  • Novel graphene flowers modified carbon fibers for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/10/22 | first author:Du J

Carbon Isotopes


Carbon has two stable isotopes: 12C and 13C.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
12C 12.0000000000 Stable 0+
13C 13.0033548378 Stable 1/2-