Carbon Elemental Symbol
Carbon



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Carbone Carbon Carbonio Carbono Carbono Carbon

Carbon(C)atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCarbon is a Block P, Group 12, Period 2 element. Carbon Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Carbon's shells is 2, 4 and its electron configuration is [He] 2s2 2p2. In its elemental form, carbon's CAS number is 7440-44-0. Carbon is at the same time one of the softest (graphite) and hardest (diamond) materials found in nature. It is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element (by mass) in the universe after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon was discovered by the Egyptians and Sumerians circa 3750 BC. It was first recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisierby in 1789.

Due to their extreme hardness and resistance to heat and pressure, diamond and diamond micropowder have numerous industrial applications in geological drilling bits, grinding media and as a high-strength/ high-temperature abrasive. Carbon also finds application in steel alloys, in various filtering and purification technologies, and as a neutron moderator in nuclear power plants. Carbon is available in its elemental form and as compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Ultra High Purity (99.999%) Carbon (C) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Carbon nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Carbon is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Carbon in its purest form has very low toxicity. Carbon black dust, such as soot or coal dust, can cause irritation and damage to the lungs when inhaled in large quantities. Safety data for Carbon and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Carbon Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: C Melting Point: 3825 oC, 6917 oF, 4098.15 K
Atomic Number: 6 Boiling Point: Sublimes
Atomic Weight: 12.01 Density: 2.267 g.cm-3 at 20 °C
Element Category: nonmetal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 14, 2, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 710.9 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 105 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 6 Thermal Conductivity: 119-165 W/m/K
Protons: 6 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 0.8 (diamond) µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 6 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [He]2s22p2 Electronegativity: 2.55 Paulings
Atomic Radius: N/A Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm Molar Heat Capacity: 6.155 (diamond) J·mol−1·K−1
8.517 (graphite) J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 170 pm Young's Modulus: 1050 (diamond) GPa
Oxidation States: 2, 4, -4 Shear Modulus: 478 (diamond) GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 442 (diamond) GPa
Crystal Structure: simple hexagonal Poisson Ratio: 0.1 (diamond)
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 10 (diamond) 1-2 (graphite)
1st Ionization Energy: 1086.46 kJ.mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 2352.6 kJ.mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 4620.5 kJ.mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 18350 (diamond) m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-44-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4575370 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 297 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00133992 Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: 231-153-3 Discovered By: Egyptians and Sumerians
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: circa 3750 BC
SMILES Identifier: C  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/C Other Names: Carbone, Carbonio
InChI Key: OKTJSMMVPCPJKN-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Carbon Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Carbon

  • S.X. Wang, C.C. Jin, W.J. Qian, Bi2O3 with activated carbon composite as a supercapacitor electrode, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 615, 5 December 2014
  • M.A. Deyab, Corrosion protection of aluminum bipolar plates with polyaniline coating containing carbon nanotubes in acidic medium inside the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Ziwu Liu, Qianqian Shi, Rufan Zhang, Quande Wang, Guojun Kang, Feng Peng, Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes supported low Pt loading catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Liangtao Pu, Kexun Li, Zhihao Chen, Peng Zhang, Xi Zhang, Zhou Fu, Silver electrodeposition on the activated carbon air cathode for performance improvement in microbial fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Yanjiao Ma, Hao Li, Hui Wang, Xuefeng Mao, Vladimir Linkov, Shan Ji, Oko Unathi Gcilitshana, Rongfang Wang, Evolution of the electrocatalytic activity of carbon-supported amorphous platinum–ruthenium–nickel–phosphorous nanoparticles for methanol oxidation, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Jie Xiao, Yongmin Xie, Jiang Liu, Meilin Liu, Deactivation of nickel-based anode in solid oxide fuel cells operated on carbon-containing fuels, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Yang Fan, Xin Yang, Bing Zhu, Pei-Fang Liu, Hai-Ting Lu, Micro-mesoporous carbon spheres derived from carrageenan as electrode material for supercapacitors, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Yiyin Huang, Fang Fu, Peng Wu, Yaobing Wang, Jiannian Yao, A bioinspired approach to protectively decorate platinum–carbon for enhanced activity and durability in oxygen reduction, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Zuopeng Li, Muwu Li, Mingjia Han, Jianhuang Zeng, Yuexia Li, Yanqin Guo, Shijun Liao, Preparation and characterization of carbon-supported PtOs electrocatalysts via polyol reduction method for methanol oxidation reaction, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Pasha Majidi, Peter G. Pickup, Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Jianguo Duan, Yanbing Cao, Jianbing Jiang, Ke Du, Zhongdong Peng, Guorong Hu, Novel efficient synthesis of nanosized carbon coated LiMnPO4 composite for lithium ion batteries and its electrochemical performance, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Próspero Acevedo-Peña, Marta Haro, Marina E. Rincón, Juan Bisquert, Germà Garcia-Belmonte, Facile kinetics of Li-ion intake causes superior rate capability in multiwalled carbon nanotube@TiO2 nanocomposite battery anodes, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Bang-Kun Zou, Xiao-Hang Ma, Zhong-Feng Tang, Chu-Xiong Ding, Zhao-Yin Wen, Chun-Hua Chen, High rate LiMn2O4/carbon nanotube composite prepared by a two-step hydrothermal process, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Ariadne Helena P. de Oliveira, Helinando P. de Oliveira, Carbon nanotube/ polypyrrole nanofibers core–shell composites decorated with titanium dioxide nanoparticles for supercapacitor electrodes, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Yeling Zhu, Kaiyuan Shi, Igor Zhitomirsky, Polypyrrole coated carbon nanotubes for supercapacitor devices with enhanced electrochemical performance, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Huan Hu, Shuwu Liu, Muddasir Hanif, Shuiliang Chen, Haoqing Hou, Three-dimensional cross-linked carbon network wrapped with ordered polyaniline nanowires for high-performance pseudo-supercapacitors, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • S.R. Dhanushkodi, S. Kundu, M.W. Fowler, M.D. Pritzker, Use of mechanistic carbon corrosion model to predict performance loss in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Jie Zhang, Shuihua Tang, Longyu Liao, Weifei Yu, Jinshan Li, Frode Seland, Geir Martin Haarberg, Improved catalytic activity of mixed platinum catalysts supported on various carbon nanomaterials, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Z.H. Cui, X.X. Guo, Manganese monoxide nanoparticles adhered to mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbons for nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Jia-feng Zhang, Chao Shen, Bao Zhang, Jun-chao Zheng, Chun-li Peng, Xiao-wei Wang, Xin-bo Yuan, Hui Li, Guo-min Chen, Synthesis and performances of 2LiFePO4·Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode materials via spray drying method with double carbon sources, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014

Carbon Isotopes


Carbon has two stable isotopes: 12C and 13C.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
12C 12.0000000000 Stable 0+
13C 13.0033548378 Stable 1/2-