Praseodymium Elemental Symbol
Praseodymium



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Praséodyme Praseodym Praseodymium Praseodym Praseodym Praseodym

Praseodymium(Pr) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Praseodymium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of praseodymium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 21, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f3 6s2. Praseodymium Bohr ModelThe praseodymium atom has a radius of 182.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 239.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-10-0, praseodymium has a grayish white appearance. Elemental PraseodymiumIt resembles the typical trivalent rare earths, however, it will exhibit a +4 state when stabilized in a zirconia host. Unlike other rare-earth metals, which show antiferromagnetic and / or ferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures, praseodymium is paramagnetic at any temperature above 1 K. Praseodymium is found in the minerals monazite and bastnasite. Praseodymium was discovered by Carl Auer von Welsbach in 1885. The origin of the element name comes from the Greek words 'prasios didymos' meaning green twin.


Praseodymium is highly valued in glass and ceramic production as a bright yellow pigment because of its optimum reflectance at 560 nm. Much research is being done on its optical properties for use in amplification of telecommunication systems, including as a doping agent in fluoride fibers. High Purity (99.999%) Praseodymium (Pr) Sputtering TargetPraseodymium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Praseodymium Oxide (Pr2O3) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Praseodymium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Praseodymium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.


Praseodymium is somewhat toxic. Safety data for Praseodymium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Praseodymium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Pr Melting Point: 931 oC, 1707.8 oF, 1204.15 K
Atomic Number: 59 Boiling Point: 3520 oC, 6368 oF, 3793.15 K
Atomic Weight: 140.90765 Density: 6779  kg m-3
Element Category: lanthanide Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.50 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.046 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 79 K-Cal/gm atom at 3512°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.70 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 59 Thermal Conductivity: 0.125 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 59 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) 6.7 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 82 Electrical Resistivity: 68 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f36s2 Electronegativity: 1.1 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 182 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 203±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.20 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 239 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) 37.3 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) 14.8 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) 28.8 GPa
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Poisson Ratio: (α form) 0.281
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 527 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: 400 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1020 kJ·mol−1 Brinell Hardness: 481 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2086 kJ·mol−1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2280 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-10-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22384 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23942 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011174 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.02 ppb
EC Number: 231-120-3 Discovered By: Carl Auer von Welsbach
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1885
SMILES Identifier: [Pr]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pr Other Names: Praseodym, Praséodyme
InChI Key: PUDIUYLPXJFUGB-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Praseodymium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Praseodymium

  • Concentration quenching of praseodymium ions Pr3+ in BaGd2(MoO4)4 crystals. Guan Y, Tsuboi T, Huang Y, Huang W. Dalton Trans. 2014 Jan.
  • Effect of praseodymium and europium doping in La 1− x Ln x MnO 3+ δ(Ln: Pr or Eu, 0≤ x ≤ 1) perosvkite catalysts … H Najjar, H Batis, JF Lamonier, O Mentré… - Applied Catalysis A… 2014
  • A 3D Hybrid Praseodymium-Antimony-Oxochloride Compound: Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformation and Photocatalytic Properties. Zou GD, Zhang GG, Hu B, Li JR, Feng ML, Wang XC, Huang XY. Chemistry.
  • Praseodymium and gadolinium doped ceria as a cathode material for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells - R Chockalingam, AK Ganguli, S Basu - Journal of Power Sources, 2014.
  • Praseodymium-142 microspheres for brachytherapy of nonresectable hepatic tumors. Ferreira MC, Podder TK, Rasmussen KH, Jung JW. Brachytherapy. 2013 Aug.
  • Synthesis of phase pure praseodymium barium copper iron oxide. Konne JL, Davis SA, Glatzel S, Hall SR. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013.
  • Praseodymium incorporated AIPO-5 molecular sieves for aerobic oxidation of ethylbenzene. Sundaravel B, Babu CM, Palanisamy B, Palanichamy M, Shanthi K, Murugesan V. J Nanosci Nanotechnol.
  • Synthesis of praseodymium hydroxide (Pr(OH)3) and praseodymium oxide (Pr6O11) nanorods via room temperature aging. Dodd A. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Feb 15
  • catena-Poly[[tris-(acetonitrile-?N)praseodymium(III)]tris-(µ-trifluoro-methane-sulfonato-?(2) O:O')]. Apostolidis C, Walter O. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online.
  • Preparation of radioactive praseodymium oxide as a multifunctional agent in nuclear medicine: expanding the horizons of cancer therapy using nanosized neodymium oxide. Bakht MK, Sadeghi M, Ahmadi SJ, Sadjadi SS, Tenreiro C. Nucl Med Commun. 2013.
  • Anomalous reversal of C-H and C-D quenching efficiencies in luminescent praseodymium cryptates. Scholten J, Rosser GA, Wahsner J, Alzakhem N, Bischof C, Stog F, Beeby A, Seitz M. J Am Chem Soc.
  • Bremsstrahlung parameters of praseodymium-142 in different human tissues: a dosimetric perspective for (142)Pr radionuclide therapy. Bakht MK, Jabal-Ameli H, Ahmadi SJ, Sadeghi M, Sadjadi S, Tenreiro C. Ann Nucl Med.
  • Nonaaqua-praseodymium triiodide-thio-urea (1/2). Antonenko TA, Alikberova LY, Albov DV. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online.
  • Synthesis mechanism of low-voltage praseodymium oxide doped zinc oxide varistor ceramics prepared through modified citrate gel coating. Abdullah WR, Zakaria A, Ghazali MS. Int J Mol Sci.
  • The matlockite-type praseodymium(III) oxide bromide PrOBr. Talmon-Gros P, Schurz CM, Schleid T. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online.
  • Internal radiotherapy techniques using radiolanthanide praseodymium-142: a review of production routes, brachytherapy, unsealed source therapy. Bakht MK, Sadeghi M. Ann Nucl Med.
  • Fluorescence and DNA-binding properties of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline. Khorasani-Motlagh M, Noroozifar M, Mirkazehi-Rigi S. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc.
  • catena-Poly[[[bis-(3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)triaqua-praseodymium(III)]-µ-3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato-[(3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)diaqua-formatopraseodymium(III)]-µ-3-amino-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato] hexa-hydrate]. Gao S, Ng SW. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online.
  • Superbroadband near-IR emission from praseodymium-doped bismuth gallate glasses. Zhou B, Pun EY. Opt Lett.
  • Interferometric measurement of laser heating in praseodymium-doped YAG crystal. Farley CW 3rd, Reddy BR. Appl Opt.

Praseodymium Isotopes


Naturally occurring praseodymium (Pr) has one stable isotope: 141Pr.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
141Pr 140.9076528 Stable 5/2+