Praseodymium Elemental Symbol
Praseodymium



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Praséodyme Praseodym Praseodymium Praseodym Praseodym Praseodym

Praseodymium(Pr) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Praseodymium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of praseodymium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 21, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f3 6s2. Praseodymium Bohr ModelThe praseodymium atom has a radius of 182.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 239.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-10-0, praseodymium has a grayish white appearance. Elemental PraseodymiumIt resembles the typical trivalent rare earths, however, it will exhibit a +4 state when stabilized in a zirconia host. Unlike other rare-earth metals, which show antiferromagnetic and / or ferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures, praseodymium is paramagnetic at any temperature above 1 K. Praseodymium is found in the minerals monazite and bastnasite. Praseodymium was discovered by Carl Auer von Welsbach in 1885. The origin of the element name comes from the Greek words 'prasios didymos' meaning green twin.


Praseodymium is highly valued in glass and ceramic production as a bright yellow pigment because of its optimum reflectance at 560 nm. Much research is being done on its optical properties for use in amplification of telecommunication systems, including as a doping agent in fluoride fibers. High Purity (99.999%) Praseodymium (Pr) Sputtering TargetPraseodymium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Praseodymium Oxide (Pr2O3) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Praseodymium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Praseodymium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.


Praseodymium is somewhat toxic. Safety data for Praseodymium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Praseodymium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Pr Melting Point: 931 oC, 1707.8 oF, 1204.15 K
Atomic Number: 59 Boiling Point: 3520 oC, 6368 oF, 3793.15 K
Atomic Weight: 140.90765 Density: 6779  kg m-3
Element Category: lanthanide Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.50 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.046 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 79 K-Cal/gm atom at 3512°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.70 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 59 Thermal Conductivity: 0.125 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 59 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) 6.7 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 82 Electrical Resistivity: 68 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f36s2 Electronegativity: 1.1 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 182 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 203±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.20 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 239 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) 37.3 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) 14.8 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) 28.8 GPa
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Poisson Ratio: (α form) 0.281
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 527 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: 400 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1020 kJ·mol−1 Brinell Hardness: 481 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2086 kJ·mol−1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2280 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-10-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22384 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23942 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011174 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.02 ppb
EC Number: 231-120-3 Discovered By: Carl Auer von Welsbach
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1885
SMILES Identifier: [Pr]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pr Other Names: Praseodym, Praséodyme
InChI Key: PUDIUYLPXJFUGB-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Praseodymium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Organometallic Compounds

Praseodymium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Praseodymium Acetylacetonate
Praseodymium(III) Hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionate
Praseodymium(III) Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Hydrate
Praseodymium(III) Isopropoxide
Praseodymium Oxalate
Praseodymium Oxalate Decahydrate
Praseodymium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Praseodymium(III) Tris[3-(heptafluoropropylhdroxymethylene)-d-camphorate]
Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)praseodymium(III)
Tris(6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-di(methyl-d3)-3,5-octanedion-1,1,1-d3-ato)praseodymium(III)
Tris(6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedionato)praseodymium(III)
Tris(isopropylcyclopentadienyl)praseodymium(III)
Tris[N,N-bis(trimethylsilyl)amide]praseodymium(III)
Tris[N-(diphenylphosphiny)-P,P-diphenylphosphinicamidato-O,O']praseodymium


Sputtering Targets

Praseodymium Barium Copper Oxide Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Calcium Manganate Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Cerium Manganate Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Oxide Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Selenide Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Telluride Sputtering Target


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Praseodymium Arsenide
Praseodymium Phosphide
Praseodymium Selenide
Praseodymium Sulfide
Praseodymium Telluride


Alloys

Mischmetal Nickel Alloy


Nanomaterials

Praseodymium Nanoparticles
Praseodymium Oxide Nanopowder


Recent Research & Development for Praseodymium

  • Lingxia Li, Junxiao Chen, Dong Guo, Ning Zhang, Mingjing Wang, Yaran Liu, An ultra-broad working temperature dielectric material obtained with Praseodymium doped BaTiO3–(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3–Nb2O5 based ceramics, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part A, September 2014
  • Osamah Alduhaish, Bin Li, Vladimir Nesterov, Hadi D. Arman, Khalid Alfooty, Abdullah M. Asiri, Hailong Wang, Banglin Chen, Two structurally different praseodymium-organic frameworks with permanent porosity, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 45, July 2014
  • R.V. Vovk, N.R. Vovk, G.Ya. Khadzhai, I.L. Goulatis, A. Chroneos, Effect of praseodymium on the electrical resistance of Y??2?u3?7-d single crystals, Solid State Communications, Volume 190, July 2014
  • Chuan-Hua Li, Xiang-Zhi Song, Jian-Hong Jiang, Hui-Wen Gu, Li-Ming Tao, Ping Yang, Xu Li, Sheng-Xiong Xiao, Fei-Hong Yao, Wen-Qi Liu, Jin-Qi Xie, Meng-Na Peng, Lan Pan, Xi-Bin Wu, Chao Jiang, Song Wang, Man-Fen Xu, Qiang-Guo Li, Synthesis, crystal structure and thermodynamic properties of a new praseodymium Schiff-base complex, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 581, 10 April 2014
  • A.C. Cabral, L.S. Cavalcante, R.C. Deus, E. Longo, A.Z. Simões, F. Moura, Photoluminescence properties of praseodymium doped cerium oxide nanocrystals, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 3, April 2014
  • R. Catubig, A.E. Hughes, I.S. Cole, B.R.W. Hinton, M. Forsyth, The use of cerium and praseodymium mercaptoacetate as thiol-containing inhibitors for AA2024-T3, Corrosion Science, Volume 81, April 2014
  • Zhiqi Zhang, Zhiqiang Wang, Dehong Chen, Ruiying Miao, Qiong Zhu, Xiaowei Zhang, Lin Zhou, Zong-an Li, Purification of praseodymium to 4N5+ purity, Vacuum, Volume 102, April 2014
  • Rajalekshmi Chockalingam, Ashok Kumar Ganguli, Suddhasatwa Basu, Praseodymium and gadolinium doped ceria as a cathode material for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 250, 15 March 2014
  • N.D. Nam, A. Somers, M. Mathesh, M. Seter, B. Hinton, M. Forsyth, M.Y.J. Tan, The behaviour of praseodymium 4-hydroxycinnamate as an inhibitor for carbon dioxide corrosion and oxygen corrosion of steel in NaCl solutions, Corrosion Science, Volume 80, March 2014
  • Alok Kumar Rai, Jihyeon Gim, Eui-chol Shin, Hyun-Ho Seo, Vinod Mathew, K.D. Mandal, Om Parkash, Jong-Sook Lee, Jaekook Kim, Effects of praseodymium substitution on electrical properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 1, Part A, January 2014
  • Lihe Zheng, Radoslaw Lisiecki, Witold Ryba-Romanowski, Gérard Aka, Juqing Di, Dongzhen Li, Xiaodong Xu, Jun Xu, Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of praseodymium and cerium co-doped Y2SiO5, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 145, January 2014
  • Zhihao Bai, Feng Qiu, Xiaoxue Wu, Yingying Liu, Qichuan Jiang, Age hardening and creep resistance of cast Al–Cu alloy modified by praseodymium, Materials Characterization, Volume 86, December 2013
  • E. Tomaszewicz, H. Fuks, J. Typek, Synthesis, thermal stability and magnetic properties of novel cadmium and praseodymium tungstate Cd0.25Pr0.50?0.25WO4 and its solid solutions, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 568, 20 September 2013
  • K.S. Hwang, Y.S. Jeon, S. Hwangbo, J.T. Kim, Praseodymium-doped calcium stannates phosphor coatings prepared by electrostatic spray deposition, Ceramics International, Volume 39, Issue 7, September 2013
  • Feipeng ZHANG, Baocheng NIU, Kunshu ZHANG, Xin ZHANG, Qingmei LU, Jiuxing ZHANG, Effects of praseodymium doping on thermoelectric transport properties of CaMnO3 compound system, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 31, Issue 9, September 2013
  • M.R.N. Soares, M.J. Soares, L.C. Alves, E. Alves, K. Lorenz, F.M. Costa, T. Monteiro, The influence of photon excitation and proton irradiation on the luminescence properties of yttria stabilized zirconia doped with praseodymium ions, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 306, 1 July 2013
  • Raghavendra Sagar, Shivanand Madolappa, Nagbasavanna Sharanappa, R.L. Raibagkar, Synthesis, structure and electrical studies of praseodymium doped barium zirconium titanate, Materials Chemistry and Physics, Volume 140, Issue 1, 15 June 2013
  • S.Yu. Melchakov, V.A. Ivanov, L.F. Yamshchikov, V.A. Volkovich, A.G. Osipenko, M.V. Kormilitsyn, Thermodynamics of reaction of praseodymium with gallium–indium eutectic alloy, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 437, Issues 1–3, June 2013
  • K. Lorenz, E. Nogales, S.M.C. Miranda, N. Franco, B. Méndez, E. Alves, G. Tourbot, B. Daudin, Enhanced red emission from praseodymium-doped GaN nanowires by defect engineering, Acta Materialia, Volume 61, Issue 9, May 201
  • Gonul Ozen, John Collins, Marco Bettinelli, Baldassare Di Bartolo, Luminescence of Y3AL5O12 nano-particles doped with praseodymium ions, Optical Materials, Volume 35, Issue 7, May 2013

Praseodymium Isotopes


Naturally occurring praseodymium (Pr) has one stable isotope: 141Pr.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
141Pr 140.9076528 Stable 5/2+