Magnesium Elemental Symbol

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Magnésium Magnesium Magnesio Magnésio Magnesio Magnesium

Magnesium (Mg) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolMagnesium is a Block S, Group 2, Period 3 element. Magnesium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Magnesium's shells is 2, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ne] 3s2. The magnesium atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7439-95-4, magnesium has a shiny grey appearance. Elemental Magnesium Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the earth's crust. It is commercially produced from brucite, carnallite, dolomite, magnesite, olivine and talc. Magnesium was discovered by Joseph Black in 1775 and first isolated by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808. The name Magnesium originates from a Greek district in Thessaly called Magnesia.

Magnesium is one-third lighter than aluminum and it improves the mechanical, fabrication, and welding characteristics of aluminum when used as an alloying agent. It is used for aerospace, satellite and missile construction. High Purity (99.999%) Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Powder Magnesium compounds, primarily magnesium oxide, are used as refractory material in furnace linings for producing iron and steel, nonferrous metals, glass, and cement. High purity magnesium is found in dietary supplements. Magnesium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Magnesium  (Mg) Sputtering TargetMagnesium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Magnesium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Safety data for Magnesium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

  • Properties
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  • Research
  • Isotopes
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Magnesium Properties

Symbol: Mg Melting Point: 650 oC, 1202 oF, 923.15 K
Atomic Number: 12 Boiling Point: 1090 oC, 1994 oF, 1363.15 K
Atomic Weight: 24.31 Density: 1738 kg/m³
Element Category: alkaline earth metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 1.584 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 2, 3, s Specific Heat: 0.243 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 127.6 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 9.04 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 12 Thermal Conductivity: 1.56 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 12 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 24.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 12 Electrical Resistivity: 4.45 microhm-cm @ 20°C
Electron Configuration: [Ne]3s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 160 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 141±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.869 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 173 pm Young's Modulus: 45 GPa
Oxidation States: 2, 1 (strongly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 17 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 45 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.290
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 2.5
1st Ionization Energy: 737.76 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1450.69 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 260 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 7732.75 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (r.t.) (annealed) 4940 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7439-95-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 270000 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4575328 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 70000 ppb
PubChem CID: 5462224 Abundance in universe, by weight: 600000 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00085308 Abundance in universe, by atom: 30000 ppb
EC Number: 231-104-6 Discovered By: Joseph Black
Beilstein Number: 4948473 Discovery Date: 1775
SMILES Identifier: [MgH2]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Mg Other Names: Magnesio

Magnesium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Magnesium Balls
Magnesium Bands
Magnesium Bars
Magnesium Bits
Magnesium Board
Magnesium Briquette
Magnesium Capsules
Magnesium Circle
Magnesium Coil
Magnesium Coins
Magnesium Concentrate
Magnesium Cylinder
Magnesium Disc
Magnesium Dust
Magnesium Electrodes
Magnesium Flake
Magnesium Flanges
Magnesium Foil
Magnesium Fragments
Magnesium Grain
Magnesium Granules
Magnesium Ingot
Magnesium Lump
Magnesium Mesh
Magnesium Metal
Magnesium Microfoil
Magnesium Microleaf
Magnesium Nugget
Magnesium Particles
Magnesium Parts
Magnesium Pebbles
Magnesium Pellets
Magnesium Pieces
Magnesium Pills
Magnesium Plates
Magnesium Powder
Magnesium Precipitate
Magnesium Puck
Magnesium Residue
Magnesium Ribbon
Magnesium Rings
Magnesium Rocks
Magnesium Rod
Magnesium Samples
Magnesium Scraps
Magnesium Segments
Magnesium Shaving
Magnesium Sheets
Magnesium Shot
Magnesium Sleeves
Magnesium Slugs
Magnesium Specimens
Magnesium Spheres
Magnesium Spring
Magnesium Strip
Magnesium Tape
Magnesium Tube
Magnesium Turnings
Magnesium Wafer
Magnesium Wire


Aluminum Copper Magnesium Alloy
Aluminum Copper Manganese Silicon Magnesium Alloy
Aluminum Magnesium Foil
Aluminium Silicon Magnesium Alloy Particles
Aluminium Silicon Magnesium Alloy Powder
Aluminum Magnesium Alloy
Calcium Magnesium Alloy
Magnesium Alloy Powder
Magnesium Aluminum Zinc Alloy
Magnesium Aluminum Zinc Foil
Magnesium Nickel Alloy


Magnesium-24 Isotope
Magnesium-24 Oxide Isotope
Magnesium-25 Isotope
Magnesium-25 Oxide Isotope
Magnesium-26 Isotope
Magnesium-26 Oxide Isotope


Magnesium Aluminate, Spinel Nanopowder
Magnesium Carbon Nanotube
Magnesium Hydroxide Nanopowder
Magnesium Nanofoil
Magnesium Nanoparticles
Magnesium Nanoprisms
Magnesium Oxide Nanopowder

Aluminum Magnesium Oxide
Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Hydrate
Calcium Borohydride/Magnesium Hydride
Caustic Calcined Magnesite
Cerium Magnesium Aluminate, Terbium doped
Dead Burned Magnesite
Europium Magnesium Nitrate
Lanthanum Gallate, Strontium and Magnesium-Doped
Lead Magnesium Niobate
Lead Magnesium Niobate/Lead Titanate (PMN-PT)
Lithium Borohydride/Magnesium Hydride
Lithium Borohydride/Magnesium/Tin/Tin
Magnesia Stabilized Zirconia (3 Mol. %)
Magnesia Stabilized Zirconia (4.5 Mol. %)
Magnesia Stabilized Zirconia (5 Mol. %)
Magnesia stabilized Zirconia Powder
Magnesia stabilized Zirconia Rod
Magnesia Stabilized Zirconia Sheet
Magnesium Acetate
Magnesium Acetate Solution
Magnesium Aluminate
Magnesium Aluminate Spinel
Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxycarbonate
Magnesium Aluminide Mg2Al3
Magnesium Aluminide Mg17Al12
Magnesium Aluminum Oxide
Magnesium Aluminum Zirconium Oxide
Magnesium Bisulfite Solution
Magnesium Bromide
Magnesium Bromide Hexahydrate
Magnesium Carbide
Magnesium Carbonate
Magnesium Carbonate Hydroxide Pentahydrate
Magnesium Carbonate Trihydrate
Magnesium Chloride
Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate
Magnesium Chloride Monohydrate
Magnesium Chloride, Ultra Dry
Magnesium Chloride Solution
Magnesium Chromate
Magnesium Diboride
Magnesium Dodecaboride
Magnesium Ferrite
Magnesium Fluoride
Magnesium Fluoride Granules
Magnesium Fluoride Pieces
Magnesium Fluoride Window
Magnesium Fluosilicate
Magnesium Hexaboride
Magnesium Hexafluorophosphate
Magnesium Hydride
Magnesium Hydroxide
Magnesium Iodate
Magnesium Iodate Tetrahydrate
Magnesium Iodide
Magnesium Iodide, Ultra Dry
Magnesium Molybdate
Magnesium Neodymium Fluoride
Magnesium Nitrate
Magnesium Nitrate Solution
Magnesium Nitride
Magnesium Permanganate Hydrate
Magnesium Oxide
Magnesium Peroxide
Magnesium Peroxide Complex
Magnesium Perchlorate, Anhydrous
Magnesium Perchlorate Hexahydrate
Magnesium Phosphate Dibasic Trihydrate
Magnesium Phosphate Hydrate
Magnesium Phosphate Tribasic
Magnesium Plumbide Granules
Magnesium Selenate
Magnesium Selenite
Magnesium Silicate
Magnesium Sulfate
Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate
Magnesium Sulfate Hexahydrate
Magnesium Sulfate Hydrate
Magnesium Sulfate Solution
Magnesium Tantalate
Magnesium Tellurate
Magnesium Titanate
Magnesium Tungstate
Magnesium Vanadium Oxide
Magnesium Zirconate
Olivine Powder
Sodium Borohydride/Magnesium Hydride

Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Barium Magnesium Aluminate, Europium doped
Magnesium Aluminate Single Crystal Substrate
Magnesium Antimonide
Magnesium Arsenide
Magnesium Doped Lithium Niobate
Magnesium Oxide Single Crystal Substrate
Magnesium Oxide Wafer
Magnesium Phosphide
Magnesium Selenide
Magnesium Silicide
Magnesium Sulfide
Magnesium Telluride

Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Copper Magnesium Chromium Zinc Sputtering Target
Aluminum Copper Manganese Magnesium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Magnesium Copper Nickel Sputtering Target
Aluminum Magnesium Silicon Sputtering Target
Aluminum Magnesium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Niobium Tantalum Sputtering Target
Aluminum Silicon Copper Magnesium Chromium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Silicon Copper Manganese Magnesium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Magnesium Calcium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Dysprosium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Magnesium Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Indium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Neodymium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Neodymium Zirconium Yttrium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Magnesium Oxide Sputtering Target
Magnesium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Magnesium Rotatable Sputtering Targets
Magnesium Samarium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Selenide Sputtering Target
Magnesium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Telluride Sputtering Target
Magnesium Yttrium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Zinc Oxide Sputtering Target
Magnesium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Silver Magnesium Sputtering Target
Yttrium Zirconium Magnesium Sputtering Target

Oxide Forms

Magnesium Oxide Bricks
Magnesium Oxide Crucible
Magnesium Oxide Nanopowder
Magnesium Oxide Particles
Magnesium Oxide Pellets
Magnesium Oxide Pieces
Magnesium Oxide Powder
Magnesium Oxide Rod
Magnesium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Magnesium Oxide Sputtering Target
Magnesium Oxide Shot
Magnesium Oxide Single Crystal Substrate
Magnesium Oxide Tablets
Magnesium Oxide Wafer

Organometallic Compounds

3-Butenylmagnesium Bromide Solution
4-benzyloxyphenyl Magnesium Bromide
Allylmagnesium Chloride
Bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)magnesium Dihydrate
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium(II) Solution
Cyclopropylmagnesium Bromide
Dihydrogen Magnesium Ethylenediaminetetraacetate
Hexylmagnesium Bromide
Isopropenylmagnesium Bromide in Tetrahydrofuran
Isopropenylmagnesium Bromide in Ethyl Ether
Magnesium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Magnesium Acetylacetonate
Magnesium bis(diisopropyl)amide
Magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide
Magnesium Borohydride Dimethylsulfide Complex
Magnesium Bromide Ethyl Etherate
Magnesium Disodium EDTA
Magnesium Disodium EDTA Tetrahydrate
Magnesium Ethoxide
Magnesium Formate
Magnesium Formate Dihydrate
Magnesium Gluconate Hydrate
Magnesium Lactate Trihydrate
Magnesium L-lactate Hydrate
Magnesium Monoperoxyphthalate Hexahydrate
Magnesium Myristate
Magnesium Naphthenate
Magnesium Oxalate
Magnesium Stannate
Magnesium tert-Butoxide
Magnesium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Octylmagnesium Chloride
Phenylmagnesium Chloride
Tert-butyl Magnesium Chloride

Recent Research & Development for Magnesium

  • Elena Yazhenskikh, Tatjana Jantzen, Klaus Hack, Michael Müller, Critical thermodynamic evaluation of oxide systems relevant to fuel ashes and slags: Potassium oxide–magnesium oxide–silica, Calphad, Volume 47, December 2014
  • Tong Liu, Chunguang Chen, Fan Wang, Xingguo Li, Enhanced hydrogen storage properties of magnesium by the synergic catalytic effect of TiH1.971 and TiH1.5 nanoparticles at room temperature, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • J.Y. Choi, W.J. Kim, Significant effects of adding trace amounts of Ti on the microstructure and corrosion properties of Mg–6Al–1Zn magnesium alloy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 614, 25 November 2014
  • Seyed Alireza Torbati-Sarraf, Terence G. Langdon, Properties of a ZK60 magnesium alloy processed by high-pressure torsion, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 613, 15 November 2014
  • Dongyun Zhang, Peixin Zhang, Shenhua Song, Qiuhua Yuan, Ping Yang, Xiangzhong Ren, Simulation of magnesium hydroxide surface and interface, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 612, 5 November 2014
  • C.D. Li, X.J. Wang, K. Wu, W.Q. Liu, S.L. Xiang, C. Ding, X.S. Hu, M.Y. Zheng, Distribution and integrity of carbon nanotubes in carbon nanotube/magnesium composites, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 612, 5 November 2014
  • Lifei Wang, Guangsheng Huang, Quan Quan, Paola Bassani, Ehsan Mostaed, Maurizio Vedani, Fusheng Pan, The effect of twinning and detwinning on the mechanical property of AZ31 extruded magnesium alloy during strain-path changes, Materials & Design, Volume 63, November 2014
  • Q. Yao, Z. Luo, Y. Li, F.Y. Yan, R. Duan, Effect of electromagnetic stirring on the microstructures and mechanical properties of magnesium alloy resistance spot weld, Materials & Design, Volume 63, November 2014
  • Lingxia Li, Dan Xu, Shihui Yu, Helei Dong, Yuxin Jin, Haoran Zheng, Effect of substrate on the dielectric properties of bismuth magnesium niobate thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering, Vacuum, Volume 109, November 2014
  • D. Sarker, J. Friedman, D.L. Chen, Influence of pre-deformation and subsequent annealing on strain hardening and anisotropy of AM30 magnesium alloy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 611, 25 October 2014
  • Joong-Hwan Jun, Damping behaviors of as-cast and solution-treated AZ91–Ca magnesium alloys, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 610, 15 October 2014
  • Jingjing Le, Lei Liu, Fan Liu, Yida Deng, Cheng Zhong, Wenbin Hu, Interdiffusion kinetics of the intermetallic coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy formed in molten salts at lower temperatures, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 610, 15 October 2014
  • Tangyuan Li, Huiqing Fan, Changbai Long, Guangzhi Dong, Sheji Sun, Defect dipoles and electrical properties of magnesium B-site substituted sodium potassium niobates, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 609, 5 October 2014
  • N. Stanford, R. Cottam, B. Davis, J. Robson, Evaluating the effect of yttrium as a solute strengthener in magnesium using in situ neutron diffraction, Acta Materialia, Volume 78, 1 October 2014
  • Caijun Shi, Jianming Yang, Nan Yang, Yuan Chang, Effect of waterglass on water stability of potassium magnesium phosphate cement paste, Cement and Concrete Composites, Volume 53, October 2014
  • F.S. Al-Hazmi, Waleed E. Mahmoud, Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) assisted microwave synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel oxide for production of highly transparent films by hot compression, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 12, October 2014
  • Bo Song, Ning Guo, Tingting Liu, QingShan Yang, Improvement of formability and mechanical properties of magnesium alloys via pre-twinning: A review, Materials & Design, Volume 62, October 2014
  • Congjun Liu, Yongchun Zhao, Yashao Chen, Peng Liu, Kaiyong Cai, Surface modification of magnesium alloy via cathodic plasma electrolysis and its influence on corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility, Materials Letters, Volume 132, 1 October 2014
  • Mostafa Yazdimamaghani, Mehdi Razavi, Daryoosh Vashaee, Lobat Tayebi, Development and degradation behavior of magnesium scaffolds coated with polycaprolactone for bone tissue engineering, Materials Letters, Volume 132, 1 October 2014
  • M.M. Farag, Hui-suk Yun, Effect of gelatin addition on fabrication of magnesium phosphate-based scaffolds prepared by additive manufacturing system, Materials Letters, Volume 132, 1 October 2014

Magnesium Isotopes

Magnesium has three stable isotopes: 24Mg, 25Mg, and 26Mg.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
24Mg 23.985041700 Stable 0+
25Mg 24.98583692 Stable 5/2+
26Mg 25.982592929 Stable 0+