Zirconium Elemental Symbol

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Zirconium Zirconium Zirconio Zircônio Circonio Zirkonium

Zirconium(Zr) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Zirconium is a Block D, Group 4, Period 5 element. Zirconium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Zirconium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 10, 2 and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d2 5s2. Elemental ZirconiumThe zirconium atom has a radius of 159.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-67-7, zirconium has a silvery white appearance. Zirconium’s principal mineral is zircon (zirconium silicate). Zirconium is produced as a byproduct of titanium and tin mining. It is not found in nature as a native metal. Zirconium was first discovered by William Gregor in 1791. The name of zirconium comes from the mineral zircon, the most important source of zirconium, and from the Persian word 'zargun' meaning gold color or gold-like.

Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier. Heating zirconia initiates a phase transformation process resulting in a solid solution. This solid solution is termed as stabilized zirconia, a valuable refractory. High Purity (99.999%) Zirconium (Zr) Sputtering TargetZirconium is used to a lesser extent as an alloying agent due to its strong resistance to corrosion. High Purity (99.999%) Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) PowderZirconium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Zirconium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Zirconium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Zirconium is non-toxic, however, safety data for Zirconium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

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Zirconium Properties

Symbol: Zr Melting Point: 2128 K, 1855 °C, 3371 °F
Atomic Number: 40 Boiling Point: 4682 K, 4409 °C, 7968 °F
Atomic Weight: 91.224 Density: 6.52 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.8 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 4, 5, d Specific Heat: 0.0671 Cal/g/K @ 25 oC °C
    Heat of Vaporization 120 K-Cal/gm atom at 4377 °C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 5.50 Cal/gm mole 
Electrons: 40 Thermal Conductivity: 22.6 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 40 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 5.7 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 51 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 421 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d25s2 Electronegativity: 1.4 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 160 pm Tensile Strength: 230 MPa
Covalent Radius: 175±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.36 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200 pm Young's Modulus: 88 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 33 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 91.1 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.34
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 5.0
1st Ionization Energy: 640.08 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 903 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1266.86 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 650 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2218.21 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 3800 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7440-67-7 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 50 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22431 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 3 ppb
PubChem CID: 23995 Abundance in universe, by weight: 50 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011303 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.7 ppb
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1789
SMILES Identifier: [Zr]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Zr Other Names: Zirkonium, Zirconio, Circonio

Zirconium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Zirconium Anodes, Platinum-coated
Zirconium Balls
Zirconium Bands
Zirconium Bars
Zirconium Bits
Zirconium Board
Zirconium Boats
Zirconium Briquette
Zirconium Capsules
Zirconium Chunk
Zirconium Circle
Zirconium Coil
Zirconium Coins
Zirconium Concentrate
Zirconium Crucibles
Zirconium Cylinder
Zirconium Disc
Zirconium Dust
Zirconium Flake
Zirconium Flanges
Zirconium Foam
Zirconium Foil
Zirconium Fragments
Zirconium Grain
Zirconium Granules
Zirconium Honeycomb
Zirconium Ingot
Zirconium Lump
Zirconium Mesh
Zirconium Metal
Zirconium Microfoil
Zirconium Microleaf
Zirconium Non-Woven Fabric
Zirconium Nugget
Zirconium Particles
Zirconium Parts
Zirconium Pebbles
Zirconium Pellets
Zirconium Pieces
Zirconium Pills
Zirconium Plate
Zirconium Powder
Zirconium Precipitate
Zirconium Prism
Zirconium Puck
Zirconium Residue
Zirconium Ribbon
Zirconium Rings
Zirconium Rocks
Zirconium Rod
Zirconium Samples
Zirconium Satellites
Zirconium Scraps
Zirconium Segments
Zirconium Shaving
Zirconium Sheet
Zirconium Shot
Zirconium Sleeves
Zirconium Slugs
Zirconium Specimens
Zirconium Spheres
Zirconium Sponges
Zirconium Spring
Zirconium Strip
Zirconium Tape
Zirconium Tube
Zirconium Wafer
Zirconium Wire
Zirconium Wool


Aluminum Zirconium Alloy
Aluminum Zirconium Vanadium Alloy
Cobalt Iron Zirconium
Cobalt Niobium Zirconium Alloy
Cobalt Niobium Zirconium
Cobalt Rhodium Zirconium
Cobalt Tantalum Zirconium
Copper Chromium Zirconium Alloy
Copper Chromium Zirconium Alloy Particles
Copper Chromium Zirconium Alloy Powder
Copper Zirconium Pieces
Iron Nickel Zirconium
Titanium Based Aluminum Molybdenum Zirconium Alloy
Titanium based Niobium Zirconium Alloy
Titanium based Niobium Zirconium Tantalum Alloy
Titanium Based Molybdenum Zirconium Iron Alloy
Titanium Based Molybdenum Zirconium Tin Alloy
Titanium Beta III Alloy Foil
Zirconium Aluminum Alloy
Zirconium Iron Alloy
Zirconium Scandium Iron Alloy
Zirconium Silver Alloy
Zirconium Titanium Alloy
Zirconium Tungsten Alloy
Zirconium Vanadium Alloy

Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Lanthanum Strontium Manganite - Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia (LSM-YSZ)
Zirconium Arsenide
Zirconium Phosphide
Zirconium Selenide
Zirconium Sulfide
Zirconium Telluride


Zirconium-90 Isotope
Zirconium-91 Oxide Isotope

Aluminum Zirconate
Aluminum Zirconium Chloride Hydroxide
Ammonium Hexafluorozirconate
Barium Zirconate
Calcia Stabilized Zirconia
Cerium Zirconium Oxide
Hexafluorozirconic Acid Solution
Lanthanum Strontium Manganite/Zirconia Paste
Lead Zirconate
Lead Zirconium Oxide
Magnesia Stabilized Zirconia (3 Mol. %)
Magnesia Stabilized Zirconia (4.5 Mol. %)
Magnesia Stabilized Zirconia (5 Mol. %)
Magnesia stabilized Zirconia Powder
Magnesia stabilized Zirconia Rod
Magnesia Stabilized Zirconia Sheet
Magnesium Aluminum Zirconium Oxide
Nickel Oxide - YSZ Anode Paste
Nickel Oxide - YSZ Anode Tape
Silica- doped Zirconia
Tantalum Zirconium Oxide
Titanium Zirconium Oxide
YSZ Granule
YSZ Lump
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (12 Mol. %)
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (8 Mol %)
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (6 Mol. %)
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (5 Mol. %)
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Grinding Beads
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Paste
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Sheet
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Spheres
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Tape
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Tube
Yttrium Zirconium Oxide
Zirconiated Tungsten Electrode
Zirconium Acetate
Zirconium(IV) Acetate Hydroxide
Zirconium Acetate Solution
Zirconium Aluminide
Zirconium Antimonide
Zirconium Basic Carbonate Hydrate
Zirconium Boride ZrB2
Zirconium Boride ZrB12
Zirconium Borohydride
Zirconium Bromide ZrBr3
Zirconium Bromide ZrBr4
Zirconium Carbide
Zirconium Carbide Foam
Zirconium Carbide Honeycomb
Zirconium Carbide Nanoparticles
Zirconium Carbide Powder
Zirconium Carbide Sponge
Zirconium Carbide Wool
Zirconium Carbonate
Zirconium(IV) Chloride
Zirconium Chloride Solution
Zirconium Dichloride Oxide Hydrate
Zirconium Fluoride
Zirconium Hydride
Zirconium(IV) Hydrogenphosphate
Zirconium Hydroxide
Zirconium(II) Iodide
Zirconium(III) Iodide
Zirconium(IV) Iodide
Zirconium Nickel Hydride
Zirconium Nickel Hydride/Zirconium Nickel Deuteride
Zirconium Nitrate Solution
Zirconium Nitride
Zirconium Oxide
Zirconium(IV) Oxide-Yttria Stabilized
Zirconium Oxide/Yttrium Oxide
Zirconium(IV) Oxychloride Octahydrate
Zirconium Oxynitrate Solution
Zirconium(IV) Silicate
Zirconium(IV) Silicide
Zirconium Sulfate
Zirconium Sulfate Solution
Zirconium Sulfide
Zirconium Tungstate
Zirconyl Chloride
Zirconyl Nitrate

Sputtering Targets

Barium Cerium Yttrium Zirconate Sputtering Target
Barium Zirconate Sputtering Target
Cobalt Zirconium Sputtering Target
Indium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Neodymium Zirconium Yttrium Sputtering Target
Magnesium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Nickel Vanadium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Nickel Zirconium Sputtering Target
Samarium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Scandium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Titanium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Yttrium Zirconium Magnesium Sputtering Target
Yttrium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Zirconium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Zirconium Boride Sputtering Target
Zirconium Cerium Sputtering Target
Zirconium Copper Sputtering Target
Zirconium Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Zirconium Nitride Sputtering Target
Zirconium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Zirconium Oxide Sputtering Target
Zirconium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Zirconium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Zirconium Selenide Sputtering Target
Zirconium Silicon Sputtering Target
Zirconium Sputtering Target
Zirconium Telluride Sputtering Target
Zirconium Titanium Sputtering Target
Zirconium Tungsten Sputtering Target
Zirconium Yttrium Sputtering Target

Organometallic Compounds

[(S,S)-Ethylenebis(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-indenyl)] zirconium(IV)-(R)-1, 1'-bi-2-naphtholate
Bis(butylcyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) Dichloride
Bis(cyclopentadienyl) dimethylzirconium(IV)
Bis(cyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonate) tetrahydrofuran complex
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium Chloride Deuteride
Bis(cyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) Chloride Hydride
Bis(cyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) Dichloride
Bis(cyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) Dihydride
Bis(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) Dichloride
Bis(methylcyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) dichloride
Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) Dichloride
Bis(tert-butylcyclopentadienyl)zirconium(IV) Dichloride
Cyclopentadienylzirconium(IV) Trichloride
Dichloro[rac-ethylenebis(4,5,6,7 -tetrahydro-1-indenyl)]zirconium(IV)
Dichloro[rac-ethylenebis(indenyl)] zirconium(IV)
Dimethylbis (pentamethylcyclopentadienyl )zirconium(IV)
Indenylzirconium(IV) Trichloride
Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl zirconium(IV) Trichloride
Zirconium 1,4-dicarboxybenzene MOF
Zirconium Acetylacetonate
Zirconium Acrylate
Zirconium(IV) bis(diethyl citrato)dipropoxide
Zirconium(IV) Butoxide Solution
Zirconium Carboxyethyl Acrylate
Zirconium(IV) Chloride Tetrahydrofuran Complex
Zirconium(IV) Dibutoxide(bis-2,4-pentanedionate) Solution
Zirconium Diisopropoxidebis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate)
Zirconium Ethoxide
Zirconium(IV) Isopropoxide Isopropanol Complex
Zirconium Methacrylate
Zirconium Octoate
Zirconium Oxalate
Zirconium(IV) Oxo-Hydroxy Methacrylate
Zirconium n-Butoxide
Zirconium n-Propoxide
Zirconium Propionate
Zirconium(IV) Propoxide Solution
Zirconium(IV) tert-butoxide
Zirconium tetrakis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate)
Zirconium(IV) Trifluoroacetylacetonate
Zirconium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Zirconyl Dimethacrylate


Barium Zirconate Nanopowder
Cerium Zirconium Oxide Nanopowder
Yttria stabilized Zirconia Nanopowder
Zirconium Hydroxide Nanopowder
Zirconium Nanoparticles
Zirconium Nanoprisms
Zirconium Nanorods
Zirconium Nitrate Nanoparticles
Zirconium Oxide Nanopowder
Zirconium(IV) Silicate Nanopowder

Oxide Forms

Yellow Zirconia Ball
Zirconia Ball
Zirconia Bolt
Zirconia Nut
Zirconia Toughened Alumina Ball
Zirconium Oxide Crucible
Zirconium Oxide Particles
Zirconium Oxide Paste
Zirconium Oxide Pellets
Zirconium Oxide Pieces
Zirconium Oxide Porous Cover Plate
Zirconium Oxide Powder
Zirconium Oxide Shot
Zirconium Oxide Spheres
Zirconium Oxide Tablets
Zirconium(IV) Oxide, Yttria stabilized Pellets
Zirconium(IV) Oxide, Yttria stabilized Submicron Powder

Recent Research & Development for Zirconium

  • Wanying Geng, Ge Zhu, Yurong Shi, Yuhua Wang, Luminescent characteristics of Dy3+ doped calcium zirconium phosphate CaZr4(PO4)6 (CZP) phosphor for warm-white LEDs, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 155, November 2014
  • I. Kratochvílová, R. Škoda, J. Škarohlíd, P. Ashcheulov, A. Jäger, J. Racek, A. Taylor, L. Shao, Nanosized polycrystalline diamond cladding for surface protection of zirconium nuclear fuel tubes, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 214, Issue 11, November 2014
  • Sangjoon Ahn, Sandeep Irukuvarghula, Sean M. McDeavitt, Thermophysical investigations of the uranium–zirconium alloy system, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 611, 25 October 2014
  • Yueming Ren, Pingxin Liu, Xiaoli Liu, Jing Feng, Zhuangjun Fan, Tianzhu Luan, Preparation of zirconium oxy ion-imprinted particle for the selective separation of trace zirconium ion from water, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 431, 1 October 2014
  • Tingshun Jiang, Jinlian Cheng, Wangping Liu, Lie Fu, Xuping Zhou, Qian Zhao, Hengbo Yin, Sulfuric acid functional zirconium (or aluminum) incorporated mesoporous MCM-48 solid acid catalysts for alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 218, October 2014
  • Lucimara B. Panice, Elisangela A. de Oliveira, Ricardo A.D. Molin Filho, Daniela P. de Oliveira, Angélica M. Lazarin, Elza I.S. Andreotti, Rosana L. Sernaglia, Yoshitaka Gushikem, Electrochemical properties of the hexacyanoferrate(II)–ruthenium(III) complex immobilized on silica gel surface chemically modified with zirconium(IV) oxide, Materials Science and Engineering: B, Volume 188, October 2014
  • Z. Amghouz, C. Ancín-Azpilicueta, K.K. Burusco, J.R. García, S.A. Khainakov, A. Luquin, R. Nieto, J.J. Garrido, Biogenic amines in wine: Individual and competitive adsorption on a modified zirconium phosphate, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 197, October 2014
  • Mario Casciola, Paula Cojocaru, Anna Donnadio, Stefano Giancola, Luca Merlo, Yannig Nedellec, Monica Pica, Surya Subianto, Zirconium phosphate reinforced short side chain perflurosulfonic acid membranes for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell application, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 262, 15 September 2014
  • Abubaker Abutartour, Yunjie Jia, Lotfia El Majdoub, Qinghong Xu, A new hierarchical porous zirconium phosphate membrane and its adsorption properties, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 196, 15 September 2014
  • Hasan Gocmez, Mustafa Tuncer, Yavuz Selim Yeniceri, Low temperature synthesis and pressureless sintering of nanocrystalline zirconium diboride powders, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part A, September 2014
  • W.J. Kelvin Chew, M. Amiriyan, A. Yaghoubi, S. Ramesh, J. Purbolaksono, R. Tolouei, W.D. Teng, D.K. Agrawal, Sintering properties and thermal depletion of boron in zirconia–zirconium diboride conductive ceramic, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part B, September 2014
  • Mohammed Ibrahim Jamesh, Guosong Wu, Ying Zhao, Weihong Jin, David R. McKenzie, Marcela M.M. Bilek, Paul K. Chu, Effects of zirconium and nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Mg–Y–RE alloy in simulated body fluid and cell culture medium, Corrosion Science, Volume 86, September 2014
  • S. Mukherjee, S. Kaity, M.T. Saify, S.K. Jha, P.K. Pujari, Evidence of zirconium nano-agglomeration in as-cast dilute U–Zr alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 452, Issues 1–3, September 2014
  • A. Rico, M.A. Martin-Rengel, J. Ruiz-Hervias, J. Rodriguez, F.J. Gomez-Sanchez, Nanoindentation measurements of the mechanical properties of zirconium matrix and hydrides in unirradiated pre-hydrided nuclear fuel cladding, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 452, Issues 1–3, September 2014
  • Adrien Couet, Arthur T. Motta, Benoit de Gabory, Zhonghou Cai, Microbeam X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy study of the oxidation of Fe and Nb in zirconium alloy oxide layers, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 452, Issues 1–3, September 2014
  • Haneul Yoo, Whangi Kim, Hyunchul Ju, A numerical comparison of hydrogen absorption behaviors of uranium and zirconium cobalt-based metal hydride beds, Solid State Ionics, Volume 262, 1 September 2014
  • Martynas Audronis, Allan Matthews, Kestutis Juškevicius, Ramutis Drazdys, Unlocking the potential of voltage control for high rate zirconium and hafnium oxide deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering, Vacuum, Volume 107, September 2014
  • G. Antou, M. Gendre, E. Laborde, A. Maître, G. Trolliard, High temperature compressive creep of spark plasma sintered zirconium (oxy-)carbide, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 612, 26 August 2014
  • Fei Li, Zhuang Kang, Xiao Huang, Guo-Jun Zhang, Fabrication of zirconium carbide nanofibers by electrospinning, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 7, Part A, August 2014
  • Cuiyan Li, Kezhi Li, Hejun Li, Yulei Zhang, Haibo Ouyang, Dongjia Yao, Lei Liu, Microstructure and ablation resistance of carbon/carbon composites with a zirconium carbide rich surface layer, Corrosion Science, Volume 85, August 2014

Zirconium Isotopes

Zirconium has four stable isotopes: 90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr and 94Zr.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
90Zr 89.9047044 Stable 0+
91Zr 90.9056458 Stable 5/2+
92Zr 91.9050408 Stable 0+
94Zr 93.9063152 Observationally Stable 0+