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About Titanium

Titanium Bohr

Titanium was discovered in 1791 by Reverend William Gregor, an English clergyman and mineralogist. Though he did write a paper describing his find, a black magnetic sand now known as ilmenite, and hypothesizing that it contained a new element, he was not confident in his discovery, which got little scientific attention. Several years later, Martin Heinrich Klaproth confirmed the presence of a new element in a similar magnetic mineral, and named it for the Titans of Greek mythology. Many failed attempts were made to isolate the pure element from such minerals before Lars Fredrik Nilson and Otto Pettersson finally succeeded in 1887.

The vast majority of titanium ore is processed to titanium dioxide. This material is used in the production of other titanium materials, including ceramics, but most often is used directly in a vast range of products. With a very high index of refraction and optical dispersion, the bright white powder is an excellent white pigment and opacifier used widely in producing paints, paper, plastics, and ceramic glazes. It is additionally added as a strengthening filler in cements and graphite composites, and used in sunscreen due to its ability to absorb UV light. The material is also of interest for photocatalytic abilities; in the presence of sunlight, it produces hydroxyl radicals. This phenomenon is exploited in applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells, self-cleaning glass coatings, hydrolysis catalysis, and paints and cements that can reduce air pollution.

Titanium metal is valued for use in a wide range of alloys because of its high strength to density ratio and high resistance to corrosion and fatigue. These alloys are used widely in aircraft, armor plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles. Additionally, titanium is used in jewelry for its high durability and ability to be anodized to produce a wide variety of colors. The metal is also biocompatible, and is frequently used in medical implants and surgical tools, either alone or as part of metal-ceramic composites. Titanium is especially useful in dental and orthopedic implants, as it can integrate with bone.

The other major commercial use of titanium is in ceramics. Titanium ceramics are typically extremely hard, and often exhibit useful electrical properties. They may be used in composite structural materials such as cermets or in extremely hard cutting tools for metal machining, or in technical applications such as electronics or medical implants. Barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate are important electroceramics found in ceramic capacitors, transductors, and sensors. Lithium titanate is an important conductive ceramic use in some lithium ion batteries and in molten carbonate fuel cells. Titanium nitride is notable for being both conductive and biocompatible, which allows its use in implants including bioelectronics, and as a barrier metal in the manufacture of microelectronics. Other notable titanium compounds include titanium disulfide, an inorganic material of interest for use in improved battery designs and nanostructured hydrogen storage solutions.

Titanium occurs primarily as the minerals rutile and ilmenite, which are often found as components of heavy mineral sands. These minerals cannot be processed to titanium metal through high-temperature reduction with carbon, as is the case for some other metals. Instead, the pure metal is produced by first chlorinating titanium minerals, purifying the resultant titanium chloride via distillation, and then reducing the purified chemical using magnesium or sodium in an inert atmosphere. This complex processes largely accounts for high cost of titanium metal, but alternative, potentially cheaper processes are under development. Some titanium alloys can be made via direct reduction of titanium ores, and this allows their production without the expense of producing pure titanium. Additionally, most commercial titanium compounds acquired from mineral concentrates without passing through a metallic phase. The most commonly used titanium compound, titanium dioxide, is produced using either the sulfate process or the chloride process, depending on the source material and the purity required in the final product.

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High Purity (99.999%) Titanium Oxide (TiO2) Powder In its metallic form, titanium is both strong, lightweight, and highly resistant to corrosion. Thus it can be found in numerous aerospace and military applications. Titanium dioxide is used to produce a white pigment. High Purity (99.999%) Titanium (Ti) Sputtering TargetTitanium is the basis for numerous commercially essential compound groups, such as titanates for electronic and di-electric formulations and in crystal growth for ruby and sapphire lasers. Titanium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Titanium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area. Titanium oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Titanium fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Titanium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Titanium Properties

Titanium(Ti) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolTitanium is a Block D, Group 4, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Titanium's shells is 2, 8, 10, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. The titanium atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is Titanium Bohr ModelIn its elemental form, CAS 7440-32-6, titanium has a silvery grey-white appearance. Titanium's properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium, both of which have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table. Elemental Titanium Titanium has five naturally occurring isotopes: 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%). Titanium is found in igneous rocks and the sediments derived from them. Titanium was first discovered by William Gregor in 1791 and is named after the word Titanos which is Greek for Titans.

Symbol: Ti
Atomic Number: 22
Atomic Weight: 47.867
Element Category: transition metal
Group, Period, Block: 4, 4, d
Color: silvery white/ metallic
Other Names: Titane, Titanio, Titan, Titanij
Melting Point: 1668 °C, 3034 °F, 1941 K
Boiling Point: 3287 °C, 5949 °F, 3560 K
Density: 4.506 g·cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 4.11 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 4.50 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 4507 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.54 (kJ/kg/K)
Superconductivity Temperature: 0.40 [or -272.7 °C (-458.9 °F)] K
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 20.9
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 425.5
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 467.14
Thermal Conductivity: 21.9 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 8.6 µm·m-1·K-1
Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 420 nΩ·m
Tensile Strength: 63,000 psi (434 MPa)
Molar Heat Capacity: 25.060 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 116 GPa
Shear Modulus: 44 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 110 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.32
Mohs Hardness: 6
Vickers Hardness: 970 MPa
Brinell Hardness: 716 MPa
Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 5,090 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.54
Sanderson Electronegativity: 1.09
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.32
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.46
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 22
Protons: 22
Neutrons: 26
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d2 4s2
Atomic Radius: 147 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 160±8 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.84
Van der Waals Radius: N/A
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 7.62
1st Ionization Energy: 658.82 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1309.85 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2652.56 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-32-6
EC Number: 231-142-3
MDL Number: MFCD00011264
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Ti]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ti
PubChem CID: 23963
ChemSpider ID: 22402
Earth - Total: 820 ppm
Mercury - Total: 630 ppm
Venus - Total: 850 ppm
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 1
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.13
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 6600000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 2900000
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 4000
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 100
Stream, ppb by weight: 3
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.06
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 550000
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 230000
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 3000
Universe, ppb by atom: 80
Discovered By: William Gregor
Discovery Date: 1791
First Isolation: Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1825)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Titanium

Titanium metal is not considered to be toxic, although titanium in the form of metal shavings or powder is considered a fire hazard. Safety data for Titanium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Titanium.

Safety Data
Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Precautions N/A
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany nwg
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)

Titanium Isotopes

Titanium has five naturally occurring isotopes: 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%).

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
38Ti 38.00977(27)# <120 ns 2p to 36Sc 0+ N/A 273.92 -
39Ti 39.00161(22)# 31(4) ms [31(+6-4) ms] ß- + p to 38Ca; ß- to 39Sc; ß- + p to 37K 3/2+# N/A 289.45 -
40Ti 39.99050(17) 53.3(15) ms ß- to 40Sc; ß- + p to 39Ca 0+ N/A 307.78 -
41Ti 40.98315(11)# 80.4(9) ms ß- + p to 41Ca; ß- to 41Sc 3/2+ N/A 322.38 -
42Ti 41.973031(6) 199(6) ms ß- to 42Sc 0+ N/A 339.77 -
43Ti 42.968522(7) 509(5) ms ß- to 43Sc 7/2- N/A 352.51 -
44Ti 43.9596901(8) 60.0(11) y EC to 44Sc 0+ N/A 368.97 -
45Ti 44.9581256(11) 184.8(5) min EC to 45Sc 7/2- 0.095 377.99 -
46Ti 45.9526316(9) STABLE - 0+ N/A 391.65 8.25
47Ti 46.9517631(9) STABLE - 5/2- -0.78848 400.66 7.44
48Ti 47.9479463(9) STABLE - 0+ N/A 412.47 73.72
49Ti 48.9478700(9) STABLE - 7/2- -1.10417 420.55 5.41
50Ti 49.9447912(9) STABLE - 0+ N/A 431.42 5.18
51Ti 50.946615(1) 5.76(1) min ß- to 51V 3/2- N/A 437.64 -
52Ti 51.946897(8) 1.7(1) min ß- to 52V 0+ N/A 445.72 -
53Ti 52.94973(11) 32.7(9) s ß- to 53V (3/2)- N/A 451 -
54Ti 53.95105(13) 1.5(4) s ß- to 54V 0+ N/A 457.21 -
55Ti 54.95527(16) 490(90) ms ß- to 55V 3/2-# N/A 461.57 -
56Ti 55.95820(21) 164(24) ms ß- to 56V; ß- + n to 55V 0+ N/A 466.85 -
57Ti 56.96399(49) 60(16) ms ß- to 57V; ß- + n to 56V 5/2-# N/A 470.27 -
58Ti 57.96697(75)# 54(7) ms ß- to 58V 0+ N/A 475.56 -
59Ti 58.97293(75)# 30(3) ms ß- to 59V (5/2-)# N/A 478.04 -
60Ti 59.97676(86)# 22(2) ms ß- to 60V 0+ N/A 482.4 -
61Ti 60.98320(97)# 10# ms [>300 ns] ß- to 61V; ß- + n to 60V 1/2-# N/A 483.95 -
62Ti 61.98749(97)# 10# ms Unknown 0+ N/A 488.31 -
63Ti 62.99442(107)# 3# ms Unknown 1/2-# N/A 489.86 -
Titanium(Ti) Elemental Symbol

Recent Research & Development for Titanium

  • Effect of Repeated Simulated Clinical Use and Sterilization on the Cutting Efficiency and Flexibility of Hyflex CM Nickel-Titanium Rotary Files. Seago ST, Bergeron BE, Kirkpatrick TC, Roberts MD, Roberts HW, Himel VT, Sabey KA. J Endod. 2015 Mar 3.
  • Cellular Responses Evoked by Different Surface Characteristics of Intraosseous Titanium Implants. Feller L, Jadwat Y, Khammissa RA, Meyerov R, Schechter I, Lemmer J. Biomed Res Int. 2015
  • Airborne-particle abrasion parameters on the quality of titanium-ceramic bonds. Go??biowski M, Wo?owiec E, Klimek PL. J Prosthet Dent. 2015 Mar 4.
  • Enhancing osteoblast-affinity of titanium scaffolds for bone engineering by use of ultraviolet light treatment. Ishijima M, Soltanzadeh P, Hirota M, Tsukimura N, Shigami T, Ogawa T. Biomed Res. 2015
  • Bone tissue response to plasma-nitrided titanium implant surfaces. Ferraz EP, Sverzut AT, Freitas GP, Sá JC, Alves C Jr, Beloti MM, Rosa AL. J Appl Oral Sci. 2015 Jan-Feb
  • Antifouling coatings for dental implants: Polyethylene glycol-like coatings on titanium by plasma polymerization. Buxadera-Palomero J, Canal C, Torrent-Camarero S, Garrido B, Javier Gil F, Rodríguez D. Biointerphases. 2015 Jun 12
  • Comparing a series of 8-quinolinolato complexes of aluminium, titanium and zinc as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide. Bakewell C, Fateh-Iravani G, Beh DW, Myers D, Tabthong S, Hormnirun P, White AJ, Long N, Williams CK. Dalton Trans. 2015 Mar 6.
  • Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of 3 Different Nickel-Titanium Reciprocating Instruments in Artificial Canals. Higuera O, Plotino G, Tocci L, Carrillo G, Gambarini G, Jaramillo DE. J Endod. 2015 Mar 11.
  • [A long-term study regarding the therapeutic effect of two titanium screw fixation for femoral neck fractures]. Zhou Z, Shen Y, Huang S. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2015 Feb
  • Tribocorrosion behavior of beta titanium biomedical alloys in phosphate buffer saline solution. Pina VG, Dalmau A, Devesa F, Amigó V, Muñoz AI. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2015 Feb 26
  • Intermolecular Reductive Coupling of Esters with Benzophenones by Low-valent Titanium: Synthesis of Diarylmethyl ketones Revisited. Kise N, Sakurai T. J Org Chem. 2015 Mar 6.
  • Dependence of capillary forces on relative humidity and the surface properties of femtosecond laser micromachined titanium. Lehr J, Kietzig AM. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2015 Feb 23
  • Performance of Porous Tantalum vs. Titanium Cup in Total Hip Arthroplasty: Randomized Trial with Minimum 10-Year Follow-Up. Wegrzyn J, Kaufman KR, Hanssen AD, Lewallen DG. J Arthroplasty. 2015 Jan 21.
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity. Nalika N, Parvez S. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2015 Mar 16:1-9.
  • The Effect of Taper Angle and Spline Geometry on the Initial Stability of Tapered, Splined Modular Titanium Stems. Pierson JL, Small SR, Rodriguez JA, Kang MN, Glassman AH. J Arthroplasty. 2015 Feb 7.
  • Influence of various superhydrophilic treatments of titanium on the initial attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. Yamamura K, Miura T, Kou I, Muramatsu T, Furusawa M, Yoshinari M. Dent Mater J. 2015 Feb 3
  • Concentration-driven phase control for low temperature synthesis of phase-pure anatase and rutile titanium oxide. Wang Z, Xiao C, Yamada S, Yoshinaga K, Bu XR, Zhang M. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2015 Feb 9
  • Titanium mesh as a low-profile alternative for tension-band augmentation in patella fracture fixation: A biomechanical study. Dickens AJ, Salas C, Rise L, Murray-Krezan C, Taha MR, DeCoster TA, Gehlert RJ. Injury. 2015 Feb 26.
  • Low-Voltage Flexible Organic Electronics Based on High Performance Sol-Gel Titanium Dioxide Dielectric. Sung S, Park S, Lee WJ, Son J, Kim CH, Yoon MH. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2015 Mar 9.
  • Visible light Caffeic acid degradation by carbon-doped titanium dioxide. Venditti F, Cuomo F, Ceglie A, Avino P, Russo MV, Lopez F. Langmuir. 2015 Mar 12.