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About Manganese

Manganese Bohr

Manganese is a hard and brittle paramagnetic metal that oxidizes easily, and is found most commonly as manganese dioxide, a black mineral that historically was known as magnes, magnesia, or magnesia negra, all names derived from the origin of the minerals in the Magnesia region of the area known in modern times as Greece.

The dark color of manganese dioxide lent it to use in pigments, an application with a history dating back to stone age cave paintings. Manganese compounds were also used by glassmakers in ancient Egypt and Rome to tint or decolorize glass, a practice that continued into modern times. Use in glassmaking made manganese dioxide easy to obtain for alchemists and early chemists who used it to produce chlorine-containing bleaching agents and other useful lab reagents. Some of these chemists recognized that the compound contained a new element, but the first to actually isolate manganese metal was Johan Gottlieb Gahn, who accomplished the task in 1774. Spartan steel weapons had an unusually high level of manganese, and though it is debated whether its introduction was purposeful or an accident of working with manganese-rich ores, it is known that this was responsible for the notable hardness of Spartan steel. In the early 19th century, this effect was rediscovered and manganese use in steelmaking became commonplace.

Manganese remains very important in the production of alloys. In steel, manganese can be used in corrosion resistent formulations such as stainless steel, and is also added in order to improve workability and tensile strength. In aluminum alloys, manganese is added primarily to prevent corrosion. Manganese may also be used as a finishing coating on objects made of ferrous metals, deposited through a process called phosphating. Manganese salts are dissolved in a solution of phosphoric acid, and the object to be coated is submerged in the liquid. Magnesium is then deposited in a thin layer on the surface. The coating is useful for providing corrosion resistance, though in modern uses it usually does so in combination with further coating or painting of the surface.

After use in metalworking, the largest use of manganese is in batteries. Manganese dioxide was first used in the Leclanche cell battery design in 1866; versions of this battery powered early telegraphy and signaling devices. The same compound is still used in modern zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.

Other uses of manganese rely on some of its other notable properties. Due to the wide range of possible oxidation states for the element, manganese compounds exhibit a variety of colors. Many of these have historically found use as pigments. Additionally, any manganese compounds are strong oxidizing agents, and have historically been used in organic synthesis and industrial applications. Manganese oxide has been used in glassmaking to oxidize iron contaminants that otherwise lend a green tinge to the final product. Potassium permanganate is used similarly in water treatment to react with and remove iron and hydrogen sulfide contamination, and can also be used as an antiseptic. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl is an organometallic compound used to increase the octane rating of gasoline and reduce engine knocking.

Manganese is a key component of several materials with rare electromagnetic properties that are potentially useful for new technologies. Manganese-based perovskite oxides can exhibit colossal magnetoresistance (CMR)--a change in electrical resistance of the material by orders of magnitude when the material is introduced into a magnetic field. Magnetoresistance is currently exploited in technology such as computer hard drives, but current materials show a much smaller change in resistance than is seen with CMR. Ongoing research into CMR hopes to eventually use it to improve upon current technologies. Manganese can also be a component of magnetic semiconducting materials such as gallium manganese arsenide, that have applications in fields such as spintronics.

Manganese is an essential trace nutrient for all known forms of life because it serves as a cofactor for many essential metabolic enzymes. However, an excess of manganese, particularly in certain forms such as inhaled dusts and fumes, can be toxic.

The primary ore of manganese is pyrolusite, the mineral name of manganese dioxide. This and other manganese ores are leached with sulfuric acid to extract manganese in solution, followed by use of an electrowinning process to produce pure manganese. Alternatively, manganese ores can be mixed with other ores and carbon in a blast furnace to produce ferromanganese or silicomanganese.

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Compounds

Summary. Manganese is a key metal alloy component, particularly in stainless steels. It is used to both colorize and decolorize glass. High Purity (99.999%) Manganese (Mn) Sputtering TargetPermanganate is a powerful oxidizing High Purity (99.999%) Manganese Oxide (MnO) Powderagent that is used in medicine and manganese oxide is used in dry cell batteries. Manganese is also added as a nutritional supplement for both human and animal consumption. Manganese is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Manganese nanoparticles and nanopowders are also available. Manganese oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Manganese fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Manganese is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.


Manganese Properties

Manganese(Mn) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolManganese is a Block D, Group 7, Period 4 element. Manganese Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Manganese's shells is 2, 8, 13, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d5 4s2. The manganese atom has a radius of 136.7.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7439-96-5, manganese has a silvery metallic appearance. Elemental ManganeseManganese is found as a free element in nature and also in the minerals pyrolusite MnO2, braunite (Mn2+Mn3+6)(SiO12), psilomelane (Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10 and rhodochrosite MnCO3. Manganese was first discovered by Torbern Olof Bergman in 1770 and first isolated by Johann Gottlieb Gahn in 1774. The name Manganese originates from the Latin word mangnes meaning magnet.

Symbol: Mn
Atomic Number: 25
Atomic Weight: 54.93805
Element Category: transition metal
Group, Period, Block: 7, 4, d
Color: silvery metallic
Other Names: Manganum, Manganesio, Manganês
Melting Point: 1246 °C, 2275 °F, 1519 K
Boiling Point: 2061 °C, 3742 °F, 2334 K
Density: 7.21 g/cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.95 g/cm3
Density @ 20°C: 7.43 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 7470kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.48 kJ/kg/K
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 14.4
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 220.5
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 279.37
Thermal Conductivity: 7.81 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 21.7 µm·m-1·K-1
Electrical Resistivity: (20°C) 1.44 nΩ·m
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 26.32 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 198 GPa
Shear Modulus: N/A
Bulk Modulus: 120 GPa
Poisson Ratio: N/A
Mohs Hardness: 6
Vickers Hardness: N/A
Brinell Hardness: 196 MPa
Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 5150 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.55
Sanderson Electronegativity: 2.2
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.6
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.45
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 25
Protons: 25
Neutrons: 30
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d5 4s2
Atomic Radius: 127 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
2.05
Covalent Radius: 139±5 (low spin), 161±8 (high spin) pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.29
Van der Waals Radius: 200 pm
Oxidation States: 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) Not stable
1st Ionization Energy: 717.28 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1509.04 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 3248.49 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7439-96-5
EC Number: 231-105-1
MDL Number: MFCD00011111
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Mn]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Mn
InChI Key: PWHULOQIROXLJO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
PubChem CID: 23930
ChemSpider ID: 22372
Earth - Total: 750 ppm 
Mercury - Total: 150 ppm
Venus - Total: 460 ppm
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 2
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.23
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 1100000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 420000
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 10000
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 200
Stream, ppb by weight: 5
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.09
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 2800000
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 920000
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: 200
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: 23
Universe, ppb by weight: 8000
Universe, ppb by atom: 200
Discovered By: Torbern Olof Bergman
Discovery Date: 1770
First Isolation: Johann Gottlieb Gahn (1774)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Manganese

Manganese in excess is toxic, particularly the inhalation of manganese in powder or dust form. Safety data for Manganese and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Manganese.

Safety Data
Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H260
Hazard Codes F
Risk Codes 11-15
Safety Precautions 43
RTECS Number OO9275000
Transport Information UN 3208 4.3/PG 1
WGK Germany nwg
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Flame-Flammables

Manganese Isotopes

Naturally occurring Manganese has 1 stable isotope: 55Mn.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
44Mn 44.00687(54)# <105 ns p to 43Cr (2-)# N/A 321.82 -
45Mn 44.99451(32)# <70 ns p to 44Cr (7/2-)# N/A 341.08 -
46Mn 45.98672(12)# 37(3) ms β+ to 46Cr; β+ + p to 45V; β+ + α to 42Ti; β+ + 2p to 44Ti (4+) N/A 356.61 -
47Mn 46.97610(17)# 100(50) ms β+ to 47Cr; β+ + p to 46V 5/2-# N/A 374.01 -
48Mn 47.96852(12) 158.1(22) ms β+ to 48Cr; β+ + p to 47V; β+ + α to 44Ti 4+ N/A 389.54 -
49Mn 48.959618(26) 382(7) ms p to 49Cr 5/2- N/A 406 -
50Mn 49.9542382(11) 283.29(8) ms p to 50Cr 0+ N/A 418.74 -
51Mn 50.9482108(11) 46.2(1) min EC to 51Cr 5/2- N/A 432.41 -
52Mn 51.9455655(21) 5.591(3) d EC to 52Cr 6+ 3.063 443.28 -
53Mn 52.9412901(9) 3.74(4)E+6 y EC to 53Cr 7/2- 5.024 455.09 -
54Mn 53.9403589(14) 312.03(3) d EC to 54Cr; β- to 54Fe 3+ 3.282 464.1 -
55Mn 54.9380451(7) STABLE - 5/2- 3.4532 474.04 100
56Mn 55.9389049(7) 2.5789(1) h β- to 56Fe 3+ 3.2266 482.12 -
57Mn 56.9382854(20) 85.4(18) s β- to 57Fe 5/2- N/A 490.2 -
58Mn 57.93998(3) 3.0(1) s β- to 58Fe 1+ N/A 497.34 -
59Mn 58.94044(3) 4.59(5) s β- to 59Fe (5/2)- N/A 504.49 -
60Mn 59.94291(9) 51(6) s β- to 60Fe 0+ N/A 510.71 -
61Mn 60.94465(24) 0.67(4) s β- to 61Fe (5/2)- N/A 516.92 -
62Mn 61.94843(24) 671(5) ms β- to 62Fe; β- + n to 61Fe (3+) N/A 521.27 -
63Mn 62.95024(28) 275(4) ms β- to 63Fe 5/2-# N/A 527.49 -
64Mn 63.95425(29) 88.8(25) ms β- to 64Fe; β- + n to 63Fe (1+) N/A 531.84 -
65Mn 64.95634(58) 92(1) ms β- to 65Fe; β- + n to 64Fe 5/2-# N/A 538.06 -
66Mn 65.96108(43)# 64.4(18) ms β- to 66Fe; β- + n to 65Fe N/A N/A 541.48 -
67Mn 66.96414(54)# 45(3) ms β- to 67Fe 5/2-# N/A 546.76 -
68Mn 67.96930(64)# 28(4) ms Unknown N/A N/A 550.18 -
69Mn 68.97284(86)# 14(4) ms Unknown 5/2-# N/A 555.46 -
Manganese Elemental Symbol

Recent Research & Development for Manganese

  • Dapeng Li, Suxiang Ge, Guofu Sun, Qin He, Baojun Huang, Guizhong Tian, Weiyu Lu, Guobao Li, Yunlong Chen, Shengnan An, Zhi Zheng, A novel and green route for solvothermal synthesis of manganese phthalocyanine crystals, Dyes and Pigments, Volume 113, February 2015
  • M. Saleemi, A. Famengo, S. Fiameni, S. Boldrini, S. Battiston, M. Johnsson, M. Muhammed, M.S. Toprak, Thermoelectric performance of higher manganese silicide nanocomposites, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 2015
  • Renheng Wang, Xinhai Li, Zhixing Wang, Huajun Guo, Tao Hou, Guochun Yan, Bin Huang, Lithium carbonate as an electrolyte additive for enhancing the high-temperature performance of lithium manganese oxide spinel cathode, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 618, 5 January 2015
  • Guillaume Bernard-Granger, Mathieu Soulier, Hilaire Ihou-Mouko, Christelle Navone, Mathieu Boidot, Jean Leforestier, Julia Simon, Microstructure investigations and thermoelectrical properties of a P-type polycrystalline higher manganese silicide material sintered from a gas-phase atomized powder, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 618, 5 January 2015
  • Changyong Zhang, Peng Liang, Yong Jiang, Xia Huang, Enhanced power generation of microbial fuel cell using manganese dioxide-coated anode in flow-through mode, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015
  • Ju-Sik Kim, Won-Seok Chang, Ryoung-Hee Kim, Dong-Young Kim, Dong-Wook Han, Kyu-Hyoung Lee, Seok-Soo Lee, Seok-Gwang Doo, High-capacity nanostructured manganese dioxide cathode for rechargeable magnesium ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 273, 1 January 2015
  • K. Illkova, P. Dobroň, F. Chmelík, K.U. Kainer, J. Balík, S. Yi, D. Letzig, J. Bohlen, Effect of aluminium and calcium on the microstructure, texture, plastic deformation and related acoustic emission of extruded magnesium–manganese alloys, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 617, 25 December 2014
  • Prikshit Gautam, Anupama Sachdeva, Sushil K. Singh, R.P. Tandon, Dielectric functions and energy band gap variation studies of manganese doped Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 617, 25 December 2014
  • Byung Chul Kim, C. Justin Raj, Won-Je Cho, Won-Gil Lee, Hyeon Taek Jeong, Kook Hyun Yu, Enhanced electrochemical properties of cobalt doped manganese dioxide nanowires, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 617, 25 December 2014
  • S. Gnanam, V. Rajendran, Novel morphologies, sizes, optical and antibacterial activity of organic acids assisted manganese sesquioxide (α-Mn2O3) nanostructures via precipitation route, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 617, 25 December 2014