Polonium (Po) Elemental Symbol

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Polonium Polonium Polonio Polônio Polonio Polonium

Polonium Bohr ModelPolonium is a Block P, Group 16, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of polonium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 and its electron configuration is [Xe]6s24f145d106p4. The polonium atom has a radius of 168pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 197pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-08-6, polonium has a silvery gray appearance. Polonium was first discovered by Madame Marie Curie and and Pierre Curie in 1898 who extracted it from Pitchblende, a then known uranium source. Polonium is named after Madame Curie's birthplace of Poland. Polonium is produced during the decay of naturally occurring uranium-238. It has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive. Polonium 210 is a radioactive element with a half life of approximately 138.39 days. It occurs naturally and is widely distributed in small amounts in the earth's crust. Polonium's most stable isotope is Polonium 209 with a half life of 102 years. Polonium is now commercially produced by neutron bombardment of bismuth 209 isotopes.

Polonium-210 has been used as a heat source to power thermoelectric cells in satellites. Polonium-210 mixed or alloyed with beryllium is used in neutron sources. Polonium is also used to eliminate static electricity in machinery and to remove dust from camera lenses and film. Polonium is both toxic and radioactive. Polonium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

  • Properties
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Polonium Properties

Symbol: Po Melting Point: 527 K, 254 °C, 489 °F
Atomic Number: 84 Boiling Point: 1235 K, 962 °C, 1764 °F
Atomic Weight: 209 Density: (alpha) 9.196 g·cm−3
Element Category: post-transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 16 (chalcogens), 6, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 120.9 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion a. 13 kJ·mol−1
Electrons: 84 Thermal Conductivity:  ? 20 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 84 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 23.5 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 125 Electrical Resistivity: (0 °C) (α) 0.40 µΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe]6s24f145d106p Electronegativity: 2.0 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 168 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 140±4 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.4 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 197 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 6, 4, 2, −2 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: cubic Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: nonmagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 1st: 812.1 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: N/A Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: N/A
CAS Number: 7440-08-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4886482 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 6328143 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: N/A Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Pierre Curie and Marie Curie
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1898
SMILES Identifier: [Po]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Po Other Names:  

Recent Research & Development for Polonium

    • Emilio Andrea Maugeri, Jörg Neuhausen, Robert Eichler, David Piguet, Tania Melo Mendonça, Thierry Stora, Dorothea Schumann, Thermochromatography study of volatile polonium species in various gas atmospheres, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 450, Issues 1–3, July 2014
    • B. Gonzalez Prieto, J. Van den Bosch, J.A. Martens, J. Neuhausen, A. Aerts, Equilibrium evaporation of trace polonium from liquid lead–bismuth eutectic at high temperature, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 450, Issues 1–3, July 2014
    • Matthias Rizzi, Jörg Neuhausen, Robert Eichler, Andreas Türler, Tania Melo Mendonça, Thierry Stora, Borja Gonzalez Prieto, Alexander Aerts, Dorothea Schumann, Polonium evaporation from dilute liquid metal solutions, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 450, Issues 1–3, July 2014
    • L. Macklin Rani, R.K. Jeevanram, V. Kannan, M. Govindaraju, Estimation of Polonium-210 activity in marine and terrestrial samples and computation of ingestion dose to the public in and around Kanyakumari coast, India, Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Volume 7, Issue 2, April 2014
    • R. Szczesniak, A.P. Durajski, P.W. Pach, Superconductivity in at the reduced volume, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Volume 75, Issue 2, February 2014
    • , Arafat's bones could reveal polonium poisoning, New Scientist, Volume 216, Issue 2893, 1 December 2012
    • S. Heinitz, J. Neuhausen, D. Schumann, Alkaline extraction of polonium from liquid lead bismuth eutectic, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 414, Issue 2, 15 July 2011
    • A. Belabbes, A. Zaoui, M. Ferhat, Strong phonon anomalies and Fermi surface nesting of simple cubic Polonium, Solid State Communications, Volume 150, Issues 47–48, December 2010
    • Guo-Hua Wei, Jin Yang, Ying-Ying Liu, Jian-Fang Ma, Ji-Cheng Ma, A novel Zn(II) framework with 3-fold interpenetrating a-polonium topology, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 12, Issue 5, May 2009
    • Thomas E. Cocolios, Bruce A. Marsh, Valentine N. Fedosseev, Serge Franchoo, Gerhard Huber, Mark Huyse, Alexandra M. Ionan, Karl Johnston, Ulli Köster, Yuri Kudryavtsev, Maxim Seliverstov, Etam Noah, Thierry Stora, Piet Van Duppen, Resonant laser ionization of polonium at rilis-isolde for the study of ground- and isomer-state properties, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 266, Issues 19–20, October 2008

Polonium Isotopes

Polonium (Po) has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
188Po 187.999422 430(180) µs [0.40(+20-15) ms] 0+
189Po 188.998481 5(1) ms 3/2-
190Po 189.995101 2.46(5) ms 0+
191Po 190.994574 22(1) ms 3/2-
192Po 191.991335 32.2(3) ms 0+
193Po 192.991030 420(40) ms [370(+46-40) ms] 3/2-
194Po 193.988186 0.392(4) s 0+
195Po 194.988110 4.64(9) s 13/2+
196Po 195.985535 5.56(12) s 0+
197Po 196.985660 53.6(10) s 3/2-
198Po 197.983389 1.77(3) min 0+
199Po 198.983666 5.48(16) min 3/2-
200Po 199.981799 11.5(1) min 0+
201Po 200.982260 15.3(2) min 3/2-
202Po 201.980758 44.7(5) min 0+
203Po 202.981420 36.7(5) min 5/2-
204Po 203.980318 3.53(2) h 0+
205Po 204.981203 1.66(2) h 5/2-
206Po 205.980481 8.8(1) d 0+
207Po 206.981593 5.80(2) h 5/2-
208Po 207.9812457 2.898(2) a 0+
209Po 208.9824304 102(5) a 1/2-
210Po 209.9828737 138.376(2) d 0+
211Po 210.9866532 0.516(3) s 9/2+
212Po 211.9888680 299(2) ns 0+
213Po 212.992857 3.65(4) µs 9/2+
214Po 213.9952014 164.3(20) µs 0+
215Po 214.9994200 1.781(4) ms 9/2+
216Po 216.0019150 0.145(2) s 0+
217Po 217.006335 1.47(5) s 5/2+
218Po 218.0089730 3.10(1) min 0+
219Po 219.01374 >300 ns 7/2+
220Po 220.01660 >300 ns 0+