Germanium (Ge) Elemental Symbol
Germanium



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Germanium Germanium Germanio Germânio Germanio Germanium

Germanium(Ge) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolGermanium is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. Germanium Bohr ModelThe germanium atom has a radius of 122.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 211.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-56, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi-metallic element. Germanium is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in its native state. It is commercially obtained from zinc High Purity (99.999%) Germanium (Ge) Metal ores and certain coals. It is also found in argyrodite and germanite. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. The name Germanium originates from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany".

Germanium is a very important semiconductor and is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors. High Purity (99.99%) Germanium (Ge) Sputtering TargetThe high refractive index and dispersion properties of its oxides have made germanium useful as a component of wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives. Elemental or metallic forms of Germanium include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.High Purity (99.999%) Germanium Oxide (Ge2O) Powder Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Germanium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Germanium is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for Germanium metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific Germanium material or compound referenced in the “Germanium Products” tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
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  • Research
  • Isotopes
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Germanium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Ge Melting Point: 1211.40 K, 938.25 °C, 1720.85 °F
Atomic Number: 32 Boiling Point: 3106 K, 2833 °C, 5131 °F
Atomic Weight: 72.63 Density: 5.323 g·cm−3
Element Category: metalloid Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.60 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 14, 4, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 327.6 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 34.7 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 32 Thermal Conductivity: 60.2 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 32 Thermal Expansion: 6.0 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 41 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 1 Ω·m
Electron Configuration: Ar 3d10 4s2 4p2 2, 8, 18, 4 Electronegativity: 2.01 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 122 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 122 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 23.222 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 211 pm Young's Modulus: 103 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4 Shear Modulus: 41 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 75 GPa
Crystal Structure: diamond cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.26
Magnetic Ordering: Diamagnetic[ Mohs Hardness: 6.0
1st Ionization Energy: 762.18 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1537.47 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 3302.15 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 5400 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-56-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4885606 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 6326954 Abundance in universe, by weight: 200 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00085310 Abundance in universe, by atom: 3 ppb
EC Number: 231-164-3 Discovered By: Clemens Winkler
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1886
SMILES Identifier: [Ge]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ge Other Names: N/A
InChI Key: GNPVGFCGXDBREM-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Germanium Products


Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Germanium

  • Halometallate Complexes of Germanium(II) and (IV): Probing the Role of Cation, Oxidation State and Halide on the Structural and Electrochemical Properties. Bartlett PN, Cummings CY, Levason W, Pugh D, Reid G. Chemistry. 2014.
  • A Single-Step Reaction for Silicon and Germanium Nanorods. Lu X, Korgel BA. Chemistry. 2014.
  • New oligogermane with a five coordinate germanium atom: the preparation of 1-germylgermatrane. Zaitsev KV, Churakov AV, Poleshchuk OK, Oprunenko YF, Zaitseva GS, Karlov SS. Dalton Trans. 2014.
  • Direct Observation of Metal-Insulator Transition in Single-Crystalline Germanium Telluride Nanowire Memory Devices Prior to Amorphization. Nukala P, Agarwal R, Qian X, Jang MH, Dhara S, Kumar K, Johnson AT, Li J, Agarwal R. Nano Lett. 2014.
  • Strained-Germanium Nanostructures for Infrared Photonics. Boztug C, Sánchez-Pérez JR, Cavallo F, Lagally MG, Paiella R. ACS Nano. 2014.
  • Enhanced Device Performance of Germanium Nanowire Junctionless (GeNW-JL) MOSFETs by Germanide Contact Formation with Ar Plasma Treatment. Yoon YG, Kim TK, Hwang IC, Lee HS, Hwang BW, Moon JM, Seo YJ, Lee SW, Jo MH, Lee SH. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014.
  • Reliability Enhancement of Germanium Nanowires Using Graphene as a Protective Layer: Aspect of Thermal Stability. Lee JH, Choi SH, Patole SP, Jang Y, Heo K, Joo WJ, Yoo JB, Hwang SW, Whang D. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014
  • Tailoring nanostructures in micrometer size germanium particles to improve their performance as an anode for lithium ion batteries. Ke FS, Mishra K, Jamison L, Peng XX, Ma SG, Huang L, Sun SG, Zhou XD. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014
  • Silicon-based silicon-germanium-tin heterostructure photonics. Soref R. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014
  • High Performance Germanium Nanowire based Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Extending over 1000 Cycles Through In-situ Formation of a Continuous Porous Network. Nano Lett. 2014 | first author:Kennedy T
  • A functionalized Ge3-compound with a dual character of the central germanium atom. Li Y, Mondal KC, Lübben J, Zhu H, Dittrich B, Purushothaman I, Parameswaran P, Roesky HW. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014
  • Colloidal Tin-Germanium Nanorods and Their Li-Ion Storage Properties. Bodnarchuk MI, Kravchyk KV, Krumeich F, Wang S, Kovalenko MV. ACS Nano. 2014 Feb.
  • Enhanced Device Performance of Germanium Nanowire Junctionless (GeNW-JL) MOSFETs by Germanide Contact Formation with Ar Plasma Treatment. Yoon YG, Kim TK, Hwang IC, Lee HS, Hwang BW, Moon JM, Seo YJ, Lee SW, Jo MH, Lee SH. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014
  • Stable divalent germanium, tin and lead amino(ether)-phenolate monomeric complexes: structural features, inclusion heterobimetallic complexes, and ROP catalysis. Wang L, RoÅŸca SC, Poirier V, Sinbandhit S, Dorcet V, Roisnel T, Carpentier JF, Sarazin Y. Dalton Trans. 2014
  • Silicon-Germanium Nanowires: Chemistry and Physics in Play, from Basic Principles to Advanced Applications. Chem Rev. 2013 create date:2013/11/26 | first author:Amato M
  • Low Coordinate Germanium(II) and Tin(II) Hydride Complexes: Efficient Catalysts for the Hydroboration of Carbonyl Compounds. Hadlington TJ, Hermann M, Frenking G, Jones C. J Am Chem Soc. 2014
  • High-Performance Germanium Nanowire-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Extending over 1000 Cycles Through in Situ Formation of a Continuous Porous Network. Kennedy T, Mullane E, Geaney H, Osiak M, O'Dwyer C, Ryan KM. Nano Lett. 2014
  • Enhanced reversible lithium storage in germanium nano-island coated 3D hexagonal bottle-like Si nanorod arrays. Nanoscale. 2013 create date:2013/12/21 | first author:Yue C
  • Room-temperature epitaxial electrodeposition of single-crystalline germanium nanowires at the wafer scale from an aqueous solution. Fahrenkrug E, Gu J, Jeon S, Veneman PA, Goldman RS, Maldonado S. Nano Lett. 2014
  • Aqueous solution synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-germanium nanoparticles and their electrical property testing. Yin H, Luo J, Yang P. Nanoscale Res Lett.

Germanium Isotopes


Germanium (Ge) has five naturally occurring isotopes, 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
70Ge 69.9242474 Stable 0+
72Ge 71.9220758 Stable 0+
73Ge 72.9234589 Stable 9/2+
74Ge 73.9211778 Stable 0+
76Ge 70.9247013 1.78(8)×1021 a 0+