Germanium (Ge) Elemental Symbol
Germanium



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Germanium(Ge) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolGermanium is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. Germanium Bohr ModelThe germanium atom has a radius of 122.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 211.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-56, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi-metallic element. Germanium is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in its native state. It is commercially obtained from zinc High Purity (99.999%) Germanium (Ge) Metal ores and certain coals. It is also found in argyrodite and germanite. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. The name Germanium originates from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany".

Germanium is a very important semiconductor and is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors. High Purity (99.99%) Germanium (Ge) Sputtering TargetThe high refractive index and dispersion properties of its oxides have made germanium useful as a component of wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives. Elemental or metallic forms of Germanium include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.High Purity (99.999%) Germanium Oxide (Ge2O) Powder Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Germanium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Germanium is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for Germanium metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific Germanium material or compound referenced in the “Germanium Products” tab below.


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Germanium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Ge Melting Point: 1211.40 K, 938.25 °C, 1720.85 °F
Atomic Number: 32 Boiling Point: 3106 K, 2833 °C, 5131 °F
Atomic Weight: 72.63 Density: 5.323 g·cm−3
Element Category: metalloid Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.60 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 14, 4, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 327.6 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 34.7 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 32 Thermal Conductivity: 60.2 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 32 Thermal Expansion: 6.0 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 41 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 1 Ω·m
Electron Configuration: Ar 3d10 4s2 4p2 2, 8, 18, 4 Electronegativity: 2.01 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 122 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 122 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 23.222 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 211 pm Young's Modulus: 103 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4 Shear Modulus: 41 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 75 GPa
Crystal Structure: diamond cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.26
Magnetic Ordering: Diamagnetic[ Mohs Hardness: 6.0
1st Ionization Energy: 762.18 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1537.47 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 3302.15 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 5400 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-56-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4885606 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 6326954 Abundance in universe, by weight: 200 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00085310 Abundance in universe, by atom: 3 ppb
EC Number: 231-164-3 Discovered By: Clemens Winkler
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1886
SMILES Identifier: [Ge]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ge Other Names: N/A
InChI Key: GNPVGFCGXDBREM-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Germanium Products


Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Germanium

  • Y.Y. Du, B.J. Chen, E.Y.B. Pun, Z.Q. Wang, X. Zhao, H. Lin, Silver nanoparticles enhanced multichannel transition luminescence of Pr3+ in heavy metal germanium tellurite glasses, Optics Communications, Volume 334, 1 January 2015
  • Zhibo Yang, Shuai Bai, Hongwei Yue, Xiuwan Li, Dequan Liu, Shumei Lin, Fei Li, Deyan He, Germanium anode with lithiated-copper-oxide nanorods as an electronic-conductor for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, Materials Letters, Volume 136, 1 December 2014
  • Dong-Ho Kang, Jin-Hong Park, Indium (In)- and tin (Sn)-based metal induced crystallization (MIC) on amorphous germanium (α-Ge), Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 60, December 2014
  • Tobias Rosenthal, Simon Welzmiller, Lukas Neudert, Philipp Urban, Andy Fitch, Oliver Oeckler, Novel superstructure of the rocksalt type and element distribution in germanium tin antimony tellurides, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 219, November 2014
  • Qi-Jun Liu, Zheng-Tang Liu, Structural, elastic, and mechanical properties of germanium dioxide from first-principles calculations, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • L. de los Santos Valladares, A. Bustamante Dominguez, J. Llandro, S. Holmes, O. Avalos Quispe, R. Langford, J. Albino Aguiar, C.H.W. Barnes, Surface morphology of amorphous germanium thin films following thermal outgassing of SiO2/Si substrates, Applied Surface Science, Volume 316, 15 October 2014
  • Qi Cai, Baojian Xu, Lin Ye, Teng Tang, Shanluo Huang, Xiaowei Du, Xiaojun Bian, Jishen Zhang, Zengfeng Di, Qinghui Jin, Jianlong Zhao, Stable functionalization of germanium surface and its application in biomolecules immobilization, Applied Surface Science, Volume 316, 15 October 2014
  • S.M. Salman, S.N. Salama, H.A. Abo-Mosallam, The effect of aluminum and germanium oxides on the crystallization process and magnetic properties of Li2O–Fe2O3–SiO2 glass system, Ceramics International, Available online 3 October 2014
  • Milan Kr. Barman, Ashim Baishya, Thota Peddarao, Sharanappa Nembenna, Guanidinate stabilized germanium(II) and tin(II) amide complexes and their catalytic activity for aryl isocyanate cyclization, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Available online 2 October 2014
  • Chia-Yun Chou, Gyeong S. Hwang, On the origin of anisotropic lithiation in crystalline silicon over germanium: A first principles study, Applied Surface Science, Available online 1 October 2014

Germanium Isotopes


Germanium (Ge) has five naturally occurring isotopes, 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
70Ge 69.9242474 Stable 0+
72Ge 71.9220758 Stable 0+
73Ge 72.9234589 Stable 9/2+
74Ge 73.9211778 Stable 0+
76Ge 70.9247013 1.78(8)×1021 a 0+