Germanium (Ge) Elemental Symbol
Germanium



French German Italian Portuguese Spanish Swedish
Germanium Germanium Germanio Germânio Germanio Germanium

Germanium(Ge) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolGermanium is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. Germanium Bohr ModelThe germanium atom has a radius of 122.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 211.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-56, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi-metallic element. Germanium is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in its native state. It is commercially obtained from zinc High Purity (99.999%) Germanium (Ge) Metal ores and certain coals. It is also found in argyrodite and germanite. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. The name Germanium originates from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany".

Germanium is a very important semiconductor and is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors. High Purity (99.99%) Germanium (Ge) Sputtering TargetThe high refractive index and dispersion properties of its oxides have made germanium useful as a component of wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives. Elemental or metallic forms of Germanium include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.High Purity (99.999%) Germanium Oxide (Ge2O) Powder Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Germanium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Germanium is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for Germanium metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific Germanium material or compound referenced in the “Germanium Products” tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Germanium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Ge Melting Point: 1211.40 K, 938.25 °C, 1720.85 °F
Atomic Number: 32 Boiling Point: 3106 K, 2833 °C, 5131 °F
Atomic Weight: 72.63 Density: 5.323 g·cm−3
Element Category: metalloid Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.60 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 14, 4, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 327.6 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 34.7 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 32 Thermal Conductivity: 60.2 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 32 Thermal Expansion: 6.0 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 41 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 1 Ω·m
Electron Configuration: Ar 3d10 4s2 4p2 2, 8, 18, 4 Electronegativity: 2.01 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 122 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 122 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 23.222 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 211 pm Young's Modulus: 103 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4 Shear Modulus: 41 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 75 GPa
Crystal Structure: diamond cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.26
Magnetic Ordering: Diamagnetic[ Mohs Hardness: 6.0
1st Ionization Energy: 762.18 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1537.47 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 3302.15 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 5400 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-56-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4885606 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 6326954 Abundance in universe, by weight: 200 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00085310 Abundance in universe, by atom: 3 ppb
EC Number: 231-164-3 Discovered By: Clemens Winkler
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1886
SMILES Identifier: [Ge]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ge Other Names: N/A
InChI Key: GNPVGFCGXDBREM-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Germanium Products


Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Germanium

  • Chia-Yun Chou, Gyeong S. Hwang, On the origin of the significant difference in lithiation behavior between silicon and germanium, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • Siwen Zhang, Bosi Yin, Yang Jiao, Yang Liu, Xu Zhang, Fengyu Qu, Ahmad Umar, Xiang Wu, Ultra-long germanium oxide nanowires: Structures and optical properties, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 606, 5 September 2014
  • M.E. Koleva, M. Dutta, N. Fukata, SERS substrates of doped germanium nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles, Materials Science and Engineering: B, Volume 187, September 2014
  • Rene Feder, Carsten Bundesmann, Horst Neumann, Bernd Rauschenbach, Ion beam sputtering of germanium – Energy and angular distribution of sputtered and scattered particles, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 334, 1 September 2014
  • Bofei Liu, Lisha Bai, Xiaodan Zhang, Dekun Zhang, Changchun Wei, Jian Sun, Qian Huang, Xinliang Chen, Jian Ni, Guangcai Wang, Ying Zhao, Light management in hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 128, September 2014
  • Debasree Chowdhury, Debabrata Ghose, Safiul Alam Mollick, Homoepitaxy of germanium by hyperthermal ion irradiation, Vacuum, Volume 107, September 2014
  • S.A. Mazen, N.I. Abu-Elsaad, Characterization and magnetic investigations of germanium-doped lithium ferrite, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 7, Part B, August 2014
  • Stefan Stefanov, Carmen Serra, Alessandro Benedetti, Jorge Carlos Conde, Jens Werner, Michael Oehme, Jörg Schulze, Stephan Wirths, Dan Buca, Stefano Chiussi, Structure and composition of Silicon–Germanium–Tin microstructures obtained through Mask Projection assisted Pulsed Laser Induced Epitaxy, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 125, 1 August 2014
  • S. Richter, S. Blaeser, L. Knoll, S. Trellenkamp, A. Fox, A. Schäfer, J.M. Hartmann, Q.T. Zhao, S. Mantl, Silicon–germanium nanowire tunnel-FETs with homo- and heterostructure tunnel junctions, Solid-State Electronics, Volume 98, August 2014
  • Johann Hlina, Rainer Zitz, Harald Wagner, Filippo Stella, Judith Baumgartner, Christoph Marschner, s-Bond Electron Delocalization of Branched Oligogermanes and Germanium Containing Oligosilanes, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Available online 14 July 2014
  • Minghuan Zhang, Rongsheng Cai, Yujuan Zhang, Chao Wang, Yiqian Wang, Guy G. Ross, David Barba, Evolution of microstructural defects with strain effects in germanium nanocrystals synthesized at different annealing temperatures, Materials Characterization, Volume 93, July 2014
  • Jian Ni, Qun Liu, JianJun Zhang, Jun Ma, Hao Wang, XiaoDan Zhang, Ying Zhao, Microcrystalline silicon–germanium solar cells with spectral sensitivities extending into 1300 nm, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 126, July 2014
  • Rahmat Agung Susantyoko, Xinghui Wang, Leimeng Sun, Kin Leong Pey, Eugene Fitzgerald, Qing Zhang, Germanium coated vertically-aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes as lithium-ion battery anodes, Carbon, Available online 1 June 2014
  • V.A.G. Rivera, Y. Ledemi, M. El-Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, E. Marega Jr., Green-to-red light tuning by up-conversion emission via energy transfer in Er3 +–Tm3 +-codoped germanium–tellurite glasses, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volumes 392–393, 1 June 2014
  • Naoto Shirahata, Solution-processable white-light-emitting germanium nanocrystals, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 214, June 2014
  • A. Bablich, C. Merfort, J. Eliasz, H. Schäfer-Eberwein, P. Haring-Bolivar, M. Boehm, Amorphous silicon germanium carbide photo sensitive bipolar junction transistor with a base-contact and a continuous tunable high current gain, Thin Solid Films, Volume 558, 2 May 2014
  • Chen Wang, Cheng Li, Shihao Huang, Weifang Lu, Guangming Yan, Maotian Zhang, Huanda Wu, Guangyang Lin, Jiangbin Wei, Wei Huang, Hongkai Lai, Songyan Chen, Phosphorus diffusion in germanium following implantation and excimer laser annealing, Applied Surface Science, Volume 300, 1 May 2014
  • N.R. Murphy, J.T. Grant, L. Sun, J.G. Jones, R. Jakubiak, V. Shutthanandan, C.V. Ramana, Correlation between optical properties and chemical composition of sputter-deposited germanium oxide (GeOx) films, Optical Materials, Volume 36, Issue 7, May 2014
  • T.F. Wietler, J. Schmidt, D. Tetzlaff, E. Bugiel, Surfactant-mediated epitaxy of silicon germanium films on silicon (001) substrates, Thin Solid Films, Volume 557, 30 April 2014
  • Minsoo Kim, Younghyun Kim, Masafumi Yokoyama, Ryosho Nakane, SangHyeon Kim, Mitsuru Takenaka, Shinichi Takagi, Tunnel field-effect transistors with germanium/strained-silicon hetero-junctions for low power applications, Thin Solid Films, Volume 557, 30 April 2014

Germanium Isotopes


Germanium (Ge) has five naturally occurring isotopes, 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
70Ge 69.9242474 Stable 0+
72Ge 71.9220758 Stable 0+
73Ge 72.9234589 Stable 9/2+
74Ge 73.9211778 Stable 0+
76Ge 70.9247013 1.78(8)×1021 a 0+