Germanium is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. The germanium atom has a radius of 122.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 211.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-56, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi-metallic element. Germanium is too reactive to be found naturally on Earth in its native state. It is commercially obtained from zinc ores and certain coals. It is also found in argyrodite and germanite. Germanium was first discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886. The name Germanium originates from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany".
Germanium is a very important semiconductor and is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst. Germanium and germanium oxide are transparent to the infrared and are used in infrared spectroscopes and other optical equipment, including extremely sensitive infrared detectors. The high refractive index and dispersion properties of its oxides have made germanium useful as a component of wide-angle camera lenses and microscope objectives. Elemental or metallic forms of Germanium include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Germanium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.
Germanium is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for Germanium metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific Germanium material or compound referenced in the “Germanium Products” tab below.
- Safety Data
- Other Elements
|GENERAL PROPERTIES||PHYSICAL PROPERTIES|
|Symbol:||Ge||Melting Point:||1211.40 K, 938.25 °C, 1720.85 °F|
|Atomic Number:||32||Boiling Point:||3106 K, 2833 °C, 5131 °F|
|Atomic Weight:||72.63||Density:||5.323 g·cm−3|
|Element Category:||metalloid||Liquid Density @ Melting Point:||5.60 g·cm−3|
|Group, Period, Block:||14, 4, p||Specific Heat:||N/A|
|Heat of Vaporization||327.6 kJ mol-1|
|CHEMICAL STRUCTURE||Heat of Fusion||34.7 kJ mol-1|
|Electrons:||32||Thermal Conductivity:||60.2 W·m−1·K−1|
|Protons:||32||Thermal Expansion:||6.0 µm/(m·K)|
|Neutrons:||41||Electrical Resistivity:||(20 °C) 1 Ω·m|
|Electron Configuration:||Ar 3d10 4s2 4p2 2, 8, 18, 4||Electronegativity:||2.01 (Pauling scale)|
|Atomic Radius:||122 pm||Tensile Strength:||N/A|
|Covalent Radius:||122 pm||Molar Heat Capacity:||23.222 J·mol−1·K−1|
|Van der Waals radius:||211 pm||Young's Modulus:||103 GPa|
|Oxidation States:||4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4||Shear Modulus:||41 GPa|
|Phase:||Solid||Bulk Modulus:||75 GPa|
|Crystal Structure:||diamond cubic||Poisson Ratio:||0.26|
|Magnetic Ordering:||Diamagnetic[||Mohs Hardness:||6.0|
|1st Ionization Energy:||762.18 kJ mol-1||Vickers Hardness:||N/A|
|2nd Ionization Energy:||1537.47 kJ mol-1||Brinell Hardness:||N/A|
|3rd Ionization Energy:||3302.15 kJ mol-1||Speed of Sound:||(20 °C) 5400 m·s−1|
|CAS Number:||7440-56-4||Abundance in typical human body, by weight:||N/A|
|ChemSpider ID:||4885606||Abundance in typical human body, by atom:||N/A|
|PubChem CID:||6326954||Abundance in universe, by weight:||200 ppb|
|MDL Number:||MFCD00085310||Abundance in universe, by atom:||3 ppb|
|EC Number:||231-164-3||Discovered By:||Clemens Winkler|
|Beilstein Number:||N/A||Discovery Date:||1886|
|InChI Identifier:||InChI=1S/Ge||Other Names:||N/A|
Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Germanium
|Material Safety Data Sheet||MSDS|
|Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Germanium Cz Growth Seeds
Bismuth Germanium Oxide
Digermane - Ge2H6
Germane - GeH4
Germane 10% in Hydrogen
Germanium Acetate Solution
Germanium(II) Bromide GeBr2
Germanium(IV) Bromide GeBr4
Germanium(II) Chloride GeCl2
Germanium(IV) Chloride GeCl4
Germanium Chloride Solution
Germanium(II) Iodide GeI2e
Germanium(IV) Iodide GeI4
Lithium Germanium Oxide
Pentagermane - Ge5H12
Tetragermane - Ge4H10
Trigermane - Ge3H8
Germanium Chloride Dioxane Complex
Gadolinium Silicon Germanium Alloy
Germanium Gold Metal
Zinc Germanium Phosphorus Granules
Zinc Germanium Phosphorus Powder
Zinc Germanium Phosphorus Lump
Germanium Oxide Nanopowder
Germanium Oxide Particles
Germanium Oxide Pellets
Germanium Oxide Pieces
Germanium Oxide Powder
Germanium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Germanium Oxide Shot
Germanium Oxide Sputtering Target
Copper Germanium Sputtering Target
Germanium Antimony Sputtering Target
Germanium Nitride Sputtering Target
Germanium Oxide Sputtering Target
Germanium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Germanium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Germanium Selenide Sputtering Target
Germanium Sputtering Target
Germanium Sulfide Sputtering Target
Germanium Telluride Sputtering Target
GeSbTe Sputtering Target
Gold Germanium Sputtering Target
Germanium Cz Growth Seeds
Germanium(II) Sulfide GeS
Germanium(IV) Sulfide GeS2
Germanium Oxide Nanopowder
Recent Research & Development for Germanium
- Replacing Tin in Lactide Polymerization: Design of Highly Active Germanium-Based Catalysts. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 create date:2013/11/28 | first author:Guo J
- Silicon-Germanium Nanowires: Chemistry and Physics in Play, from Basic Principles to Advanced Applications. Chem Rev. 2013 create date:2013/11/26 | first author:Amato M
- Synthesis and structure of the azidogermyliumylidene azide complex [L(N(3))Ge:](+)N(3)(-) with covalently and ionically bonded azide ligands at germanium(ii) [L = bis(N-heterocyclic carbene)]. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 create date:2013/11/21 | first author:Xiong Y
- Aqueous solution synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-germanium nanoparticles and their electrical property testing. Yin H, Luo J, Yang P. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2013 Oct 1
- A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25â€…Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects. Sci Rep. 2013 create date:2013/11/16 | first author:Tseng CK
BaTiO3 Integration with Nanostructured Epitaxial (100), (110), and (111) Germanium for
- Multifunctional Devices. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 create date:2013/10/19 | first author:Hudait MK
- Phosphorus Molecules on Ge(001): A Playground for Controlled n-Doping of Germanium at High Densities. ACS Nano. 2013 create date:2013/11/15 | first author:Mattoni G
- Performance improvement of transparent germanium-gallium-sulfur glass ceramic by gold doping for third-order optical nonlinearities. Chen F, Dai S, Lin C, Yu Q, Zhang Q. Opt Express. 2013 Oct 21
- Why compete when you can share? Competitive reactivity of germanium and phosphorus with selenium. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 create date:2013/09/26 | first author:Tam EC
- Quasi-resonant neutralization of He+ ions at a germanium surface. Goebl D, Roth D, Primetzhofer D, Monreal RC, Abad E, Putz A, Bauer P. J Phys Condens Matter. 2013 Nov 7.
- Tetragonal Phase Germanium Nanocrystals in Lithium Ion Batteries. Cho YJ, Im HS, Kim HS, Myung Y, Back SH, Lim YR, Jung CS, Jang DM, Park J, Cha EH, Cho WI, Shojaei F, Kang HS. ACS Nano. 2013 Sep 12.
- Near-field effect in the infrared range through periodic Germanium subwavelength arrays. Dong W, Hirohata T, Nakajima K, Wang X. Opt Express. 2013 Nov 4.
- BaTiO3 Integration with Nanostructured Epitaxial (100), (110), and (111) Germanium for Multifunctional Devices. Hudait MK, Zhu Y, Jain N, Maurya D, Zhou Y, Varghese R, Priya S. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 Nov 1.
- Why compete when you can share? Competitive reactivity of germanium and phosphorus with selenium. Tam EC, Harris LM, Borren ES, Smith JD, Lein M, Coles MP, Fulton JR. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 Sep 24.
- Tetragonal phase germanium nanocrystals in lithium ion batteries. Cho YJ, Im HS, Kim HS, Myung Y, Back SH, Lim YR, Jung CS, Jang DM, Park J, Cha EH, Cho WI, Shojaei F, Kang HS. ACS Nano. 2013 Oct 22.
- BaTiO3 Integration with Nanostructured Epitaxial (100), (110) and (111) Germanium for Multifunctional Devices. Hudait MK, Zhu Y, Jain N, Maurya D, Zhou Y, Varghese R, Priya S. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 Oct 17.
- A new reaction mode of germanium-silicon bond formation: insertion reactions of H2GeLiF with SiH 3 X (X?=?F, Cl, Br). Yan B, Li W, Xiao C, Li Q, Cheng J. J Mol Model. 2013 Aug 16.
- Measurement of the quantum conductance of germanium by an electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope break junction based on a jump-to-contact mechanism. Xie X, Yan J, Liang J, Li J, Zhang M, Mao B. Chem Asian J. 2013 Oct.
- A new reaction mode of germanium-silicon bond formation: insertion reactions of H2GeLiF with SiH 3X (X?=?F, Cl, Br). Yan B, Li W, Xiao C, Li Q, Cheng J. J Mol Model. 2013 Oct.
- Monolayer graphene/germanium Schottky junction as high-performance self-driven infrared light photodetector. Zeng L, Wang M, Hu H, Nie B, Yu Y, Wu CY, Wang L, Hu JG, Xie C, Liang FX, Luo L. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 Sep 16.
Germanium (Ge) has five naturally occurring isotopes, 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, and 76Ge.
|Nuclide Symbol||Isotopic Mass||Half-Life||Nuclear Spin|