Gallium (Ga) Elemental Symbol

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Gallium Gallium Gallio Gálio Galio Gallium

Gallium (Ga) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolGallium is a Block P, Group 13, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Gallium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 3 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1. The gallium atom has a radius of and it's Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7440-55-3, gallium has a silvery appearance. Gallium Bohr ModelGallium is one of three elements that occur naturally as a liquid at room temperature. Elemental GalliumThe other two are mercury and cesium. Gallium does not exist by itself in nature and is sourced commercially from bauxite and sphalerite. Gallium was first discovered by Hans Christian Oersted in 1825. The element name originates from the Latin word 'Gallia', the old name of France and the word 'Gallus' meaning rooster. Gallium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity (99.999%) Gallium (Ga) Sputtering TargetGallium has received much attention in relation to its application in the production of semiconducting compounds. Of these, the most important are the compounds of gallium with antimony, arsenic or phosphor. Gallium arsenide (Ga-As) is used in the production of diodes and transistors for voltage rectification and signal amplification. Other Gallium Arsenide applications include semiconductor "lasing" and microwave generation.Gallium is also used in sensors to measure temperature, light or magnetic field. High Purity (99.999%) Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) Powder Elemental or metallic forms of Gallium include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for use as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Gallium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Gallium is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for Gallium metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific Gallium material or compound referenced in the “Gallium Products” tab below.

  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Gallium Properties

Symbol: Ga Melting Point: 29.765 oC, 85.576 oF, 302.915 K
Atomic Number: 31 Boiling Point: 2229 oC, 4044.2 oF, 2502.15 K
Atomic Weight: 69.723 Density: 5.91 g·cm−3
Element Category: post-transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.095 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 13, 4, p Specific Heat: 0.372 @20°C J/g mol
    Heat of Vaporization 270.3 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 5.59 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 31 Thermal Conductivity: 40.6 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 31 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 18 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 39 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 270 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d104s24p1 Electronegativity: 1.81 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 135 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 122±3 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.86 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 187 pm Young's Modulus: 9.8 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: orthorhombic Poisson Ratio: 0.47
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 1.5
1st Ionization Energy: 578.85 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1979.33 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 60 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2963.09 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2740 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7440-55-3 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4514603 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23981 Abundance in universe, by weight: 10 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134045 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.2 ppb
EC Number: 231-163-8 Discovered By: Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1875
SMILES Identifier: [Ga]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ga Other Names:  

Gallium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Aluminum Gallium Arsenide
Aluminum Gallium Phosphide
Chromium, Erbium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Particles
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Powder
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Single Crystal
Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur Selenide Powder
Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Sulfur Granule
Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Sulfur Powder
Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Sulfur Lump
Gadolinium Gallium Garnet-GGG
Gadolinium Gallium Oxide
Gallium Aluminum Arsenide Granules
Gallium Aluminum Arsenide Powder
Gallium Aluminum Arsenide Lump
Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Granules
Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Powder
Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Lump
Gallium Antimonide
Gallium Antimonide Single Crystal Substrate
Gallium Antimonide Wafer
Gallium Arsenide
Gallium Arsenide Single Crystal Substrate
Gallium Arsenide Wafer
Gallium Arsenide Windows
Gallium Indium Arsenide
Gallium Indium Antimonide
Gallium Indium Eutectic
Gallium Lanthanum Sulfide
Gallium Nitride
Gallium Nitride Wafer
Gallium Phosphide
Gallium Phosphide (By Crystallization)
Gallium Phosphide Single Crystal Substrate
Gallium(III) Selenide Ga2Se3
Gallium(II) Selenide GaSe
Gallium Selenide Crystal
Gallium Selenide Single Crystal
Gallium(II) Sulfide GaS
Gallium(III) Sulfide Ga2S3
Gallium(II) Telluride GaTe
Gallium(III) Telluride Ga2Te3
Gallium doped Zinc Oxide (GZO)
Indium Gallium Nitride
Indium Gallium Arsenide Granules
Indium Gallium Arsenide Lump
Indium Gallium Arsenide Powder
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenide Granules
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenide Powder
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenide Lump
Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO)
Silver Gallium Selenide
Silver Gallium Sulfide
Terbium Gallium Garnet


Nickel Manganese Gallium Foam
Nickel Manganese Gallium Honeycomb

Recent Research & Development for Gallium

  • Wei-Sheng Liu, Shen-Yu Wu, Chao-Yu Hung, Ching-Hsuan Tseng, Yu-Lin Chang, Improving the optoelectronic properties of gallium ZnO transparent conductive thin films through titanium doping, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 616, 15 December 2014
  • Mohamed Bakr Mohamed, M. Yehia, Cation distribution and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline gallium substituted cobalt ferrite, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 615, 5 December 2014
  • Erkan Aydin, Mehmet Sankir, Nurdan Demirci Sankir, Conventional and rapid thermal annealing of spray pyrolyzed copper indium gallium sulfide thin films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 615, 5 December 2014
  • Ming-Wei Wu, Pang-Hsin Lai, Chia-Hong Hong, Fang-Cheng Chou, The sintering behavior, microstructure, and electrical properties of gallium-doped zinc oxide ceramic targets, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 15, December 2014
  • V.V. Serikov, N.M. Kleinerman, A.V. Vershinin, N.V. Mushnikov, A.V. Protasov, L.A. Stashkova, O.I. Gorbatov, A.V. Ruban, Yu.N. Gornostyrev, Formation of solid solutions of gallium in Fe–Cr and Fe–Co alloys: Mössbauer studies and first-principles calculations, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 614, 25 November 2014
  • Jae-Hun Jeong, Dong-Won Jung, Eun-Suok Oh, Lithium storage characteristics of a new promising gallium selenide anodic material, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 613, 15 November 2014
  • Rui Sun, Hua-Yu Zhang, Gui-Gen Wang, Jie-Cai Han, Can Zhu, Xiao-Peng Liu, Lin Cui, Selective growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires through an N-Ga2O3 layer, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 9, Part A, November 2014
  • Jia Liu, Weijia Zhang, Dengyuan Song, Qiang Ma, Lei Zhang, Hui Zhang, Xiaobo Ma, Haiyang Song, Gallium-doped zinc oxide targets fabricated by sintering: Impact of target quality on sputtered thin film properties, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • Adel M.F. Alhalawani, Lana Placek, Anthony W. Wren, Declan J. Curran, Daniel Boyd, Mark R. Towler, Influence of gallium on the surface properties of zinc based glass polyalkenoate cements, Materials Chemistry and Physics, Volume 147, Issue 3, 15 October 2014
  • O. Toma, S. Georgescu, Excited-state absorption in erbium-doped calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • Jiming Bian, Lihua Miao, Fuwen Qin, Dong Zhang, Weifeng Liu, Hongzhu Liu, Low-temperature ECR-PEMOCVD deposition of high-quality crystalline gallium nitride films: A comparative study of intermediate layers for growth on amorphous glass substrates, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Liangliang Huang, Yong Fan, Hongwei Ma, Caixia Li, Li Wang, Synthesis and characterizations of two NbO topological gallium phosphites with low framework density, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 196, 15 September 2014
  • Jianwei Wang, Alberto Santamato, Pisu Jiang, Damien Bonneau, Erman Engin, Joshua W. Silverstone, Matthias Lermer, Johannes Beetz, Martin Kamp, Sven Höfling, Michael G. Tanner, Chandra M. Natarajan, Robert H. Hadfield, Sander N. Dorenbos, Val Zwiller, Jeremy L. O’Brien, Mark G. Thompson, Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits, Optics Communications, Volume 327, 15 September 2014
  • Wyatt H. Strong, David V. Forbes, Seth M. Hubbard, Investigation of deep level defects in electron irradiated indium arsenide quantum dots embedded in a gallium arsenide matrix, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 25, September 2014
  • Somayeh Behzad, Raad Chegel, Rostam Moradian, Masoud Shahrokhi, Theoretical exploration of structural, electro-optical and magnetic properties of gallium-doped silicon carbide nanotubes, Superlattices and Microstructures, Volume 73, September 2014
  • Elissa H. Williams, Albert V. Davydov, Vladimir P. Oleshko, Kristen L. Steffens, Igor Levin, Nancy J. Lin, Kris A. Bertness, Amy K. Manocchi, John A. Schreifels, Mulpuri V. Rao, Solution-based functionalization of gallium nitride nanowires for protein sensor development, Surface Science, Volume 627, September 2014
  • H.V. Thanh Luong, J.C. Liu, Flotation separation of gallium from aqueous solution – Effects of chemical speciation and solubility, Separation and Purification Technology, Volume 132, 20 August 2014
  • Yin-Rou Huang, Tzu-Wei Huang, Tzu-Hui Wang, Yu-Chen Tsai, Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using gallium nitride–titanium dioxide composite photoelectrodes, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 428, 15 August 2014
  • Andrew Ritchie, Shaylin Eger, Chelsey Wright, Daniel Chelladurai, Cuyler Borrowman, Weine Olovsson, Martin Magnuson, Jai Verma, Debdeep Jena, Huili Grace Xing, Christian Dubuc, Stephen Urquhart, Strain Sensitivity in the Nitrogen 1s NEXAFS Spectra of Gallium Nitride, Applied Surface Science, Available online 13 August 2014
  • Helge Reinsch, Dirk De Vos, Structures and properties of Gallium-MOFs with MIL-53-topology based on aliphatic linker molecules, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Available online 8 August 2014

Gallium Isotopes

Gallium (Ga) has two stable isotopes: gallium-69 and gallium-71.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
69Ga 68.9255736 Stable 3/2-
71Ga 70.9247013 Stable 3/2-