Gallium (Ga) Elemental Symbol
Gallium



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Gallium Gallium Gallio Gálio Galio Gallium

Gallium(Ga) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolGallium is a Block P, Group 13, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Gallium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 3 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1. The gallium atom has a radius of 122.1.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 187.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-55-3, gallium has a silvery appearance. Gallium Bohr ModelGallium is one of three elements that occur naturally as a liquid at room temperature. Elemental GalliumThe other two are mercury and cesium. Gallium does not exist by itself in nature and is sourced commercially from bauxite and sphalerite. Gallium was first discovered by Hans Christian Oersted in 1825. The element name originates from the Latin word 'Gallia', the old name of France and the word 'Gallus' meaning rooster. Gallium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity (99.999%) Gallium (Ni) Sputtering TargetGallium has received much attention in relation to its application in the production of semiconducting compounds. Of these, the most important are the compounds of gallium with antimony, arsenic or phosphor. Gallium arsenide (Ga-As) is used in the production of diodes and transistors for voltage rectification and signal amplification. Other Gallium Arsenide applications include semiconductor "lasing" and microwave generation.Gallium is also used in sensors to measure temperature, light or magnetic field. High Purity (99.999%) Gallium Oxide (Ga2O3) Powder Elemental or metallic forms of Gallium include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for use as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Gallium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Gallium is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for Gallium metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific Gallium material or compound referenced in the “Gallium Products” tab below.

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  • Isotopes
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Gallium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Ga Melting Point: 29.765 oC, 85.576 oF, 302.915 K
Atomic Number: 31 Boiling Point: 2229 oC, 4044.2 oF, 2502.15 K
Atomic Weight: 69.723 Density: 5.91 g·cm−3
Element Category: post-transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.095 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 13, 4, p Specific Heat: 0.372 @20°C J/g mol
    Heat of Vaporization 270.3 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 5.59 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 31 Thermal Conductivity: 40.6 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 31 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 18 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 39 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 270 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d104s24p1 Electronegativity: 1.81 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 135 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 122±3 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.86 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 187 pm Young's Modulus: 9.8 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: orthorhombic Poisson Ratio: 0.47
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 1.5
1st Ionization Energy: 578.85 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1979.33 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 60 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2963.09 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2740 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-55-3 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4514603 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23981 Abundance in universe, by weight: 10 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134045 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.2 ppb
EC Number: 231-163-8 Discovered By: Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1875
SMILES Identifier: [Ga]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ga Other Names:  
InChI Key: GYHNNYVSQQEPJS-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Gallium Products


Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Aluminum Gallium Arsenide
Aluminum Gallium Phosphide
Chromium, Erbium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Particles
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Powder
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Single Crystal
Copper Indium Gallium Sulfur Selenide Powder
Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Sulfur Granule
Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Sulfur Powder
Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Sulfur Lump
GaAsP
Gadolinium Gallium Garnet-GGG
Gadolinium Gallium Oxide
Gallium Aluminum Arsenide Granules
Gallium Aluminum Arsenide Powder
Gallium Aluminum Arsenide Lump
Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Granules
Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Powder
Gallium Aluminum Phosphide Lump
Gallium Antimonide
Gallium Antimonide Single Crystal Substrate
Gallium Arsenide
Gallium Arsenide Single Crystal Substrate
Gallium Arsenide Windows
Gallium Indium Arsenide
Gallium Indium Antimonide
Gallium Indium Eutectic
Gallium Lanthanum Sulfide
Gallium Nitride
Gallium Phosphide
Gallium Phosphide (By Crystallization)
Gallium Phosphide Single Crystal Substrate
Gallium(III) Selenide Ga2Se3
Gallium(II) Selenide GaSe
Gallium Selenide Crystal
Gallium Selenide Single Crystal
Gallium(II) Sulfide GaS
Gallium(III) Sulfide Ga2S3
Gallium(II) Telluride GaTe
Gallium(III) Telluride Ga2Te3
Gallium doped Zinc Oxide (GZO)
Indium Gallium Nitride
Indium Gallium Arsenic Granules
Indium Gallium Arsenic Lump
Indium Gallium Arsenic Powder
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenic Granules
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenic Powder
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenic Lump
Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO)
InGaAlAs
InGaAsP
InGaP


Alloys

Lanthanum Strontium Gallate Magnesium
Nickel Manganese Gallium Foam
Nickel Manganese Gallium Honeycomb




Recent Research & Development for Gallium

  • Doubly TEMPO-coordinated gadolinium(iii), lanthanum(iii), and yttrium(iii) complexes. Strong superexchange coupling across rare earth ions. Murakami R, Nakamura T, Ishida T. Dalton Trans. 2014.
  • Nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide quantum dots at zero magnetic field. Sallen G, Kunz S, Amand T, Bouet L, Kuroda T, Mano T, Paget D, Krebs O, Marie X, Sakoda K, Urbaszek B. Nat Commun. 2014.
  • Clinical significance of late gadolinium enhancement in patients <20 years of age with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Smith BM, Dorfman AL, Yu S, Russell MW, Agarwal PP, Mahani MG, Lu JC. Am J Cardiol. 2014
  • Gallium oxide nanorods: novel, template-free synthesis and high catalytic activity in epoxidation reactions. Lueangchaichaweng W, Brooks NR, Fiorilli S, Gobechiya E, Lin K, Li L, Parres-Esclapez S, Javon E, Bals S, Van Tendeloo G, Martens JA, Kirschhock CE, Jacobs PA, Pescarmona PP. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014.
  • Ultrasonic cavitation of molten gallium: Formation of micro- and nano-spheres. Kumar VB, Gedanken A, Kimmel G, Porat Z. Ultrason Sonochem. 2014.
  • Synthesis and characterization of functional multicomponent nanosized gallium chelated gold crystals. Zambre A, Silva F, Upendran A, Afrasiabi Z, Xin Y, Paulo A, Kannan R. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014 Jan.
  • Gallium SPECT/CT for Permanent Catheter Infection. Chuang TL, Wang YF. Clin Nucl Med. 2014.
  • Acute gangrenous cholecystitis diagnosed on gallium scan. Ma HY, Freeman LM. Clin Nucl Med. 2014 Mar.
  • Microencapsulation of gallium-indium (Ga-In) liquid metal for self-healing applications. Blaiszik BJ, Jones AR, Sottos NR, White SR. J Microencapsul. 2014.
  • The structure of hyperalkaline aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of gallium - a solution X-ray diffraction and computational study. Radnai T, Bálint S, Bakó I, Megyes T, Grósz T, Pallagi A, Peintler G, Pálinkó I, Sipos P. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2014.
  • Lacrimal Gland Uptake of (67)Ga-gallium Citrate Correlates with Biopsy Results in Patients with Suspected Sarcoidosis. Tannen BL, Kolomeyer AM, Turbin RE, Frohman L, Langer PD, Oh C, Ghesani NV, Zuckier LS, Chu DS. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2014.
  • Organo-gallium/indium chalcogenide complexes of copper(i): molecular structures and thermal decomposition to ternary semiconductors. Kluge O, Biedermann R, Holldorf J, Krautscheid H. Chemistry. 2014 Jan.
  • Gallium-mediated siderophore quenching as an evolutionarily robust antibacterial treatment. Ross-Gillespie A, Weigert M, Brown SP, Kümmerli R. Evol Med Public Health. 2014 Jan.
  • Effect of Microtextured Surface Topography on the Wetting Behavior of Eutectic Gallium-Indium Alloys. Kramer RK, Boley JW, Stone HA, Weaver JC, Wood RJ. Langmuir. 2014 Jan.
  • Gallium-68 DOTATOC PET/CT In Vivo Characterization of Somatostatin Receptor Expression in the Prostate. Todorovic-Tirnanic MV, Gajic MM, Obradovic VB, Baum RP. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2014 Jan.
  • A hybrid density functional view of native vacancies in gallium nitride. Gillen R, Robertson J. J Phys Condens Matter.
  • Effect of microtextured surface topography on the wetting behavior of eutectic gallium-indium alloys. Kramer RK, Boley JW, Stone HA, Weaver JC, Wood RJ. Langmuir. 2014.
  • Total neutron scattering investigation of the structure of a cobalt gallium oxide spinel prepared by solvothermal oxidation of gallium metal. Playford HY, Hannon AC, Tucker MG, Lees MR, Walton RI. J Phys Condens Matter.
  • Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) Photovoltaic Devices Made Using Multistep Selenization of Nanocrystal Films. Harvey TB, Mori I, Stolle CJ, Bogart TD, Ostrowski DP, Glaz MS, Du J, Pernik DR, Akhavan VA, Kesrouani H, Vanden Bout DA, Korgel BA. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces.

Gallium Isotopes


Gallium (Ga) has two stable isotopes: gallium-69 and gallium-71.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
69Ga 68.9255736 Stable 3/2-
71Ga 70.9247013 Stable 3/2-