Antimony (Sb) Elemental Symbol
Antimony



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Antimony(Sb)atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolAntimony is a Block P, Group 15, Period 5 element. The number of electrons in each of Antimony's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 5 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-36-0, antimony has a silvery lustrous gray appearance. The antimony atom has a radius of 145.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. Antimony Bohr ModelThe most common source of Antimony is sulfide stibnite (Sb2S3), although it is sometimes found natively. Antimony is finding use in semiconductor technology for making infrared detectors, diodes and Hall-effect devices in crystalline structures, such as antimony telluride and gallium antimonide. Antimony is however Elemental Antimonya poor conductor of heat and electricity. Antimony greatly increases the hardness and mechanical strength of lead so it has found applications in batteries, antifriction alloys, small arms and tracer bullets and cable sheathing. Antimony compounds are used in manufacturing flame-proofing compounds, paints, ceramic enamels, glass, and pottery glazes. Antimony information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity (99.99999%) Antimony (Sb) Sputtering TargetAntimony is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. High Purity (99.999%) Antimony Oxide(Sb2O3) Powder Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Antimony is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

The chemical state of antimony affects the toxicity of the element and its compounds. Antimony toxicity makes it immediately dangerous to life or health at 50 mg m-3 or above. Safety data for Antimony metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific antimony material or compound referenced in the “Antimony Products” tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Antimony Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Sb Melting Point: 630.0 °C (903.15 K, 1166.0 °F)
Atomic Number: 51 Boiling Point: 1750.0 °C (2023.15 K, 3182.0 °F)
Atomic Weight: 121.76 amu Density: 6.697 g·cm−3
Element Category: Metalloid Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.53 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 15 (pnictogens), 5, p Specific Heat: 0.21 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 165.8 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 20.9 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 51 Thermal Conductivity: 24.4 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 51 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 11 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 71 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 417 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: Kr 4d10 5s2 5p3 2, 8, 18, 18, 5 Electronegativity: 2.05 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 140 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 139±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.23 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 206 pm Young's Modulus: 55 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 3, -3 Shear Modulus: 20 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 42 GPa
Crystal Structure: Rhombohedral Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: Diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 3.0
1st Ionization Energy: 830.59 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1594.96 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 294 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2441.10 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 3420 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-36-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4510681 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 5354495 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.4 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134030 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.004 ppb
EC Number: 231-146-5 Discovered By: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: Ancient
SMILES Identifier: [Sb]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Sb Other Names:  
InChI Key: WATWJIUSRGPENY-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Elemental Antimony


Signal Word Warning
Hazard Statements H302-H332-H411
Hazard Codes N
Risk Codes 51/53
Safety Precautions 60
RTECS Number CC4025000
Transport Information UN 2871 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany 2
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Environment-Hazardous to the aquatic environment

Antimony Products


Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials  •   Isotopes

Compounds

Antimony Acetate
Antimony Acetate Solution
Antimony Bromide
Antimony Bromide, Ultra Dry
Antimony Carbide
Antimony Carbonate
Antimony Chloride SbCl3
Antimony Chloride Solution SbCl3
Antimony Chloride SbCl3, Ultra Dry
Antimony Chloride SbCl5
Antimony Chloride SbCl5, Ultra Dry
Antimony Chromium
Antimony Fluoride SbF3
Antimony Fluoride SbF5
Antimony Iodide
Antimony Iodide, Ultra Dry
Antimony Niobate
Antimony Nitrate
Antimony Nitrate Solution
Antimony(III) Oxide Sb2O3
Antimony(V) Oxide Sb2O5
Antimony Pentachloride
Antimony Pentafluoride
Antimony Pentasulfide
Antimony Phosphate
Antimony Precipitate
Antimony Sulfate
Antimony Sulfate Solution
Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO)
Antimony Zinc Oxide
Bismuth Antimony Tellurium Granule
Bismuth Antimony Tellurium Powder
Bismuth Antimony Tellurium Lump
Cobalt Antimonide
Fluoroantimonic Acid Hexahydrate
Magnesium Antimonide
Manganese Antimonide
Manganese(III) Antimonide
Nitronium Hexafluoroantimonate
Nitrosonium Hexafluoroantimonate
Potassium Hexafluoroantimonate(V)
Potassium Hexahydroxoantimonate(V)
Silbane (Antimony Hydride)
Sodium Hexahydroxoantimonate
Sodium Thioantimonate(V) Nonahydrate


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Antimonide Sputtering Target
Antimony doped Zinc Tin Sputtering Target
Antimony Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Antimony Oxide Sputtering Target
Antimony Phosphide Sputtering Target
Antimony Rotatable Sputtering Target
Antimony Selenide Sputtering Target
Antimony Sputtering Target
Antimony Sulfide Sputtering Target
Antimony Telluride Sputtering Target
ATO Sputtering Target
Cadmium Antimonide Sputtering Target
Gallium Antimonide Sputtering Target
Germanium Antimony Sputtering Target
GeSbTe Sputtering Target
Gold Antimony Sputtering Target
Indium Antimonide Sputtering Target
Lead Antimonide Sputtering Target
Zinc Antimonide Sputtering Target


Alloys

Aluminum Antimony Alloy
Antimony Germanium Alloy
Antimony Gold Alloy
Antimonial Lead Rod
Antimonial Lead Sheet
Antimonial Lead Ingot
Antimonial Lead Foil
Bismuth Antimony Alloy
Gold Antimony
Lead Antimony Alloy
Lead Antimony Tin Alloy
Lead Indium Antimony Alloy
Lead Silver Antimony Alloy
Lead Tin Antimony Alloy
Silver Antimony Alloy
Tin Antimony Alloy
Tin Antimony Gold Alloy
Tin Lead Antimony Alloy
Tin Lead Antimony Foil
Tin Silver Antimony Alloy
Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

AlGaSb
Aluminum Antimonide
Antimony Arsenide
Antimony Carbide
Antimony Nitride
Antimony Phosphide
Antimony Selenide
Antimony(III) Sulfide Sb2S3
Antimony(V) Sulfide Sb2S5
Antimony Telluride
Barium Antimonide
Bismuth Antimonide
Bismuth Telluride - Antimony Selenide Solid Solution
Bismuth Telluride - Antimony Telluride Solid Solution
Cadmium Antimonide CdSb
Cadmium Antimonide Cd3Sb2
Chromium Antimonide
Gallium Antimonide
Gallium Antimonide Single Crystal Substrate
Gallium Antimonide Wafer
Gallium Indium Antimonide
Germanium Antimonide
GeSbTe
InAsSb
Indium Antimonide
Iron Antimonide
Lead Antimonide
Lead Telluride - Antimony Selenide Solid Solution
Lutetium Antimonide
Magnesium Antimonide
Niobium Antimonide
Nickel Antimonide NiSb
Nickel Antimonide Ni3Sb
Silver Antimony Telluride
Thallium Antimonide
Thulium Antimonide
Tin Antimonide
Tin Antimonide Powder
Tin Antimony Particles
Yttrium Antimonide
Zinc Antimonide
Zinc Antimonide Concentrate
Zinc Antimonide Dust
Zinc Antimonide Grains
Zinc Antimonide Granules
Zinc Antimonide Powder
Zinc Antimonide Precipitate
Zinc Antimonide Residue
Zinc Antimonide Shavings
Zirconium Antimonide


Organometallic Compounds

Antimony Ethoxide
Antimony Glycolate
Antimony(III) Isopropoxide
Antimony n-butoxide
Antimony Oxalate
Antimony Potassium Tartrate Trihydrate
Antimony(III) Propoxide
Potassium Antimonyl Tartrate
Tetraphenylantimony(V) Bromide
Triethylantimony
Trimethylantimony
Triphenylantimony(III)
Triphenylantimony Dibromide
Triphenylantimony Dichloride
Triphenylantimony Oxide
Triphenylantimony Sulfide
Triphenylantimony(III)
Tris(dimethylamido)antimony(III)
Tris(dimethylamino)antimony


Isotopes

Antimony 123 Metal Isotope





Recent Research & Development for Antimony

  • Investigation of strontium and uranium sorption onto zirconium-antimony oxide/polyacrylonitrile (Zr-Sb oxide/PAN) composite using experimental design. Cakir P, Inan S, Altas Y. J Hazard Mater. 2014.
  • Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Nanorods as a Transparent Conducting Electrode for Enhancing Photoelectrochemical Oxidation of Water by Hematite. Sun Y, Chemelewski WD, Berglund SP, Li C, He H, Shi G, Mullins CB. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014.
  • Bulk antimony sulfide with excellent cycle stability as next-generation anode for lithium-ion batteries. Yu DY, Hoster HE, Batabyal SK. Sci Rep. 2014.
  • SBML and CellML translation in Antimony and JSim. Smith LP, Butterworth E, Bassingthwaighte JB, Sauro HM. Bioinformatics. 2014.
  • Effects of antimony and arsenic on antioxidant enzyme activities of two steppic plant species in an old antimony mining area. Benhamdi A, Bentellis A, Rached O, Du Laing G, Mechakra A. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014.
  • A novel marker, ARM58, confers antimony resistance to Leishmania spp. Nühs A, Schäfer C, Zander D, Trübe L, Tejera Nevado P, Schmidt S, Arevalo J, Adaui V, Maes L, Dujardin JC, Clos J. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist.
  • Efficient removal of trace antimony(III) through adsorption by hematite modified magnetic nanoparticles. Shan C, Ma Z, Tong M. J Hazard Mater. 2014
  • Second order non-linear optical activity of arsenic and antimony dithiolene complexes. Mitra J, Pal K, Sarkar S. Dalton Trans.
  • Antimony uptake, translocation and speciation in rice plants exposed to antimonite and antimonate. Ren JH, Ma LQ, Sun HJ, Cai F, Luo J. Sci Total Environ. 2014 Mar.
  • Antimony uptake, efflux and speciation in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. Tisarum R, Lessl JT, Dong X, de Oliveira LM, Rathinasabapathi B, Ma LQ. Environ Pollut. 2014.
  • Surface complexation modeling and spectroscopic evidence of antimony adsorption on iron-oxide-rich red earth soils. Vithanage M, Rajapaksha AU, Dou X, Bolan NS, Yang JE, Ok YS. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Sep.
  • Synthesis and characterisation of nano-pore antimony imprinted polymer and its use in the extraction and determination of antimony in water and fruit juice samples. Shakerian F, Dadfarnia S, Haji Shabani AM, Nili Ahmad Abadi M. Food Chem. 2014 Feb.
  • Migration of antimony from PET containers into regulated EU food simulants. Sánchez-Martínez M, Pérez-Corona T, Cámara C, Madrid Y. Food Chem. 2013 Nov.
  • Removal of antimony (Sb(V)) from Sb mine drainage: Biological sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation-precipitation. Wang H, Chen F, Mu S, Zhang D, Pan X, Lee DJ, Chang JS. Bioresour Technol. 2013 Oct.
  • Antimony migration trends from a small arms firing range compared to lead, copper, and zinc. Martin WA, Lee LS, Schwab P. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Oct.
  • The availability and mobility of arsenic and antimony in an acid sulfate soil pasture system. Tighe M, Lockwood PV, Ashley PM, Murison RD, Wilson SC. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Oct.
  • Antimony mediated control of misfit dislocation and strain at the highly lattice mismatched GaSb/GaAs interface. Wang Y, Ruterana P, Chen J, Kret S, Ei Kazzi S, Genevois C, Desplanque L, Wallart X. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 Sep.
  • Solvothermal synthesis of antimony sulfide dendrites for electrochemical detection of dopamine. Tao W, Wang J, Wu D, Chang J, Wang F, Gao Z, Xu F, Jiang K. Dalton Trans. 2013 Aug.
  • Behavior of Antimony(V) during the Transformation of Ferrihydrite and Its Environmental Implications. Mitsunobu S, Muramatsu C, Watanabe K, Sakata M. Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Sep.
  • Second order non-linear optical activity of arsenic and antimony dithiolene complexes. Mitra J, Pal K, Sarkar S. Dalton Trans.

Antimony Isotopes


Antimony (Sb) has two stable isotopes and thirty-five radioactive isotopes with half lives ranging from 2.75856 years to less than one hour.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
121Sb 120.9038157 Stable 5/2+
123Sb 122.9042140 Stable 7/2+