Phosphorus Elemental Symbol
Phosphorus



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Phosphore Phosphor Fosforo Fósforo Fósforo Fosfor

Phosphorus(P) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolPhosphorus Bohr ModelPhosphorus (atomic symbol: P, atomic number: 15) is a Block P, Group 15, Period 3 element. The number of electrons in each of Phosphorus's shells is 2, 8, 5 and its electronic configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p3. The phosphorus atom has a radius of 110.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 180.pm. Phosphorus is a highly-reactive non-metallic element (sometimes considered a metalloid) with two primary allotropes, white phosphorus and red phosphorus; its black flaky appearance is similar to graphitic carbon. Compound forms of phosphorus include phosphates and phosphides.Black Phosphorus Phosphorous was first recognized as an element by Hennig Brand in 1669; its name (phosphorus mirabilis, or "bearer of light") was inspired from the brilliant glow emitted by its distillation.

Although white phosphorus is very toxic, red phosphorus is not considered toxic. Safety data for phosphorus and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Phosphorus Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: P Melting Point: 44.15 oC, 111.47 oF, 317.3 K
Atomic Number: 15 Boiling Point: 280.5 oC, 536.9 oF, 553.65 K
Atomic Weight: 30.97 Density: 1820 kg m-3
Element Category: nonmetal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 15 (pnictogens), 3, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 51.9 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.51 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 15 Thermal Conductivity: (white) 0.236, (black) 12.1 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 15 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 16 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [Ne]3s23p3 Electronegativity: 2.19 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: N/A Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 107±3 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 23.824 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 180 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 5, 3, -3 Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (white) 5, (red) 11 GPa
Crystal Structure: triclinic Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 1011.82 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1907.47 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2914.14 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7723-14-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 11000000 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4575369 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 2200000 ppb
PubChem CID: 24404 Abundance in universe, by weight: 7000 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00133771 Abundance in universe, by atom: 300 ppb
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Hennig Brand
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1669
SMILES Identifier: P  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/P Other Names: Phosphore, Phosphor, Fosforo
InChI Key: OAICVXFJPJFONN-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Phosphorus

  • Xinhua Tang, Haoran Li, Zhuwei Du, How Yong Ng, A phosphorus-free anolyte to enhance coulombic efficiency of microbial fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Ziwu Liu, Qianqian Shi, Rufan Zhang, Quande Wang, Guojun Kang, Feng Peng, Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes supported low Pt loading catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Murat Rakap, Hydrogen generation from the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane using electrolessly deposited cobalt–phosphorus as reusable and cost-effective catalyst, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 265, 1 November 2014
  • Zegao Wang, Pingjian Li, Yuanfu Chen, Jiarui He, Jingbo Liu, Wanli Zhang, Yanrong Li, Phosphorus-doped reduced graphene oxide as an electrocatalyst counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • Jun-Bo Zhang, Xiu-Li Wang, Qiu-Xia He, Hai-Bo Zhao, Yu-Zhong Wang, A novel phosphorus-containing poly(1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate) copolyester: Synthesis, thermal stability, flammability and pyrolysis behavior, Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 108, October 2014
  • Liqiang Gu, Guoan Chen, Youwei Yao, Two novel phosphorus–nitrogen-containing halogen-free flame retardants of high performance for epoxy resin, Polymer Degradation and Stability, Volume 108, October 2014
  • Ziqing Zhai, Yuichi Miyahara, Hiroshi Abe, Yutaka Watanabe, Segregation behavior of phosphorus in the heat-affected zone of an A533B/A182 dissimilar weld joint before and after simulated thermal aging, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 452, Issues 1–3, September 2014
  • David A. McKeown, Hao Gan, Ian L. Pegg, Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of chromium–phosphorus interactions in high-bismuth high-level waste glasses, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 452, Issues 1–3, September 2014
  • Qin Liu, Shuiliang Chen, Yan Zhou, Suqi Zheng, Haoqing Hou, Feng Zhao, Phosphorus-doped carbon derived from cellulose phosphate as efficient catalyst for air-cathode in microbial fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 261, 1 September 2014
  • Shaozheng Hu, Lin Ma, Jiguang You, Fayun Li, Zhiping Fan, Guang Lu, Dan Liu, Jianzhou Gui, Enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4 photocatalysts co-doped with iron and phosphorus, Applied Surface Science, Volume 311, 30 August 2014

Phosphorus Isotopes


Phosphorus has one stable isotope: 31P.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
31P 30.97376163 Stable 1/2+