Phosphorus Elemental Symbol
Phosphorus



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Phosphore Phosphor Fosforo Fósforo Fósforo Fosfor

Phosphorus(P) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolPhosphorus Bohr ModelPhosphorus (atomic symbol: P, atomic number: 15) is a Block P, Group 15, Period 3 element. The number of electrons in each of Phosphorus's shells is 2, 8, 5 and its electronic configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p3. The phosphorus atom has a radius of 110.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 180.pm. Phosphorus is a highly-reactive non-metallic element (sometimes considered a metalloid) with two primary allotropes, white phosphorus and red phosphorus; its black flaky appearance is similar to graphitic carbon. Compound forms of phosphorus include phosphates and phosphides.Black Phosphorus Phosphorous was first recognized as an element by Hennig Brand in 1669; its name (phosphorus mirabilis, or "bearer of light") was inspired from the brilliant glow emitted by its distillation.

Although white phosphorus is very toxic, red phosphorus is not considered toxic. Safety data for phosphorus and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.



Phosphorus Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: P Melting Point: 44.15 oC, 111.47 oF, 317.3 K
Atomic Number: 15 Boiling Point: 280.5 oC, 536.9 oF, 553.65 K
Atomic Weight: 30.97 Density: 1820 kg m-3
Element Category: nonmetal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 15 (pnictogens), 3, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 51.9 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.51 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 15 Thermal Conductivity: (white) 0.236, (black) 12.1 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 15 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 16 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [Ne]3s23p3 Electronegativity: 2.19 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: N/A Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 107±3 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 23.824 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 180 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 5, 3, -3 Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (white) 5, (red) 11 GPa
Crystal Structure: triclinic Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 1011.82 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1907.47 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2914.14 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7723-14-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 11000000 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4575369 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 2200000 ppb
PubChem CID: 24404 Abundance in universe, by weight: 7000 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00133771 Abundance in universe, by atom: 300 ppb
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Hennig Brand
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1669
SMILES Identifier: P  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/P Other Names: Phosphore, Phosphor, Fosforo
InChI Key: OAICVXFJPJFONN-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Phosphorus

  • Association analysis of genomic Loci important for grain weight control in elite common wheat varieties cultivated with variable water and fertiliser supply. Zhang K, Wang J, Zhang L, Rong C, Zhao F, Peng T, Li H, Cheng D, Liu X, Qin H, Zhang A, Tong Y, Wang D. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57853. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057853. 2013 Mar 4.
  • Richness and composition of niche-assembled viral pathogen communities. Seabloom EW, Borer ET, Lacroix C, Mitchell CE, Power AG. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55675. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055675. 2013 Feb 26.
  • Enantiomeric Separation of Original Heterocyclic Organophosphorus Compounds in Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. West C, Cieslikiewicz-Bouet M, Lewinski K, Gillaizeau I. Chirality. 2013 Mar 7. doi: 10.1002/chir.22133.
  • Spatial multi-scale variability of soil nutrients in relation to environmental factors in a typical agricultural region, Eastern China. Liu Y, Lv J, Zhang B, Bi J. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Mar 2;450-451C:108-119. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.083.
  • Natural and human influences on nutrient transport through a small subtropical Chinese estuary. Kaiser D, Unger D, Qiu G, Zhou H, Gan H. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Mar 2;450-451C:92-107. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.096.
  • Transglutaminase 2 Accelerates Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease. Chen NX, O'Neill K, Chen X, Kiattisunthorn K, Gattone VH, Moe SM. Am J Nephrol. 2013 Feb 28;37(3):191-198.
  • Cinacalcet Improves Endothelial Dysfunction and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Patients on Hemodialysis with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism. Choi SR, Lim JH, Kim MY, Hong YA, Chung BH, Chung S, Choi BS, Yang CW, Kim YS, Chang YS, Park CW. Nephron Clin Pract. 2013 Mar 1;122(1-2):1-8.
  • Molecular weight distribution of phosphorus fraction of aquatic dissolved organic matter. Ged EC, Boyer TH. Chemosphere. 2013 Mar 2. doi:pii: S0045-6535(13)00268-3. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.01.113.
  • [Skin, sun exposure and vitamin D: Facts and controversies]. Leccia MT. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2013 Mar;140(3):176-82. doi: 10.1016/j.annder.2012.12.003. 2013 Jan 7. French.
  • Bilateral coronal and sagittal synostosis in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets: A case report. Freudlsperger C, Hoffmann J, Castrillon-Oberndorfer G, Engel M. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2013 Feb 25. doi:pii: S1010-5182(13)00055-3. 10.1016/j.jcms.2013.01.039.
  • Management of natural and added dietary phosphorus burden in kidney disease. Cupisti A, Kalantar-Zadeh K. Semin Nephrol. 2013 Mar;33(2):180-90. doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2012.12.018.
  • The role of phosphorus in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease. Geddes RF, Finch NC, Syme HM, Elliott J. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2013 Mar 6. doi: 10.1111/vec.12032.
  • Pharmacodynamics of Cinacalcet Over 48 Hours in Patients With Controlled Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: Useful Data in Clinical Practice. Arenas MD, de la Fuente V, Delgado P, Gil MT, Gutiérrez P, Ribero J, Rodríguez M, Almadén Y. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Mar 5.
  • Interaction between nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in mining-affected aquatic systems-experiences from field and laboratory measurements. Chlot S, Widerlund A, Ohlander B. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013 Mar 6.
  • Application of a probabilistic modelling approach for evaluation of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon removal efficiency during four successive cycles of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in an anoxic carbonate aquifer. Vanderzalm JL, Page DW, Barry KE, Dillon PJ. Water Res. 2013 Feb 5. doi:pii: S0043-1354(13)00068-7. 10.1016/j.watres.2013.01.038.
  • Three colorimetric and off-on fluorescent chemosensors for Fe3+ in aqueous media. Chai M, Li M, Zhang D, Wang CC, Ye Y, Zhao Y. Luminescence. 2013 Mar 4. doi: 10.1002/bio.2493.
  • Soil microbial response to glucose and phosphorus addition under agricultural systems in the Brazilian Cerrado. Ferreira AS, Santos MA, Corrêa GF. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2013 Mar 5. doi:pii: S0001-37652013005002113.
  • Hydroxyapatite Hierarchically Nanostructured Porous Hollow Microspheres: Rapid, Sustainable Microwave-Hydrothermal Synthesis by Using Creatine Phosphate as an Organic Phosphorus Source and Application in Drug Delivery and Protein Adsorption. Qi C, Zhu YJ, Lu BQ, Zhao XY, Zhao J, Chen F, Wu J. Chemistry. 2013 Mar 4. doi: 10.1002/chem.201203886.
  • Comparative Analysis of the Symbiotic Efficiency of Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa under Phosphorus Deficiency. Sulieman S, Schulze J, Tran LS. Int J Mol Sci. 2013 Mar 4;14(3):5198-213. doi: 10.3390/ijms14035198.
  • Renal Replacement Therapy in Healthy Adult Horses. Wong DM, Witty D, Alcott CJ, Sponseller BA, Wang C, Hepworth K. J Vet Intern Med. 2013 Mar 4. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12049.

Phosphorus Isotopes


Phosphorus has one stable isotope: 31P.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
31P 30.97376163 Stable 1/2+