Phosphorus Elemental Symbol
Phosphorus



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Phosphore Phosphor Fosforo Fósforo Fósforo Fosfor

Phosphorus(P) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolPhosphorus Bohr ModelPhosphorus (atomic symbol: P, atomic number: 15) is a Block P, Group 15, Period 3 element. The number of electrons in each of Phosphorus's shells is 2, 8, 5 and its electronic configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p3. The phosphorus atom has a radius of 110.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 180.pm. Phosphorus is a highly-reactive non-metallic element (sometimes considered a metalloid) with two primary allotropes, white phosphorus and red phosphorus; its black flaky appearance is similar to graphitic carbon. Compound forms of phosphorus include phosphates and phosphides.Black Phosphorus Phosphorous was first recognized as an element by Hennig Brand in 1669; its name (phosphorus mirabilis, or "bearer of light") was inspired from the brilliant glow emitted by its distillation.

Although white phosphorus is very toxic, red phosphorus is not considered toxic. Safety data for phosphorus and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Phosphorus Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: P Melting Point: 44.15 oC, 111.47 oF, 317.3 K
Atomic Number: 15 Boiling Point: 280.5 oC, 536.9 oF, 553.65 K
Atomic Weight: 30.97 Density: 1820 kg m-3
Element Category: nonmetal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 15 (pnictogens), 3, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 51.9 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.51 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 15 Thermal Conductivity: (white) 0.236, (black) 12.1 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 15 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 16 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [Ne]3s23p3 Electronegativity: 2.19 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: N/A Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 107±3 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 23.824 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 180 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 5, 3, -3 Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (white) 5, (red) 11 GPa
Crystal Structure: triclinic Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 1011.82 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1907.47 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2914.14 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7723-14-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 11000000 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4575369 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 2200000 ppb
PubChem CID: 24404 Abundance in universe, by weight: 7000 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00133771 Abundance in universe, by atom: 300 ppb
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Hennig Brand
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1669
SMILES Identifier: P  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/P Other Names: Phosphore, Phosphor, Fosforo
InChI Key: OAICVXFJPJFONN-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Phosphorus

  • Mamdouh Omran, Timo Fabritius, Riku Mattila, Thermally assisted liberation of high phosphorus oolitic iron ore: A comparison between microwave and conventional furnaces, Powder Technology, Volume 269, January 2015
  • Xiaowei Liu, Donghua Teng, Ting Li, Yunhua Yu, Xiaohong Shao, Xiaoping Yang, Phosphorus-doped tin oxides/carbon nanofibers webs as lithium-ion battery anodes with enhanced reversible capacity, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • Xinhua Tang, Haoran Li, Zhuwei Du, How Yong Ng, A phosphorus-free anolyte to enhance coulombic efficiency of microbial fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Ziwu Liu, Qianqian Shi, Rufan Zhang, Quande Wang, Guojun Kang, Feng Peng, Phosphorus-doped carbon nanotubes supported low Pt loading catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • Peng He, Shangyu Huang, Huachang Wang, Zhichao Huang, Jianhua Hu, Xudong Cheng, Chengang Pan, Electroless nickel–phosphorus plating on silicon carbide particles for metal matrix composites, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 10, Part B, December 2014
  • Nerea Mascaraque, Hiromichi Takebe, Gregory Tricot, José Luis G. Fierro, Alicia Durán, Francisco Muñoz, Structure and electrical properties of a new thio-phosphorus oxynitride glass electrolyte, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 405, 1 December 2014
  • M. Hasan Sadhir, M. Saranya, M. Aravind, A. Srinivasan, A. Siddharthan, N. Rajendran, Comparison of in situ and ex situ reduced graphene oxide reinforced electroless nickel phosphorus nanocomposite coating, Applied Surface Science, Volume 320, 30 November 2014
  • Bessy D’Cruz, Jadu Samuel, Leena George, Characterization, non-isothermal decomposition kinetics and photocatalytic water splitting of green chemically synthesized polyoxoanions of molybdenum containing phosphorus as hetero atom, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 596, 20 November 2014
  • Byong Chol Bai, Eun Ae Kim, Young-Pyo Jeon, Chul Wee Lee, Se Jin In, Young-Seak Lee, Ji Sun Im, Improved flame-retardant properties of lyocell fiber achieved by phosphorus compound, Materials Letters, Volume 135, 15 November 2014
  • Weihan Li, Zhenzhong Yang, Yu Jiang, Zirui Yu, Lin Gu, Yan Yu, Crystalline red phosphorus incorporated with porous carbon nanofibers as flexible electrode for high performance lithium-ion batteries, Carbon, Volume 78, November 2014

Phosphorus Isotopes


Phosphorus has one stable isotope: 31P.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
31P 30.97376163 Stable 1/2+