Lutetium Elemental Symbol
Lutetium



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Lutécium Lutetium Lutezio Lutécio Lutecio Lutetium

Elemental LutetiumLutetium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Lutetium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Lutetium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f15 5d1 6s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7439-94-3, lutetium has a silvery-white appearance. The lutetium atom has a radius of 171.8.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 221.pm. Lutetium is the last member of the rare earth series. Unlike most rare earths it lacks a magnetic moment. It has the smallest metallic radius of any rare earth and it is perhaps the least naturally abundant of the lanthanides. The most common source of commercially produced Lutetium is the mineral monazite. Lutetium was first discovered by George Urbain and Carl Auer von Welsbach in 1906. The name Lutetium originates from the Latin word Lutetia meaning Paris.

Lutetium is the ideal host for x-ray phosphors because it produces the densest known white material, lutetium tantalate (LuTaO4). It is utilized as a dopant in matching lattice parameters of certain substrate garnet crystals, such as indium-gallium-garnet (IGG) crystals due its lack of a magnetic moment. Lutetium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Lutetium Oxide (Lu2O3) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Lutetium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. High Purity (99.999%) Lutetium (Lu) Sputtering TargetLutetium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Lutetium is not toxic in its elemental form, however, safety data for lutetium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Lutetium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Lu Melting Point: 1663 oC, 3025.4 oF, 1936.15 K
Atomic Number: 71 Boiling Point: 3402 oC, 6155.6 oF, 3675.15 K 
Atomic Weight: 174.97 Density: 9.840 gm/cc
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 9.3 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.037 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 90 K-Cal/gm atom at 3395°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.60 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 71 Thermal Conductivity: 0.164 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 71 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 9.9 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 104 Electrical Resistivity: 79.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d16s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 174 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 187±8 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.86 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 221 pm Young's Modulus: 68.6 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (weakly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 27.2 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 47.6 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.261
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 523.52 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 1160 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1341.16 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 893 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2022.29 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7439-94-3 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22371 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23929 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.1 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011098 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.001 ppb
EC Number: 231-103-0 Discovered By: Georges Urbain and Carl Auer von Welsbach
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1906
SMILES Identifier: [Lu]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Lu Other Names: Lutezio, Lutécio
InChI Key: OHSVLFRHMCKCQY-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Lutetium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Lutetium

  • Anti-Biofouling Polymer-Decorated Lutetium-Based Nanoparticulate Contrast Agents for In Vivo High-Resolution Trimodal Imaging. Liu Z, Dong K, Liu J, Han X, Ren J, Qu X. Small. 2014.
  • Bioelectronic tongue based on lipidic nanostructured layers containing phenol oxidases and lutetium bisphthalocyanine for the analysis of grapes. Medina-Plaza C, de Saja JA, Rodriguez-Mendez ML. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014
  • A cascade reaction: ring-opening insertion of dioxaphospholane into lutetium alkyl bonds. Johnson KR, Hayes PG. Dalton Trans. 2014 Feb.
  • Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of treatment-refractory metastatic thyroid cancer using (90)Yttrium and (177)Lutetium labeled somatostatin analogs: toxicity, response and survival analysis. Budiawan H, Salavati A, Kulkarni HR, Baum RP. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging.
  • Octaoctyl-Substituted Lutetium Bisphthalocyanine for NADH Biosensing. Pal C, Sharma AK, Cammidge AN, Cook MJ, Ray AK. J Phys Chem B. 2013 Dec.
  • A cascade reaction: ring-opening insertion of dioxaphospholane into lutetium alkyl bonds. Johnson KR, Hayes PG. Dalton Trans. 2013 Dec
  • Precise Determination of the Lutetium Isotopic Composition in Rocks and Minerals Using Multicollector ICPMS. Wimpenny JB, Amelin Y, Yin QZ. Chem. 2013 Nov 11.
  • Octaoctyl Substituted Lutetium Bisphthalocyanine For NADH Biosensing. Pal C, Sharma AK, Cammidge AN, Cook MJ, Ray AK. J Phys Chem B. 2013 Nov 8.
  • Solvation properties and behaviour of lutetium(III) in aqueous solution-A quantum mechanical charge field (QMCF) study. Hitzenberger M, Hofer TS, Weiss AK. J Chem Phys. 2013 Sep 21
  • Bis(tetrabenzotriazaporphyrinato) and (tetrabenzotriazaporphyrinato)(phthalocyaninato) lutetium(iii) complexes - novel sandwich-type tetrapyrrolic ligand based NIR absorbing electrochromes. Pushkarev VE, Kalashnikov VV, Trashin SA, Borisova NE, Tomilova LG, Zefirov NS. Dalton Trans. 2013 Sep 14.
  • Phase 1 Radioimmunotherapy Study with Lutetium 177-labeled Anti-Carbonic Anhydrase IX Monoclonal Antibody Girentuximab in Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma. Stillebroer AB, Boerman OC, Desar IM, Boers-Sonderen MJ, van Herpen CM, Langenhuijsen JF, Smith-Jones PM, Oosterwijk E, Oyen WJ, Mulders PF. Eur Urol. 2013 Sep.
  • Phase II Study of Lutetium-177-Labeled Anti-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Monoclonal Antibody J591 for Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Tagawa ST, Milowsky MI, Morris M, Vallabhajosula S, Christos P, Akhtar NH, Osborne J, Goldsmith SJ, Larson S, Taskar NP, Scher HI, Bander NH, Nanus DM. Clin Cancer Res.
  • Preparation and characterization of nanodispersions of yttria, yttrium aluminium garnet and lutetium aluminium garnet. Bredol M, Micior J. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Jul 15
  • Experimental and theoretical study of electronic structure of lutetium bi-phthalocyanine. Bidermane I, Lüder J, Boudet S, Zhang T, Ahmadi S, Grazioli C, Bouvet M, Rusz J, Sanyal B, Eriksson O, Brena B, Puglia C, Witkowski N. J Chem Phys. 2013
  • Treatment of orbital metastases from a primary midgut neuroendocrine tumor with peptide-receptor radiolabeled therapy using 177 lutetium-DOTATATE. Dobson R, Vinjamuri S, Hsuan J, Banks M, Terlizzo M, Wieshmann H, Daousi C, Poston GP, Cuthbertson DJ. J Clin Oncol. 2013 Jun 10
  • On the use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to elucidate the structure of lutetium adenosine mono- and triphosphate complexes. Mostapha S, Berthon C, Fontaine-Vive F, Gaysinski M, Guérin L, Guillaumont D, Massi L, Monfardini I, Solari PL, Thomas OP, Charbonnel MC, Den Auwer C. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 Jun 2.
  • Photoemission spectroscopy study of the lanthanum lutetium oxide/silicon interface. Nichau A, Schnee M, Schubert J, Besmehn A, Rubio-Zuazo J, Breuer U, Bernardy P, Holländer B, Mücklich A, Castro GR, von Borany J, Buca D, Mantl S. J Chem Phys. 2013 Apr 21.
  • Facile surfactant-free synthesis and luminescent properties of hierarchical europium-doped lutetium oxide phosphors. Zhao Q, Guo N, Jia Y, Lv W, Shao B, Jiao M, You H. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Mar.
  • Is there need for radioimmunotherapy? Results of a phase I/II study in patients with indolent B-cell lymphomas using lutetium-177-DOTA-rituximab. Forrer F, Oechslin-Oberholzer C, Campana B, Maecke H, Mueller-Brand J, Lohri A. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012 Dec
  • Semiautomated labelling and fractionation of yttrium-90 and lutetium-177 somatostatin analogues using disposable syringes and vials. Asti M, Atti G, Iori M, Farioli D, Filice A, Versari A. Nucl Med Commun.

Lutetium Isotopes


Naturally occurring lutetium (Lu) has 1 stable isotope, 175Lu.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
175Lu 174.9407718 Observationally Stable 7/2+