Thulium Elemental Symbol
Thulium



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Thulium Thulium Tulio Túlio Tulio Tulium

Elemental Thulium PictureThulium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Thulium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Thulium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f136s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-30-4, thulium has a silvery-white appearance. The thulium atom has a radius of 172.4.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is unknown. Thulium is representative of the other lanthanides (rare earths) similar in chemistry to Yttrium. Thulium, first discovered by Theodore Cleve in 1879, is found in small quantities in minerals such as monazite. Thulium is named after "Thule", which is the ancient name of Scandinavia.

Thulium emits blue upon excitation. Flat panel screens depend critically on bright blue emitters. Also, under X-ray bombardment emissions are in both the 375 nm (ultra violet) and 465 (visible blue) wave lengths. This gives the material useful applications in low radiation detection for detection badges and similar uses. It is also used in other luminescence applications, such as halide discharge lamps. Flat panel screens depend critically on bright blue emitters. High Purity (99.999%) Thulium Oxide (Tm2O3) Powder Thulium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Thulium (Tm) Sputtering Target Thulium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Thulium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Thulium is not toxic in its elemental form, however. safety data for Thulium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Thulium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Tm Melting Point: 1545 oC, 2813 oF, 1818.15 K
Atomic Number: 69 Boiling Point: 1950 oC, 3542 oF, 2223.15 K
Atomic Weight: 168.93 Density: 9321 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.56 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0382 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 59 K-Cal/gm atom at 1947°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.40 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 69 Thermal Conductivity: 0.169 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 69 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 13.3 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 100 Electrical Resistivity: 79.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f136s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 176 pm Tensile Strength: 60 MPa
Covalent Radius: 190±10 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.03 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 227 pm Young's Modulus: 74.0 GPa
Oxidation States: 2, 3, 4 (basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 30.5 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 44.5 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.213
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 59.70 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 520 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1162.66 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 471 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2284.79 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-30-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22400 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23961 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.1 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011281 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.001 ppb
EC Number: 231-140-2 Discovered By: Per Teodor Cleve
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1879
SMILES Identifier: [Tm]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Tm Other Names: Tulio
InChI Key: FRNOGLGSGLTDKL-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Thulium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Thulium

  • Zhaofeng Wang, Yezhou Li, Xiong Liu, Xingmin Wei, Yueling Chen, Fei Zhou, Yuhua Wang, Photoluminescence performance of thulium doped Li4SrCa(SiO4)2 under irradiation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights, Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 59, November 2014
  • S. Kardellass, C. Servant, N. Selhaoui, A. Iddaoudi, Thermodynamic evaluations of the iron–lutetium and iron–thulium systems, Calphad, Volume 46, September 2014
  • Eugenio Dentoni Litta, Per-Erik Hellström, Christoph Henkel, Mikael Östling, Electrical characterization of thulium silicate interfacial layers for integration in high-k/metal gate CMOS technology, Solid-State Electronics, Volume 98, August 2014
  • Sung Woo Lee, Seong Kyun Park, Bong-Ki Min, Jun-Gill Kang, Youngku Sohn, Structural/spectroscopic analyses and H2/O2/CO responses of thulium(III) oxide nanosquare sheets, Applied Surface Science, Volume 307, 15 July 2014
  • Takafumi Miyazaki, Youji Tokumoto, Ryohei Sumii, Hajime Yagi, Noriko Izumi, Hisanori Shinohara, Shojun Hino, Photoelectron spectra of thulium atoms encapsulated C82 fullerene, Tm2@C82 (III) and Tm2C2@C82 (III), Chemical Physics, Volumes 431–432, 18 March 2014
  • Hong-Xi Tsao, Chun-Hsiang Chang, Shih-Ting Lin, Jinn-Kong Sheu, Tzong-Yow Tsai, Passively gain-switched and self mode-locked thulium fiber laser at 1950 nm, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 56, March 2014
  • O. Annalakshmi, M.T. Jose, U. Madhusoodanan, J. Subramanian, B. Venkatraman, G. Amarendra, A.B. Mandal, Thermoluminescence dosimetric characteristics of thulium doped ZnB2O4 phosphor, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 146, February 2014
  • Taymour A. Hamdalla, Sherif S. Nafee, Radiation effects on the gain of thulium doped fiber amplifier: Experiment and modeling, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 55, February 2014
  • Zhongxing Jiao, Baofu Zhang, Biao Wang, Linearly polarized and narrow-linewidth pulse generation at high repetition rate from an all-fiber gain-switched Thulium-doped fiber laser, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 55, February 2014
  • Felix Benz, Andreas Gonser, Reinhart Völker, Thomas Walther, Jan-Thomas Mosebach, Bianka Schwanda, Nicolas Mayer, Gunther Richter, Horst P. Strunk, Concentration quenching of the luminescence from trivalent thulium, terbium, and erbium ions embedded in an AlN matrix, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 145, January 2014

Thulium Isotopes


Naturally occurring thulium (Tm) has 1 stable isotope, 169Tm.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
169Tm 168.9342133 Observationally Stable 1/2 +