Thulium Elemental Symbol
Thulium



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Thulium Thulium Tulio Túlio Tulio Tulium

Elemental Thulium PictureThulium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Thulium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Thulium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f136s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-30-4, thulium has a silvery-white appearance. The thulium atom has a radius of 172.4.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is unknown. Thulium is representative of the other lanthanides (rare earths) similar in chemistry to Yttrium. Thulium, first discovered by Theodore Cleve in 1879, is found in small quantities in minerals such as monazite. Thulium is named after "Thule", which is the ancient name of Scandinavia.

Thulium emits blue upon excitation. Flat panel screens depend critically on bright blue emitters. Also, under X-ray bombardment emissions are in both the 375 nm (ultra violet) and 465 (visible blue) wave lengths. This gives the material useful applications in low radiation detection for detection badges and similar uses. It is also used in other luminescence applications, such as halide discharge lamps. Flat panel screens depend critically on bright blue emitters. High Purity (99.999%) Thulium Oxide (Tm2O3) Powder Thulium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Thulium (Tm) Sputtering Target Thulium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Thulium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Thulium is not toxic in its elemental form, however. safety data for Thulium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Thulium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Tm Melting Point: 1545 oC, 2813 oF, 1818.15 K
Atomic Number: 69 Boiling Point: 1950 oC, 3542 oF, 2223.15 K
Atomic Weight: 168.93 Density: 9321 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.56 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0382 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 59 K-Cal/gm atom at 1947°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.40 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 69 Thermal Conductivity: 0.169 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 69 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 13.3 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 100 Electrical Resistivity: 79.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f136s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 176 pm Tensile Strength: 60 MPa
Covalent Radius: 190±10 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.03 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 227 pm Young's Modulus: 74.0 GPa
Oxidation States: 2, 3, 4 (basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 30.5 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 44.5 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.213
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 59.70 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 520 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1162.66 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 471 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2284.79 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-30-4 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22400 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23961 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.1 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011281 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.001 ppb
EC Number: 231-140-2 Discovered By: Per Teodor Cleve
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1879
SMILES Identifier: [Tm]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Tm Other Names: Tulio
InChI Key: FRNOGLGSGLTDKL-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Thulium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Thulium

  • A patient with cupping-related post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation successfully treated with a 1,927 nm thulium fiber fractional laser. Lee SJ, Chung WS, Lee JD, Kim HS. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2014.
  • Gain-shift induced by dopant concentration ratio in a thulium-bismuth doped fiber amplifier. Emami SD, Zarifi A, Rashid HA, Muhammad AR, Paul MC, Halder A, Bhadra SK, Ahmad H, Harun SW. Opt Express. 2014.
  • Investigating the ablation efficiency of a 1940-nm thulium fibre laser for intraoral surgery. Guney M, Tunc B, Gulsoy M. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014.
  • Passive synchronization of erbium and thulium doped fiber mode-locked lasers enhanced by common graphene saturable absorber. Sotor J, Sobon G, Tarka J, Pasternak I, Krajewska A, Strupinski W, Abramski KM. Opt Express. 2014.
  • Wide wavelength selectable all-fiber thulium doped fiber laser between 1925 nm and 2200 nm. Li J, Sun Z, Luo H, Yan Z, Zhou K, Liu Y, Zhang L. Opt Express. 2014.
  • Two-micron thulium laser resection of the distal ureter and bladder cuff during nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Pang K, Liu SB, Wei HB, Zhuo J, Li ML, Xia SJ, Sun XW. Lasers Med Sci. 2014.
  • Mode-locked thulium bismuth codoped fiber laser using graphene saturable absorber in ring cavity: reply. Zen DI, Saidin N, Damanhuri SS, Harun SW, Ahmad H, Ismail MA, Dimyati K, Halder A, Paul MC, Das S, Pal M, Bhadra SK. Appl Opt. 2014
  • Thulium pumped mid-infrared 0.9-9µm supercontinuum generation in concatenated fluoride and chalcogenide glass fibers. Kubat I, Rosenberg Petersen C, Møller UV, Seddon A, Benson T, Brilland L, Méchin D, Moselund PM, Bang O. Opt Express. 2014.
  • High-power thulium fiber laser Q switched with single-layer graphene. Tang Y, Yu X, Li X, Yan Z, Wang QJ. Opt Lett. 2014
  • Long-term outcome following Thulium VapoEnucleation of the prostate. Netsch C, Engbert A, Bach T, Gross AJ. World J Urol. 2014.
  • Thulium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet Laser for En Bloc Resection of Bladder Cancer: Clinical and Histopathologic Advantages. Muto G, Collura D, Giacobbe A, D'Urso L, Muto GL, Demarchi A, Coverlizza S, Castelli E. Urology. 2014.
  • Vaporisation of the prostate with 150-W thulium laser. Complications with 6-month follow-up. Vargas C, Garcia-Larrosa A, Capdevila S, Laborda A. J Endourol. 2014.
  • Long-term outcome following Thulium VapoEnucleation of the prostate. Netsch C, Engbert A, Bach T, Gross AJ. World J Urol. 2014
  • A dual enzyme functionalized nanostructured thulium oxide based interface for biomedical application. Singh J, Roychoudhury A, Srivastava M, Solanki PR, Lee DW, Lee SH, Malhotra BD. Nanoscale.
  • Vaporisation of the prostate with 150-W thulium laser. Complications with 6-month follow-up. Vargas C, Garcia-Larrosa A, Capdevila S, Laborda A. J Endourol. 2014
  • Mode-locked thulium-bismuth codoped fiber laser using graphene saturable absorber in ring cavity: comment. Jung M, Lee JH. Appl Opt. 2014.
  • Comparing thulium laser and Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of genital and urethral condylomata acuminata in male patients. Blokker RS, Lock TM, de Boorder T. Lasers Surg Med.
  • Comparison of Intense Pulsed Light with 1,927-nm Fractionated Thulium Fiber Laser for the Rejuvenation of the Chest. Wu DC, Friedmann DP, Fabi SG, Goldman MP, Fitzpatrick RE. Dermatol Surg. 2014
  • Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence properties of europium-, terbium-, and thulium-doped Ca3Bi(PO4)3 phosphors. Jiao M, Guo N, W, Jia Y, Lv W, Zhao Q, Shao B, You H. Dalton Trans. | first author:Jiao M
  • Safety and effectiveness of Thulium VapoEnucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) in patients on anticoagulant therapy. Netsch C, Stoehrer M, Brüning M, Gabuev A, Bach T, Herrmann TR, Gross AJ. World J Urol. 2014.

Thulium Isotopes


Naturally occurring thulium (Tm) has 1 stable isotope, 169Tm.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
169Tm 168.9342133 Observationally Stable 1/2 +