Holmium Elemental Symbol
Holmium



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Holmium Holmium Olmio Hólmio Holmio Holmium

Elemental Holmium PictureHolmium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Holmium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Holmium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f11 6s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-60-0, holmium has a silvery white appearance.. The holmium atom has a radius of 174.3.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is unknown. Holmium was first discovered by J.L. Soret in 1878.

Holmium has the highest magnetic moment (10.6µB) of any naturally occurring element. Because of this it has been used to create the highest known magnetic fields by placing it within high strength magnets as a pole piece or magnetic flux concentrator. This magnetic property also has value in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) lasers for microwave equipment. Holmium lases at a human eye safe 2.08 microns allowing its use in a variety of medical and dental applications in both yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) and yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride (YLF) solid state lasers. The wavelength allows for use in silica fibers designed for shorter wavelengths while still providing the cutting strength of longer wave length equipment. Holmium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Holmium Oxide (Ho2O3) Powder Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Holmium (Ho) Sputtering TargetHolmium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Holmium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Holmium is slightly toxic in its elemental form. Safety data for Holmium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Holmium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Ho Melting Point: 1472 oC, 2681.6 oF, 1745.15 K
Atomic Number: 67 Boiling Point: 2700 oC, 4892 oF, 2973.15 K
Atomic Weight: 164.93 Density: 8.795 gm/cc
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.34 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0393 Cal/g/ K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 67 K-Cal/gm atom at 2695°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.10 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 67 Thermal Conductivity: 0.162 W/cm/ K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 67 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 11.2 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 98 Electrical Resistivity: 87.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f116s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 176 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 192±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 27.15 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 216 pm Young's Modulus: 64.8 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 26.3 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 40.2 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.231
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 580.99 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 481 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1138.54 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 746 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2203.74 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2760 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-60-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22424 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23988 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.5 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011049 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.004 ppb
EC Number: 231-169-0 Discovered By: Marc Delafontaine
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1878
SMILES Identifier: [Ho]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ho Other Names: Olmio, Hólmio
InChI Key: KJZYNXUDTRRSPN-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Holmium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Holmium

  • Sergey P. Babailov, Peter V. Dubovskii, Eugeny N. Zapolotsky, Paramagnetic lanthanides as magnetic resonance thermo-sensors and probes of molecular dynamics: Holmium-DOTA complex, Polyhedron, Volume 79, 5 September 2014
  • M.N. Abdusalyamova, F.A. Makhmudov, E.N. Shairmardanov, I.D. Kovalev, P.V. Fursikov, I.I. Khodos, Y.M. Shulga, Structural features of nanocrystalline holmium oxide prepared by the thermal decomposition of organic precursors, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 601, 15 July 2014
  • Kaupo Kukli, Jun Lu, Joosep Link, Marianna Kemell, Esa Puukilainen, Mikko Heikkilä, Roland Hoxha, Aile Tamm, Lars Hultman, Raivo Stern, Mikko Ritala, Markku Leskelä, Holmium and titanium oxide nanolaminates by atomic layer deposition, Thin Solid Films, Available online 28 June 2014
  • Kaupo Kukli, Marianna Kemell, Mukesh Chandra Dimri, Esa Puukilainen, Aile Tamm, Raivo Stern, Mikko Ritala, Markku Leskelä, Holmium titanium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition, Thin Solid Films, Available online 24 June 2014
  • Priyanka A. Jha, A.K. Jha, Effect of holmium substitution on structural and electrical properties of barium zirconate titanate ferroelectric ceramics, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 4, May 2014
  • Sugandha, A.K. Jha, Effect of holmium substitution on electrical properties of strontium bismuth tantalate ferroelectric ceramics, Ceramics International, Volume 39, Issue 8, December 2013
  • K. Sanjoom, T. Tunkasiri, K. Pengpat, S. Eitssayeam, G. Rujijanagul, Dielectric properties of strontium iron holmium niobate ceramics, Ceramics International, Volume 39, Supplement 1, May 2013
  • Seong Y. Oh, Jong-Yun Kim, Sang Eun Bae, Young Hwan Cho, Jei-Won Yeon, Kyuseok Song, Spectroscopic analysis of trivalent cerium and holmium ions in LiCl–KCl eutectic melt at high temperature, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 134, February 2013
  • I. Tasçioglu, M. Ari, I. Uslu, S. Koçyigit, Y. Dagdemir, V. Çorumlu, S. Altindal, Temperature dependent conductivity and structural properties of sol–gel prepared holmium doped Bi2O3 nanoceramic powder, Ceramics International, Volume 38, Issue 8, December 2012
  • Anthony J. Di Pasqua, Michael L. Miller, Xiuling Lu, Lei Peng, Michael Jay, Tumor accumulation of neutron-activatable holmium-containing mesoporous silica nanoparticles in an orthotopic non-small cell lung cancer mouse model, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 393, 1 December 2012
  • Raghavendra Sagar, Pravin Hudge, Shivanand Madolappa, A.C. Kumbharkhane, R.L. Raibagkar, Electrical properties and microwave dielectric behavior of holmium substituted barium zirconium titanate ceramics, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 537, 5 October 2012
  • H. Gebavi, D. Milanese, R. Balda, S. Taccheo, J. Fernandez, J. Lousteau, M. Ferraris, Spectroscopy of thulium and holmium heavily doped tellurite glasses, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 132, Issue 2, February 2012
  • Liyuan Sheng, Lijun Wang, Tingfei Xi, Yufeng Zheng, Hengqiang Ye, Microstructure, precipitates and compressive properties of various holmium doped NiAl/Cr(Mo, Hf) eutectic alloys, Materials & Design, Volume 32, Issue 10, December 2011
  • F.Z. Fadil, M. Aillerie, T. Lamcharfi, F. Abdi, Synthesis and characterization of holmium doped lithium niobate powders, Ceramics International, Volume 37, Issue 7, September 2011
  • Faiza Aen, Shahida B. Niazi, M.U. Islam, Mukhtar Ahmad, M.U. Rana, Effect of holmium on the magnetic and electrical properties of barium based W-type hexagonal ferrites, Ceramics International, Volume 37, Issue 6, August 2011
  • Song Dang, Jing Yu, Jiangbo Yu, Xiaofei Wang, Lining Sun, Jing Feng, Weiqiang Fan, Hongjie Zhang, Novel Holmium (Ho) and Praseodymium (Pr) ternary complexes with fluorinated-ligand and 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one, Materials Letters, Volume 65, Issue 11, 15 June 2011
  • Xiantao WEI, Yong LI, Xuerui CHENG, Yonghu CHEN, Min YIN, Strong dependence of upconversion luminescence on doping concentration in holmium and ytterbium co-doped Y2O3 phosphor, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 29, Issue 6, June 2011
  • Stefanie A. Hering, Almut Haberer, Reinhard Kaindl, Hubert Huppertz, High-pressure synthesis and crystal structure of the new holmium oxoborate Ho31O27(BO3)3(BO4)6, Solid State Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 12, December 2010
  • S.K. Pradhan, J. Das, P.P. Rout, V.R. Mohanta, S.K. Das, S. Samantray, D.R. Sahu, J.L. Huang, S. Verma, B.K. Roul, Effect of holmium substitution for the improvement of multiferroic properties of BiFeO3, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Volume 71, Issue 11, November 2010
  • Ryszard Kubiak, Jan Janczak, Structural and spectroscopic characterisation of the holmium double-decker partially oxidised and bi-radical phthalocyanine complexes with iodine, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 363, Issue 11, 10 August 2010

Holmium Isotopes


Holmium has one stable isotope: 165Ho.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
165Ho 164.9303221 Observationally Stable 7/2-