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About Holmium

Holmium Bohr

In 1878, Marc Delafontain and Jacques-Louis Soret identified spectroscopic absorption bands of an unknown element whose oxide was isolated later that same year by Per Teodor Cleve. All three men are given credit for discovering this new element, which was named holmium after Cleve’s native Stockholm.

Holmium has the greatest magnetic strength of any element, and is used to create extremely strong magnetic fields as a magnetic flux concentrator within high-strength magnets. Holmium is used as a magnet component instead of for fabricating complete magnets because it is extremely rare.

Holmium’s other primary use is as a dopant in garnets, cubic zirconia, and glass. Holmium garnets are used in solid-state lasers that emit at wavelengths that make them safe for use in medical and dental applications, and they are also used in fiber optic communications devices. In glass and cubic zirconia, holmium provides yellow or red coloring and has distinctive absorption peaks that make them useful as calibration standards for optical spectrophotometers. Additionally, the radioactive isotope holmium-166m1 is used to calibrate gamma ray spectrometers.

Holmium is a rare earth element and can be found in any rare earth containing mineral, but as a heavy rare earth element (HREE) it is more common in HREE-enriched minerals such as xenotime and euxenite. Additionally, holmium is present in ion adsorption clays, which are a major source of HREEs due to their relative ease of processing, despite the low percentage quantities of rare earths they contain.

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Elemental Holmium PictureSummary. Holmium has the highest magnetic moment (10.6µB) of any naturally occurring element. Because of this, it has been used to create the strongest known magnetic fields by placing it within high-strength magnets as a pole piece or magnetic flux concentrator. This magnetic property is also exploited in holmium-yttrium iron garnet, a synthetic ferrimagnetic material used in microwave and magnetooptical applications. Holmium lases at a human ey-safe 2.08 microns, allowing its use in a variety of medical and dental applications in both yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) and yttrium-lanthanum-fluoride (YLF) solid state lasers. The wavelength High Purity (99.999%) Holmium Oxide (Ho2O3) Powderallows for use in silica fibers designed for shorter wavelengths while still providing the cutting strength of longer wave length equipment. Holmium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Holmium (Ho) Sputtering Target Holmium oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Holmium fluoride is another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Holmium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Holmium Properties

Lanthanum(La) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolHolmium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Holmium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Holmium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe] 4f11 6s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-60-0, holmium has a silvery white appearance. The holmium atom has a radius of 174.3.pm and its Van der Waals radius is unknown. Holmium was first discovered by J.L. Soret in 1878.

Symbol: Ho
Atomic Number: 67
Atomic Weight: 164.93
Element Category: Lanthanide
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f
Color: silvery-white
Other Names: Olmio, Hólmio
Melting Point: 1472°C, 2681.6°F, 1745.15 K
Boiling Point: 2700°C, 4892°F, 2973.15 K
Density: 8.795 g/cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.34 g/cm3
Density @ 20°C: 8.80 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 8795 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.0393 Cal/g/ K @ 25 °C
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 17.2
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 303
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 302.63
Thermal Conductivity: 0.162 W/cm/ K @ 298.2 K
Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 11.2 µm/(m·K)
Electrical Resistivity: 87.0 nΩ-cm @ 25°C
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 27.15 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 64.8 GPa
Shear Modulus: 26.3 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 40.2 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.231
Mohs Hardness: N/A
Vickers Hardness: 481 MPa
Brinell Hardness: 746 MPa
Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2760 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.23
Sanderson Electronegativity: N/A
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.1
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.77
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 67
Protons: 67
Neutrons: 98
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f11 6s2
Atomic Radius: 176 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
2.3
Covalent Radius: 192±7 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.79
Van der Waals Radius: 216 pm
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (basic oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) Unknown
1st Ionization Energy: 580.99 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1138.54 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2203.74 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-60-0
EC Number: 231-169-0
MDL Number: MFCD00011049
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Ho]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ho
InChI Key: KJZYNXUDTRRSPN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
PubChem CID: 23988
ChemSpider ID: 22424
Earth - Total: 80 ppb
Mercury - Total: 61 ppb
Venus - Total: 84 ppb
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 0.00022
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.000008
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 1200
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 150
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: N/A
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: N/A
Stream, ppb by weight: 0.01
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.0001
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 60
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 7
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 0.5
Universe, ppb by atom: 0.004
Discovered By: Marc Delafontaine
Discovery Date: 1878
First Isolation: N/A

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Holmium

Holmium is slightly toxic in its elemental form. Safety data for Holmium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab.

Safety Data
Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H228
Hazard Codes F
Risk Codes 11
Safety Precautions N/A
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Flame-Flammables

Holmium Isotopes

Holmium has one stable isotope: 165Ho.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
140Ho 139.96854(54)# 6(3) ms Unknown 8+# N/A 1093.11 -
141Ho 140.96310(54)# 4.1(3) ms Unknown (7/2-) N/A 1101.18 -
142Ho 141.95977(54)# 400(100) ms β+ to 142Dy; p to 141Dy (6 to 9) N/A 1118.58 -
143Ho 142.95461(43)# 300# ms [>200 ns] β+ to 143Dy 11/2-# N/A 1126.66 -
144Ho 143.95148(32)# 0.7(1) s β+ to 144Dy; β+ + p to 143Tb N/A N/A 1134.74 -
145Ho 144.94720(32)# 2.4(1) s β+ to 145Dy (11/2-) N/A 1152.13 -
146Ho 145.94464(21)# 3.6(3) s β+ to 146Dy; β+ + p to 145Tb (10+) N/A 1160.21 -
147Ho 146.94006(3) 5.8(4) s β+ to 147Dy; β+ + p to 146Tb (11/2-) N/A 1168.29 -
148Ho 147.93772(14) 2.2(11) s β+ to 148Dy (1+) N/A 1185.68 -
149Ho 148.933775(20) 21.1(2) s β+ to 149Dy (11/2-) N/A 1193.76 -
150Ho 149.933496(15) 76.8(18) s β+ to 150Dy 2- N/A 1201.84 -
151Ho 150.931688(13) 35.2(1) s β+ to 151Dy; α to 147Tb 11/2(-) N/A 1209.92 -
152Ho 151.931714(15) 161.8(3) s β+ to 152Dy; α to 148Tb 2- N/A 1218 -
153Ho 152.930199(6) 2.01(3) min β+ to 153Dy; α to 149Tb 11/2- N/A 1226.08 -
154Ho 153.930602(9) 11.76(19) min β+ to 154Dy; α to 150Tb 2- N/A 1234.16 -
155Ho 154.929103(19) 48(1) min β+ to 155Dy 5/2+ N/A 1251.55 -
156Ho 155.92984(5) 56(1) min β+ to 156Dy 4- N/A 1259.63 -
157Ho 156.928256(26) 12.6(2) min β+ to 157Dy 7/2- N/A 1267.71 -
158Ho 157.928941(29) 11.3(4) min β+ to 158Dy; α to 154Tb 5+ N/A 1275.79 -
159Ho 158.927712(4) 33.05(11) min β+ to 159Dy 7/2- N/A 1283.87 -
160Ho 159.928729(16) 25.6(3) min β+ to 160Dy 5+ N/A 1291.95 -
161Ho 160.927855(3) 2.48(5) h EC to 161Dy 7/2- 4.25 1300.02 -
162Ho 161.929096(4) 15.0(10) min EC to 161Dy 1+ N/A 1308.1 -
163Ho 162.9287339(27) 4570(25) y EC to 161Dy 7/2- 4.23 1316.18 -
164Ho 163.9302335(30) 29(1) min EC to 161Dy; β- to 164Er 1+ N/A 1314.94 -
165Ho 164.9303221(27) Observationally Stable - 7/2- 4.173 1323.02 100
166Ho 165.9322842(27) 26.83(2) h β- to 166Er 0- N/A 1331.1 -
167Ho 166.933133(6) 3.003(18) h β- to 167Er 7/2- N/A 1339.18 -
168Ho 167.93552(3) 2.99(7) min β- to 168Er 3+ N/A 1347.26 -
169Ho 168.936872(22) 4.72(10) min β- to 169Er 7/2- N/A 1355.34 -
170Ho 169.93962(5) 2.76(5) min β- to 170Er 6+# N/A 1363.42 -
171Ho 170.94147(64) 53(2) s β- to 171Er 7/2-# N/A 1362.18 -
172Ho 171.94482(43)# 25(3) s β- to 172Er N/A N/A 1370.26 -
173Ho 172.94729(43)# 10# s β- to 173Er 7/2-# N/A 1378.34 -
174Ho 173.95115(54)# 8# s Unknown N/A N/A 1377.1 -
175Ho 174.95405(64)# 5# s Unknown 7/2-# N/A 1385.18 -
Holmium Elemental Symbol

Recent Research & Development for Holmium

  • Alexander Hemming, Nikita Simakov, John Haub, Adrian Carter, A review of recent progress in holmium-doped silica fibre sources, Optical Fiber Technology, Available online 22 September 2014
  • Sergey P. Babailov, Peter V. Dubovskii, Eugeny N. Zapolotsky, Paramagnetic lanthanides as magnetic resonance thermo-sensors and probes of molecular dynamics: Holmium-DOTA complex, Polyhedron, Volume 79, 5 September 2014
  • Qi YUN, Alima BAI, Shifeng ZHAO, Lattice distortion of holmium doped bismuth ferrite nanofilms, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 9, September 2014
  • Kaupo Kukli, Jun Lu, Joosep Link, Marianna Kemell, Esa Puukilainen, Mikko Heikkilä, Roland Hoxha, Aile Tamm, Lars Hultman, Raivo Stern, Mikko Ritala, Markku Leskelä, Holmium and titanium oxide nanolaminates by atomic layer deposition, Thin Solid Films, Volume 565, 28 August 2014
  • Kaupo Kukli, Marianna Kemell, Mukesh Chandra Dimri, Esa Puukilainen, Aile Tamm, Raivo Stern, Mikko Ritala, Markku Leskelä, Holmium titanium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition, Thin Solid Films, Volume 565, 28 August 2014
  • M.N. Abdusalyamova, F.A. Makhmudov, E.N. Shairmardanov, I.D. Kovalev, P.V. Fursikov, I.I. Khodos, Y.M. Shulga, Structural features of nanocrystalline holmium oxide prepared by the thermal decomposition of organic precursors, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 601, 15 July 2014
  • Priyanka A. Jha, A.K. Jha, Effect of holmium substitution on structural and electrical properties of barium zirconate titanate ferroelectric ceramics, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 4, May 2014
  • Sugandha, A.K. Jha, Effect of holmium substitution on electrical properties of strontium bismuth tantalate ferroelectric ceramics, Ceramics International, Volume 39, Issue 8, December 2013
  • K. Sanjoom, T. Tunkasiri, K. Pengpat, S. Eitssayeam, G. Rujijanagul, Dielectric properties of strontium iron holmium niobate ceramics, Ceramics International, Volume 39, Supplement 1, May 2013
  • Seong Y. Oh, Jong-Yun Kim, Sang Eun Bae, Young Hwan Cho, Jei-Won Yeon, Kyuseok Song, Spectroscopic analysis of trivalent cerium and holmium ions in LiCl–KCl eutectic melt at high temperature, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 134, February 2013