Erbium Elemental Symbol
Erbium



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Erbium Erbium Erbio Érbio Erbio Erbium

Erbium (Er) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Erbium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element.The number of electrons in each of Erbium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f12 6s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-52-0, erbium has a silvery white appearance. The erbium atom has a radius of 173.4.pm and its Van der Waals radius is unknown. Erbium Bohr Model Erbium is named after the Swedish town, Ytterby and was first discovered by Carl Mosander in 1843. Erbium is found in monazite sand ores.

Elemental Erbium Picture

Erbium has application in glass coloring, as an amplifier in fiber optics, and in lasers for medical and dental use. The ion has a very narrow absorption band coloring erbium salts pink. It is therefore used in eyeware and decorative glassware. It can neutralize discoloring impurities such as ferric ions and produce a neutral gray shade. It is used in a variety of glass products for this purpose. It is particularly useful as an amplifier for fiber optic data transfer. Erbium lases at the wavelength required to provide an efficient optical method of amplification, 1.55 microns. Lasers based on Er:YAG are ideally suited for surgical applications because of its ability to deliver energy without thermal build-up in tissue. Erbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes.High Purity (99.999%) Erbium (Er) Sputtering Target High Purity (99.999%) Erbium Oxide (Er2O3) PowderErbium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Erbium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Erbium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Erbium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Erbium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Er Melting Point: 1529 oC, 2784.2 oF, 1802.15 K
Atomic Number: 68 Boiling Point: 2868 oC, 5194.4 oF, 3141.15 K
Atomic Weight: 382.56 Density: 9066 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.86 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0401 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 67 K-Cal/gm atom at 2863°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.10 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 68 Thermal Conductivity: 0.145 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 68 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 12.2 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 99 Electrical Resistivity: 107.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f126s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 176 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 189±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 28.12 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: N/A Young's Modulus: 69.9 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 28.3 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 44.4 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.237
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 589.31 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 589 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1151.08 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 814 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2194.09 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2830 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-52-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22416 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23980 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010987 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.01 ppb
EC Number: 231-160-1 Discovered By: Carl Gustaf Mosander
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1842
SMILES Identifier: [Er]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Er Other Names: Erbio
InChI Key: UYAHIZSMUZPPFV-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Erbium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Erbium

  • A.A. Assadi, K. Damak, R. Lachheb, A. Herrmann, E. Yousef, C. Rüssel, R. Maâlej, Spectroscopic and luminescence characteristics of erbium doped TNZL glass for lasing materials, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 620, 25 January 2015
  • P. Martín-Ramos, I.R. Martín, F. Lahoz, S. Hernández-Navarro, P.S. Pereira da Silva, I. Hernández, V. Lavín, M. Ramos Silva, An erbium(III)-based NIR emitter with a highly conjugated β-diketonate for blue-region sensitization, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 619, 15 January 2015
  • Aurore Mascaro, Caroline Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline Raepsaet, Jean-Claude Crivello, Jean-Marc Joubert, Experimental study and thermodynamic description of the erbium–hydrogen–zirconium ternary system, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 456, January 2015
  • M.H.M. Ahmed, N.M. Ali, Z.S. Salleh, A.A. Rahman, S.W. Harun, M. Manaf, H. Arof, Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser based on single and multiple walled carbon nanotubes embedded in polyethylene oxide film as saturable absorber, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 65, January 2015
  • Chia-Ping Lin, Likarn Wang, Wavelength switching of erbium-doped fiber laser by using Mach–Zehnder interferometer and cavity loss control, Optics Communications, Volume 334, 1 January 2015
  • S.A.M Tofail, J. Butler, A.A. Gandhi, J.M. Carlson, S. Lavelle, S. Carr, P. Tiernan, G. Warren, K. Kennedy, C.A. Biffi, P. Bassani, A. Tuissi, X-ray visibility and metallurgical features of NiTi shape memory alloy with erbium, Materials Letters, Volume 137, 15 December 2014
  • Wei Mao, Takumi Chikada, Akihiro Suzuki, Takayuki Terai, Hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries in erbium oxide coatings, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Junfa Zhao, Cheng Zhang, Changyun Miao, Hong Gu, Switchable narrow linewidth single-longitudinal mode erbium fiber laser by using saturable-absorber filter and cavity loss control, Optics Communications, Volume 331, 15 November 2014
  • Handing Xia, Heping Li, Zegao Wang, Yuanfu Chen, Xiaoxia Zhang, Xionggui Tang, Yong Liu, Nanosecond pulse generation in a graphene mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser, Optics Communications, Volume 330, 1 November 2014
  • N.A. Cholan, M.H. Al-Mansoori, A.S.M. Noor, A. Ismail, M.A. Mahdi, Formation, properties and role of residual waves as seeds in multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser, Optics Communications, Volume 329, 15 October 2014

Erbium Isotopes


Naturally occurring erbium (Er) has 6 stable isotopes: 162Er, 164Er, 166Er, 167Er, 168Er, and 170Er.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
162Er 161.928778 Observationally Stable 0+
164Er 163.929200 Observationally Stable 0+
166Er 165.9302931 Observationally Stable 0+
167Er 166.9320482 Observationally Stable 7/2+
168Er 167.9323702 Observationally Stable 0+
170Er 169.9354643 Observationally Stable 0+