Erbium Elemental Symbol
Erbium



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Erbium Erbium Erbio Érbio Erbio Erbium

Elemental Erbium PictureErbium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Erbium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Erbium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f12 6s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-52-0, erbium has a silvery white appearance. The erbium atom has a radius of 173.4.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is unknown. Erbium is named after the Swedish town, Ytterby and was first discovered by Carl Mosander in 1843. Erbium is found in monazite sand ores.

Erbium has application in glass coloring, as an amplifier in fiber optics, and in lasers for medical and dental use. The ion has a very narrow absorption band coloring erbium salts pink. It is therefore used in eyeware and decorative glassware. It can neutralize discoloring impurities such as ferric ions and produce a neutral gray shade. It is used in a variety of glass products for this purpose. It is particularly useful as an amplifier for fiber optic data transfer. Erbium lases at the wavelength required to provide an efficient optical method of amplification, 1.55 microns. Lasers based on Er:YAG are ideally suited for surgical applications because of its ability to deliver energy without thermal build-up in tissue. Erbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Erbium (Er) Sputtering Target Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Erbium Oxide (Er2O3) PowderErbium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Erbium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Erbium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Erbium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Erbium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Er Melting Point: 1529 oC, 2784.2 oF, 1802.15 K
Atomic Number: 68 Boiling Point: 2868 oC, 5194.4 oF, 3141.15 K
Atomic Weight: 382.56 Density: 9066 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.86 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0401 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 67 K-Cal/gm atom at 2863°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.10 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 68 Thermal Conductivity: 0.145 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 68 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 12.2 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 99 Electrical Resistivity: 107.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f126s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 176 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 189±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 28.12 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 235 pm Young's Modulus: 69.9 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 28.3 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 44.4 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.237
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 589.31 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 589 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1151.08 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 814 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2194.09 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2830 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-52-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22416 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23980 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010987 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.01 ppb
EC Number: 231-160-1 Discovered By: Carl Gustaf Mosander
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1842
SMILES Identifier: [Er]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Er Other Names: Erbio
InChI Key: UYAHIZSMUZPPFV-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Erbium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Erbium

  • Junfa Zhao, Cheng Zhang, Changyun Miao, Hong Gu, Switchable narrow linewidth single-longitudinal mode erbium fiber laser by using saturable-absorber filter and cavity loss control, Optics Communications, Volume 331, 15 November 2014
  • Handing Xia, Heping Li, Zegao Wang, Yuanfu Chen, Xiaoxia Zhang, Xionggui Tang, Yong Liu, Nanosecond pulse generation in a graphene mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser, Optics Communications, Volume 330, 1 November 2014
  • N.A. Cholan, M.H. Al-Mansoori, A.S.M. Noor, A. Ismail, M.A. Mahdi, Formation, properties and role of residual waves as seeds in multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser, Optics Communications, Volume 329, 15 October 2014
  • Z. Potucek, A.P. Skvortsov, N.K. Poletaev, Z. Bryknar, L. Jastrabik, A. Dejneka, V.A. Trepakov, Optical spectroscopy of erbium-doped SrTiO3 crystals, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • O. Toma, S. Georgescu, Excited-state absorption in erbium-doped calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • M.H.M. Ahmed, N.M. Ali, Z.S. Salleh, A.A. Rahman, S.W. Harun, M. Manaf, H. Arof, All fiber mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser using single-walled carbon nanotubes embedded into polyvinyl alcohol film as saturable absorber, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 62, October 2014
  • Kunfeng Chen, Dongfeng Xue, Formation of electroactive colloids via in situ coprecipitation under electric field: Erbium chloride alkaline aqueous pseudocapacitor, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 430, 15 September 2014
  • Wei Qiu, Bo Gao, Peng Lin, Jia Li, Jingting Zhou, Qiuli Jiang, Pin lv, Chenghua Zhang, Maximum fractional delay achievable on slow light propagation through an erbium-doped optical fiber, Optics Communications, Volume 326, 1 September 2014
  • Yutaka Fukuchi, Kouji Hirata, Hiroshi Ikeoka, Extra-broadband wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked short-cavity fiber ring laser using a bismuth-based highly nonlinear erbium-doped fiber, Optics Communications, Volume 324, 15 August 2014
  • Nitin K. Goel, Gary Pickrell, Roger Stolen, An optical amplifier having 5 cm long silica-clad erbium doped phosphate glass fiber fabricated by “core-suction” technique, Optical Fiber Technology, Volume 20, Issue 4, August 2014
  • R. Selvas-Aguilar, A. Martínez-Rios, G. Anzueto-Sánchez, A. Castillo-Guzmán, M.C. Hernández-Luna, R. Robledo-Fava, Tuning of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on heating a tapered fiber filter, Optical Fiber Technology, Volume 20, Issue 4, August 2014
  • F. Bisti, G. Anemone, M. Donarelli, S. Penna, A. Reale, L. Ottaviano, Tetrakis erbium quinolinate complexes, electronic structure investigation, Organic Electronics, Volume 15, Issue 8, August 2014
  • Yanping Wu, Shengfa Zhu, Tianwei Liu, Fangfang Li, Yanzhi Zhang, Yongchu Rao, Yongbin Zhang, Preparation and properties of erbium oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, Applied Surface Science, Volume 307, 15 July 2014
  • Pedro S. Pereira da Silva, Pablo Martín-Ramos, Manuela Ramos Silva, Victor Lavín, Pedro Chamorro-Posada, Jesús Martín-Gil, X-ray analysis, molecular modelling and NIR-luminescence of erbium(III) 2,4-octanedionate complexes with N,N-donors, Polyhedron, Available online 14 July 2014
  • Wei Mao, Takumi Chikada, Akihiro Suzuki, Takayuki Terai, Hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries in erbium oxide coatings, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Available online 9 July 2014
  • Imran Ahmad, Tahir Abbas, A.B. Ziya, Asghari Maqsood, Structural and magnetic properties of erbium doped nanocrystalline Li–Ni ferrites, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 6, July 2014
  • Luis Alonso Vazquez-Zuniga, Yoonchan Jeong, Study of a mode-locked erbium-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fiber laser incorporating a broad bandpass filter: Numerical results, Optics Communications, Volume 322, 1 July 2014
  • Keiji Kuroda, Ayako Suzuki, Yuzo Yoshikuni, Control and probe of population inversion using nanosecond pulse trains in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, Optical Fiber Technology, Available online 20 June 2014
  • Tiegang Sun, Yubin Guo, Tianshu Wang, Jiayu Huo, Le Zhang, Widely tunable wavelength spacing dual-wavelength single longitudinal mode erbium doped fiber laser, Optical Fiber Technology, Volume 20, Issue 3, June 2014
  • Jianqun Cheng, Jianrong Qiu, Shuangchen Ruan, Switchable quadruple-wavelength erbium-doped photonic crystal fiber laser based on a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber Sagnac loop filter, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 58, June 2014

Erbium Isotopes


Naturally occurring erbium (Er) has 6 stable isotopes: 162Er, 164Er, 166Er, 167Er, 168Er, and 170Er.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
162Er 161.928778 Observationally Stable 0+
164Er 163.929200 Observationally Stable 0+
166Er 165.9302931 Observationally Stable 0+
167Er 166.9320482 Observationally Stable 7/2+
168Er 167.9323702 Observationally Stable 0+
170Er 169.9354643 Observationally Stable 0+