Erbium Elemental Symbol
Erbium



French German Italian Portuguese Spanish Swedish
Erbium Erbium Erbio Érbio Erbio Erbium

Elemental Erbium PictureErbium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Erbium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Erbium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f12 6s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-52-0, erbium has a silvery white appearance. The erbium atom has a radius of 173.4.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is unknown. Erbium is named after the Swedish town, Ytterby and was first discovered by Carl Mosander in 1843. Erbium is found in monazite sand ores.

Erbium has application in glass coloring, as an amplifier in fiber optics, and in lasers for medical and dental use. The ion has a very narrow absorption band coloring erbium salts pink. It is therefore used in eyeware and decorative glassware. It can neutralize discoloring impurities such as ferric ions and produce a neutral gray shade. It is used in a variety of glass products for this purpose. It is particularly useful as an amplifier for fiber optic data transfer. Erbium lases at the wavelength required to provide an efficient optical method of amplification, 1.55 microns. Lasers based on Er:YAG are ideally suited for surgical applications because of its ability to deliver energy without thermal build-up in tissue. Erbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Erbium (Er) Sputtering Target Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Erbium Oxide (Er2O3) PowderErbium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Erbium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Erbium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Erbium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Erbium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Er Melting Point: 1529 oC, 2784.2 oF, 1802.15 K
Atomic Number: 68 Boiling Point: 2868 oC, 5194.4 oF, 3141.15 K
Atomic Weight: 382.56 Density: 9066 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 8.86 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0401 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 67 K-Cal/gm atom at 2863°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 4.10 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 68 Thermal Conductivity: 0.145 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 68 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 12.2 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 99 Electrical Resistivity: 107.0 microhm-cm @ 25°C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f126s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 176 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 189±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 28.12 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 235 pm Young's Modulus: 69.9 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (basic oxide) Shear Modulus: 28.3 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 44.4 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.237
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 589.31 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 589 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1151.08 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 814 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2194.09 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2830 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-52-0 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22416 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23980 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010987 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.01 ppb
EC Number: 231-160-1 Discovered By: Carl Gustaf Mosander
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1842
SMILES Identifier: [Er]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Er Other Names: Erbio
InChI Key: UYAHIZSMUZPPFV-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Erbium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes



Recent Research & Development for Erbium

  • Erbium: YAG laser ablation versus 70% trichloroacetic acid application in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum. Güngör S, Canat D, Gökdemir G. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014 Aug.
  • Combination of fractional erbium-glass laser and topical therapy in melasma resistant to triple-combination cream. Tourlaki A, Galimberti MG, Pellacani G, Bencini PL. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014
  • Spectral and quantum chemical studies on 1,3-bis(N(1)-4-amino-6-methoxypyrimidinebenzenesulfonamide-2,2,4,4-ethane-1,2-dithiol)-2,4-dichlorocyclodiphosph(V)azane and its erbium complex. Al-Mogren MM, Alaghaz AN, El-Gogary TM. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Jan.
  • Erbium laser resurfacing for actinic cheilitis. Cohen JL. J Drugs Dermatol.
  • Self-amplitude and self-phase modulation of the charcoal mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers. Opt Express. 2013 create date:2013/10/24 | first author:Lin YH.
  • Treatment of striae distensae using an ablative Erbium-Yag fractional laser versus a 585-nm pulsed-dye laser. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2013 create date:2013/10/18 | first author:Gauglitz GG
  • Energy transfer from luminescent centers to Er3+ in erbium-doped silicon-rich oxide films. Jin L, Li D, Xiang L, Wang F, Yang D, Que D. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2013.
  • Erbium laser for the treatment of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis: a case report. Dermatol Surg. 2013 create date:2013/08/10 | first author:Rosenblum J
  • Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions. J Biomed Opt. 2013 create date:2013/10/10 | first author:Kuščer L
  • Treatment of inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus with 2940 nm erbium fractional laser. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013 create date:2013/10/12 | first author:Hammami Ghorbel H
  • High-Performance Air-Stable n-Type Carbon Nanotube Transistors with Erbium Contacts. Shahrjerdi D, Franklin AD, Oida S, Ott JA, Tulevski GS, Haensch W. ACS Nano. 2013 Sep.
  • Noninvasive delivery of siRNA and plasmid DNA into skin by fractional ablation: Erbium:YAG laser versus CO2 laser. Lee WR, Shen SC, Chen WY, Aljuffali IA, Suen SY, Fang JY. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2013 Aug 17.
  • Erbium Laser for the Treatment of Disseminated Superficial Actinic Porokeratosis: A Case Report. Rosenblum J, Roenigk HH Jr. Dermatol Surg. 2013 Aug.
  • Correlation between the optical loss and crystalline quality in erbium-doped GaN optical waveguides. Feng IW, Zhao W, Li J, Lin J, Jiang H, Zavada J. Appl Opt. 2013 Aug.
  • Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium phosphate and polymethylmethacrylate bone cements on root ends prepared using an Erbium: Yttriumaluminium garnet laser and ultrasonics evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Girish CS, Ponnappa K, Girish T, Ponappa M. J Conserv Dent. 2013 Jul.
  • Heat Generation During Ablation of Porcine Skin With Erbium:YAG Laser vs a Novel Picosecond Infrared Laser. Jowett N, Wöllmer W, Mlynarek AM, Wiseman P, Segal B, Franjic K, Krötz P, Böttcher A, Knecht R, Miller RJ. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Aug.
  • Temperature-insensitive bend sensor using entirely centered Erbium doping in the fiber core. Ahmad H, Zulkifli MZ, Muhammad FD, Samangun JM, Abdul-Rashid HA, Harun SW. Sensors (Basel). 2013.
  • The efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with erbium fractional laser therapy for facial acne scars or acne. Zhu JT, Xuan M, Zhang YN, Liu HW, Cai JH, Wu YH, Xiang XF, Shan GQ, Cheng B. Mol Med Rep. 2013.
  • 75 W 40% efficiency single-mode all-fiber erbium-doped laser cladding pumped at 976 nm. Kotov LV, Likhachev ME, Bubnov MM, Medvedkov OI, Yashkov MV, Guryanov AN, Lhermite J, Février S, Cormier E. Opt Lett. 2013
  • The effect of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser therapy on pain during cavity preparation in paediatric dental patients: a pilot study. Eren F, Altinok B, Ertugral F, Tanboga I. Oral Health Dent Manag.

Erbium Isotopes


Naturally occurring erbium (Er) has 6 stable isotopes: 162Er, 164Er, 166Er, 167Er, 168Er, and 170Er.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
162Er 161.928778 Observationally Stable 0+
164Er 163.929200 Observationally Stable 0+
166Er 165.9302931 Observationally Stable 0+
167Er 166.9320482 Observationally Stable 7/2+
168Er 167.9323702 Observationally Stable 0+
170Er 169.9354643 Observationally Stable 0+