Tungsten Elemental Symbol
Tungsten



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Tungstène Wolfram Tungsteno Tungstênio Wolframio Volfram

Tungsten(W) and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolTungsten is a Block D, Group 6, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of tungsten's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2. Tungsten Bohr ModelElemental TungstenThe tungsten atom has a radius of 137.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-33-7, tungsten has a grayish white, lustrous appearance. Tungsten has the highest melting point of all the metallic elements. It is found in the minerals scheelite (CaWO4) and wolframite [(Fe,Mn)WO4]. Tungsten was first discovered by Torbern Bergman in 1781 and first isolated by Juan José Elhuyar and Fausto Elhuyar in 1783. In reference to its density, Tungsten gets its name from the Swedish words tung and sten meaning heavy stone.

Tungsten was first commercially used in incandescent and fluorescent light bulb filaments, and, later, in early television tubes. The first imaging equipment involved X-ray bombardment of a tungsten target. Tungsten expands at nearly the same rate as borosilicate glass and is used to make metal to glass seals. It is the primary metal in heating elements for electric furnaces and in many components where high pressure/ temperature environments are expected, such as aerospace and engine systems. Tungsten carbide is used in the production of industrial machinery, cutting tools, abrasives, and jewelry. High Purity (99.999%) Tungsten Oxide (WO2) PowderTungsten is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Tungsten (W) Sputtering TargetElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Tungsten nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Tungsten is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Tungsten is considered to be mildly toxic. Safety data for Tungsten and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Tungsten Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: W Melting Point: 3695 K, 3422 °C, 6192 °F
Atomic Number: 74 Boiling Point: 5828 K, 5555 °C, 10031 °F
Atomic Weight: 183.84 Density: 19.25 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 17.6 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 6, 6, d Specific Heat: 0.13 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 824.2 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 35.2 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 74 Thermal Conductivity: 173 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 74 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 4.5 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 110 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 52.8 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f145d46s2 Electronegativity: 2.36 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 139 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 162±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.27 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200 pm Young's Modulus: 411 GPa
Oxidation States: 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, −2 (mildly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: 161 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 310 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.28
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 7.8
1st Ionization Energy: 770 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: 3430 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1700 kJ·mol−1 Brinell Hardness: 2570 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: 4620 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-33-7 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22403 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23964 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.5 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011461  Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.003 ppb
EC Number: 231-143-9 Discovered By: Torbern Bergman
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1781
SMILES Identifier: [W]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/W Other Names: Wolframium, Tungsténe, Wolframio
InChI Key: WFKWXMTUELFFGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Tungsten Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Black Tungsten Wire
Tungsten Balance Weights
Tungsten Balls
Tungsten Bands
Tungsten Bar
Tungsten Bits
Tungsten Blue Oxide
Tungsten Board
Tungsten Boats
Tungsten Boring Bars
Tungsten Briquette
Tungsten Capsules
Tungsten Circle
Tungsten Chunk
Tungsten Coil
Tungsten Coins
Tungsten Collimator Plates
Tungsten Concentrate
Tungsten Conductor Paste
Tungsten Crucibles
Tungsten Cubes
Tungsten Cylinder
Tungsten Disc
Tungsten Dust
Tungsten Electrodes
Tungsten Filaments
Tungsten Flanges
Tungsten Foam
Tungsten Foil
Tungsten Fragments
Tungsten Furnace Elements
Tungsten Grain
Tungsten Granules
Tungsten Grids
Tungsten Heat Shields
Tungsten Honeycomb
Tungsten Ingot
Tungsten Insulated Wire
Tungsten Lump
Tungsten Mesh
Tungsten Metal
Tungsten Needles
Tungsten Nugget
Tungsten Particles
Tungsten Parts
Tungsten Pebbles
Tungsten Pellets
Tungsten Pieces
Tungsten Pills
Tungsten Pins
Tungsten Plate
Tungsten Platens
Tungsten Powder
Tungsten Precipitate
Tungsten Puck
Tungsten Residue
Tungsten Ribbon
Tungsten Rings
Tungsten Rocks
Tungsten Rod
Tungsten Rods, Chrome-Plated
Tungsten Samples
Tungsten Scraps
Tungsten Segments
Tungsten Shaving
Tungsten Sheet
Tungsten Shot
Tungsten Sleeves
Tungsten Slugs
Tungsten Specimens
Tungsten Spheres
Tungsten Sponge
Tungsten Spring
Tungsten Squares
Tungsten Strands
Tungsten Strip
Tungsten Syringe Shields
Tungsten Tape
Tungsten Wafer
Tungsten Tube
Tungsten Washer
Tungsten Wire
Tungsten Wool
Tungsten X-Ray Shields


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Neodymium doped Potassium Gadolinium Tungstate
Tungsten Diselenide
Tungsten Disulfide Flakes
Tungsten Disulfide Micropowder
Tungsten Disulfide Ultrafine Powder
Tungsten Ditelluride
Tungsten Phosphide
Tungsten Disulfide
Tungsten Telluride
Ytterbium doped Potassium Gadolinium Tungstate
Ytterbium doped Potassium Yttrium Tungstate
Compounds

12-Wolframosilicic Acid
Aluminum Tungstate
Ammonium Metatungstate Hydrate
Ammonium Paratungstate
Ammonium Tungstate
Ammonium Tetrathiotungstate
Barium Calcium Tungsten Oxide
Barium Tungstate
Barium Yttrium Tungsten Oxide
Bismuth Tungstate
Cadmium Tungstate
Calcium Tungstate
Cerium Tungstate
Cerium Tungsten Oxide
Cesium Tungstate
Cobalt Tungstate
Copper Tungstate
Iron Tungstate
Lead Tungstate
Lithium Tungstate
Magnesium Tungstate
Manganese Tungstate
Mercury(I) Tungstate
Mercury(II) Tungstate
Potassium Tungstate
Silicotungstic Acid
Silver Tungstate
Sodium Metatungstate Hydrate
Sodium Phosphotungstate Dibasic Hydrate
Sodium Polytungstate
Sodium Tungstate
Sodium Tungsten Oxide Dihydrate
Strontium Tungstate
Tungsten Boride WB
Tungsten Boride W2B
Tungsten Boride W2B5
Tungsten Bromide
Tungsten Carbide
Tungsten Carbide Powder
Tungsten Carbide W2C
Tungsten Dichloride
Tungsten Dichloride Solution
Tungsten(IV) Fluoride WF4
Tungsten(VI) Fluoride WF6
Tungsten Hexachloride
Tungsten(II) Iodide
Tungsten(III) Iodide
Tungsten(IV) Iodide
Tungsten Nitride
Tungsten(IV) Oxide WO3
Tungsten(VI) Oxide WO2
Tungsten Oxide - Molybdenum Oxide
Tungsten Oxide - Vanadium Oxide
Tungsten(IV) Oxide
Tungsten Disilicide WSi2
Tungsten Silicide W5Si3
Tungsten Tetrachloride
Tungsten Titanium Carbide
Tungsten Trioxide
Tungsten(VI) Dichloride Dioxide
Tungsten(VI) Oxychloride
Tungstic Acid
Tungstosilicic Acid Hydrate
Zinc Tungstate
Zirconiated Tungsten Electrode
Zirconium Tungstate


Nanomaterials

Titanium Boride-Boron Carbide-Tungsten Boride Nanoparticles
Tungsten Carbide Nanoparticles
Tungsten Carbide - Cobalt Nanoparticles
Tungsten Disulfide Nanoparticles
Tungsten Dioxide Nanowires
Tungsten Nanoparticles
Tungsten Nanorods
Tungsten Oxide Nanopowder
Tungsten Sulfide Nanoparticles


Oxide Forms

Tungsten Oxide Nanopowder
Tungsten Dioxide Nanowires
Tungsten Oxide Particles
Tungsten Oxide Pellets
Tungsten Oxide Pieces
Tungsten Oxide Powder
Tungsten Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Tungsten Oxide Sputtering Target
Tungsten Oxide Shot
Tungsten Oxide Tablets
Tungsten Trioxide Sputtering Target

Alloys

Cerium Tungsten Electrode
Cobalt Chromium Tungsten Nickel Iron Manganese Foil
Cobalt Chromium Tungsten Nickel Manganese
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Iron Molybdenum Tungsten Titanium
Ferro Tungsten
Lanthanated Tungsten Electrode
Molybdenum Tungsten Alloy
Silver Tungsten Electrode
Tantalum Tungsten Foil
Thoriated Tungsten Electrode
Tungsten Alloy Balance Weights
Tungsten Alloy Collimator Plates
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Rod
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Sheet
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Spheres
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Tube
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Wire
Tungsten Carbide Copper Alloy
Tungsten Copper Alloy
Tungsten Copper Bar
Tungsten Copper Foil
Tungsten Copper Sheet
Tungsten Copper Tube
Tungsten Copper Wire
Tungsten-Copper Electrodes
Tungsten Nickel Foam
Tungsten Nickel Honeycomb
Tungsten Nickel Sponge
Tungsten Nickel Wool
Tungsten Nickel Copper Alloy
Tungsten Nickel Copper Iron Alloy
Tungsten Nickel Iron Alloy
Tungsten Nickel Iron Molybdenum Alloy
Tungsten Rhenium Alloy
Tungsten Rhenium Foil
Tungsten Rhenium Ribbon
Tungsten Rhenium Rods
Tungsten Rhenium Wire
Tungsten Silver Alloy
Tungsten Titanium Alloy
Tungsten Vanadium Alloy
Vanadium Tungsten Alloy
Yttrium Tungsten Electrode
Zirconium Tungsten Alloy


Organometallic Compounds

(1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino) ferrocene)tetracarbonyltungsten(0)
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)tungsten(IV) Chloride Hydride
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)tungsten(IV) Dichloride
Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl) tungsten(IV) Dihydride
Bis(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) tungsten(IV) Dichloride
Bis(isopropylcyclopentadienyl) tungsten(IV) Dihydride
Bis(tert-butylimino)bis (dimethylamino) tungsten(VI)
Cyclopentadienyltungsten(II) Tricarbonyl Chloride
Cyclopentadienyltungsten(II) Tricarbonyl Hydride
Phosphotungstic Acid Hydrate
Tetracarbonyl(1,5-cyclooctadiene)tungsten(0)
Tris(acetonitrile)tricarbonyltungsten(0)
Tungsten(0) Pentacarbonyl-N-pentylisonitrile
Tungsten(VI) Ethoxide
Tungsten(V) Ethoxide
Tungsten(VI) Isopropoxide
Tungsten Hexacarbonyl


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Copper Tungsten Sputtering Target
Cobalt Tungsten Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Tungsten Sputtering Target
Nickel Tungsten Sputtering Target
Titanium Tungsten Sputtering Target
Tungsten Boride Sputtering Target
Tungsten Boride Sputtering Target (W2B)
Tungsten Carbide Sputtering Target
Tungsten Carbide/Cobalt Sputtering Target
Tungsten Disilicide Sputtering Target
Tungsten Disulfide Sputtering Target
Tungsten Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Tungsten Oxide Sputtering Target
Tungsten Phosphide Sputtering Target
Tungsten Rotatable Sputtering Target
Tungsten Selenide Sputtering Target
Tungsten Silicon Sputtering Target
Tungsten Sputtering Target
Tungsten Telluride Sputtering Target
Tungsten Titanium Sputtering Target
Tungsten Trioxide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Tungsten Sputtering Target
Zirconium Tungsten Sputtering Target


Isotopes

Tungsten-182 Isotope
Tungsten-182 Trioxide Isotope
Tungsten-183 Isotope
Tungsten-184 Trioxide Isotope
Tungsten-186 Trioxide Isotope


Recent Research & Development for Tungsten

  • J. Boisse, C. Domain, C.S. Becquart, Modelling self trapping and trap mutation in tungsten using DFT and Molecular Dynamics with an empirical potential based on DFT, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Hideo Watanabe, Naoki Futagami, Shiori Naitou, Naoaki Yoshida, Microstructure and thermal desorption of deuterium in heavy-ion-irradiated pure tungsten, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Yi Yu, Xiaolin Shu, Yi-Nan Liu, Guang-Hong Lu, Molecular dynamics simulation of hydrogen dissolution and diffusion in a tungsten grain boundary, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Kameel Arshad, Ming-Yue Zhao, Yue Yuan, Ying Zhang, Zhen-Hua Zhao, Bo Wang, Zhang-Jian Zhou, Guang-Hong Lu, Effects of vanadium concentration on the densification, microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten vanadium alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Chaofeng Sang, Jizhong Sun, Xavier Bonnin, Shuyu Dai, Wanpeng Hu, Dezhen Wang, Numerical study of the effects of physical parameters on the dynamic fuel retention in tungsten materials, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Dandan Qu, Zhangjian Zhou, Youngjin Yum, Jarir Aktaa, Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed tungsten and Cu–Cr–Zr alloy using stress relief interlayers, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Xuebang Wu, Xiang-Shan Kong, Yu-Wei You, C.S. Liu, Q.F. Fang, Jun-Ling Chen, G.-N. Luo, Zhiguang Wang, First principles study of helium trapping by solute elements in tungsten, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Shuming Wang, Chongxiao Sun, Wenhao Guo, Qingzhi Yan, Zhangjian Zhou, Yingchun Zhang, Weiping Shen, Changchun Ge, Review on the explosive consolidation methods to fabricate tungsten based PFMs, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Dahuan Zhu, Junling Chen, Thermal stress analysis on chemical vapor deposition tungsten coating as plasma facing material for EAST, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • A.E. Sand, K. Nordlund, S.L. Dudarev, Radiation damage production in massive cascades initiated by fusion neutrons in tungsten, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Gang He, Kunyuan Xu, Shibin Guo, Xueqiang Qian, Zengchao Yang, Guanghua Liu, Jiangtao Li, Preparation of tungsten fiber reinforced-tungsten/copper composite for plasma facing component, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Feng Liu, Haishan Zhou, Xiao-Chun Li, Yuping Xu, Zhongqing An, Hongmin Mao, Wenjing Xing, Qing Hou, Guang-Nan Luo, Deuterium gas-driven permeation and subsequent retention in rolled tungsten foils, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • R. Gilles, D. Mukherji, H. Eckerlebe, L. Karge, P. Staron, P. Strunz, Th. Lippmann, Investigations of early stage precipitation in a tungsten-rich nickel-base superalloy using SAXS and SANS, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 612, 5 November 2014
  • Wei-Hsio Chen, Pramoda K. Nayak, Hao-Tung Lin, Man-Ping Chang, Jow-Lay Huang, Synthesis of nanostructured tungsten carbide via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and carburization process, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Volume 47, November 2014
  • Jianguo Zhang, Norikazu Suzuki, Yilong Wang, Eiji Shamoto, Fundamental investigation of ultra-precision ductile machining of tungsten carbide by applying elliptical vibration cutting with single crystal diamond, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 214, Issue 11, November 2014
  • M.P. Popov, I.A. Starkov, S.F. Bychkov, A.P. Nemudry, Improvement of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-d functional properties by partial substitution of cobalt with tungsten, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 469, 1 November 2014
  • Xinting Li, Xinyu Zhang, Jiaqian Qin, Suhong Zhang, Jinliang Ning, Ran Jing, Mingzhen Ma, Riping Liu, First-principles calculations of structural stability and mechanical properties of tungsten carbide under high pressure, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Volume 75, Issue 11, November 2014
  • V. Rajkumar, N. Arivazhagan, Role of pulsed current on metallurgical and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal gas tungsten arc welding of maraging steel to low alloy steel, Materials & Design, Volume 63, November 2014
  • Ilangovan Arun, Muthukannan Duraiselvam, V. Senthilkumar, R. Narayanasamy, V. Anandakrishnan, Synthesis of electric discharge alloyed nickel–tungsten coating on tool steel and its tribological studies, Materials & Design, Volume 63, November 2014
  • Lei Xu, Mi Yan, Jinhui Peng, C. Srinivasakannan, Yi Xia, Libo Zhang, Guo Chen, Hongying Xia, Shixing Wang, Influences of temperatures on tungsten copper alloy prepared by microwave sintering, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 611, 25 October 2014

Tungsten Isotopes


Naturally occurring tungsten (W ) has four stable isotopes: 182W, 183W, 184W, and 186. Additionally, 180W, has an long half-life of 1.8 ± 0.2 Ea (1018 years).

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
180W 179.946704 1.8(0.2)×1018 a 0+
182W 181.9482042 Observationally Stable 0+
183W 182.9502230 Observationally Stable 1/2-
184W 183.9509312 Observationally Stable 0+
186W 185.9543641 Observationally Stable 0+