Molybdenum Elemental Symbol

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Molybdène Molybdän Molibdeno Molibdênio Molibdeno Molybden

Molybdenum(Mo) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolMolybdenum is a Block D, Group 6, Period 5 element. Molybdenum Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of molybdenum's shells is 2, 8, 18, 13, 1 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d5 5s1. The molybdenum atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7439-98-7, molybdenum has a gray metallic appearance. Elemental MolybdenumMolybdenum is the 54th most abundant element in the earth's crust. It has the third highest melting point of any element, exceeded only by tungsten and tantalum. Molybdenum does not occur naturally as a free metal, it is found in various oxidation states in minerals. The primary commercial source of molybdenum is molybdenite, although it is also recovered as a byproduct of copper and tungsten mining. Molybdenum was first discovered by Carl Wilhelm in 1778. The origin of the name Molybdenum comes from the Greek word molubdos meaning lead.

Molybdenum is used in high-pressure and high-temperature applications as pigments and catalysts. It's used in nuclear reactors and aerospace components and it's used in steel alloys to add hardness and raise melting points. High Purity (99.999%) Molybdenum Oxide (MoO3) PowderMolybdenum is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Molybdenum (Mo) Sputtering TargetElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Molybdenum nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Molybdenum is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Molybdenum is toxic unless it is in small quantities. Safety data for Molybdenum and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

  • Properties
  • Safety Data
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  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Molybdenum Properties

Symbol: Mo Melting Point: 2622 oC, 4751.6 oF, 2895.15 K
Atomic Number: 42 Boiling Point: 4639 oC, 8382.2 oF, 4912.15 K
Atomic Weight: 95.96 Density: 10.28 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 9.33 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 6, 5, d Specific Heat: 0.25 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 589.9 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 27.6 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 42 Thermal Conductivity: 138 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 42 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 4.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 54 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 53.4 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d55s1 Electronegativity: 2.16 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 139 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 154±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.06 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200 pm Young's Modulus: 329 GPa
Oxidation States: 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2 (strongly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: 126 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 230 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.31
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 5.5
1st Ionization Energy: 684.32 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 1530 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1559.21 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 1500 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2617.67 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 5400 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7439-98-7 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 100 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22374 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 7 ppb
PubChem CID: 23932 Abundance in universe, by weight: 5 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00003465 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.1 ppb
EC Number: 231-107-2 Discovered By: Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1778
SMILES Identifier: [Mo]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Mo Other Names: Molybdéne, Molibdeno

Molybdenum Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Molybdenum Balls
Molybdenum Bands
Molybdenum Bars
Molybdenum Billets
Molybdenum Bits
Molybdenum Board
Molybdenum Boats
Molybdenum Bolts
Molybdenum Briquette
Molybdenum Caps
Molybdenum Capsules
Molybdenum Chunk
Molybdenum Circle
Molybdenum Coil
Molybdenum Coin
Molybdenum Concentrate
Molybdenum Crucibles
Molybdenum Cylinder
Molybdenum Disc
Molybdenum Dust
Molybdenum Electrode
Molybdenum Filaments
Molybdenum Flakes
Molybdenum Flanges
Molybdenum Foam
Molybdenum Foil
Molybdenum Forgings
Molybdenum Fragments
Molybdenum Furnace Parts
Molybdenum Glass Melting Electrodes
Molybdenum Grain
Molybdenum Granules
Molybdenum Honeycomb
Molybdenum Ingot
Molybdenum Insulated Wire
Molybdenum Lump
Molybdenum Mandrels
Molybdenum Mesh
Molybdenum Metal
Molybdenum Microfoil
Molybdenum Microleaf
Molybdenum Needles
Molybdenum Nugget
Molybdenum Nuts
Molybdenum Particles
Molybdenum Parts
Molybdenum Pebbles
Molybdenum Pellets
Molybdenum Pieces
Molybdenum Pills
Molybdenum Pins
Molybdenum Platens
Molybdenum Plates
Molybdenum Powder
Molybdenum Precipitate
Molybdenum Prisms
Molybdenum Puck
Molybdenum Residue
Molybdenum Ribbon
Molybdenum Rings
Molybdenum Rocks
Molybdenum Rod
Molybdenum Samples
Molybdenum Scraps
Molybdenum Segments
Molybdenum Shaving
Molybdenum Sheets
Molybdenum Shot
Molybdenum Single Crystal
Molybdenum Sintering Trays
Molybdenum Sleeves
Molybdenum Slugs
Molybdenum Specimens
Molybdenum Spheres
Molybdenum Sponge
Molybdenum Spring
Molybdenum Squares
Molybdenum Stirrers
Molybdenum Strip
Molybdenum Tape
Molybdenum Tube
Molybdenum Wafer
Molybdenum Washers
Molybdenum Wire
Molybdenum Wool

Oxide Forms

Molybdenum Oxide Nanopowder
Molybdenum Oxide Particles
Molybdenum Oxide Pellets
Molybdenum Oxide Pieces
Molybdenum Oxide Powder
Molybdenum Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Oxide Shot
Molybdenum Oxide Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Oxide Tablets


Molybdenum-94 Trioxide Isotope
Molybdenum-95 Metal Isotope
Molybdenum-96 Trioxide Isotope
Molybdenum-97 Metal Isotope
Molybdenum-97 Trioxide Isotope
Molybdenum-98 Trioxide Isotope
Molybdenum-100 Metal Isotope

Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Molybdenum Disilicide
Molybdenum Disulfide Crystal
Molybdenum Disulfide Flakes
Molybdenum Disulfide Ultrafine Powder
Molybdenum Phosphide
Molybdenum Selenide MoSe
Molybdenum(IV) Selenide MoSe2
Molybdenum Silicide MoSi2
Molybdenum Silicide MoSi3
Molybdenum Single Crystal
Molybdenum Sulfide
Molybdenum Telluride
Tungsten Oxide - Molybdenum Oxide

Organometallic Compounds

Cyclopentadienylmolybdenum(II) Tricarbonyl, Dimer
Methylcyclopentadienylmolybdenum(I) Tricarbonyl, Dimer
Molybdenum 2-Ethylhexanoate
Molybdenum(II) Acetate Dimer
Molybdenum(V) Ethoxide
Molybdenum Oxalate
Molybdenyl Diethyldithiocarbamate

Aluminum Molybdate
Ammonium Molybdate
Ammonium Molybdate Tetrahydrate
Ammonium Phosphomolybdate Hydrate
Ammonium Tetrathiomolybdate
Barium Molybdate
Bismuth Molybdate Bi2MoO6
Bismuth Molybdate Bi2Mo2O9
Bismuth(III) Molybdate Bi2Mo3O12
Cadmium Molybdate
Calcium Molybdate
Calcium Molybdenum Oxide
Cerium Molybdenum Oxide
Cesium Molybdate
Cobalt Molybdate
Copper Molybdate
Iron(II) Molybdate
Lanthanated Moly Balls
Lanthanated Moly Bands
Lanthanated Moly Bars
Lanthanated Moly Bits
Lanthanated Moly Board
Lanthanated Moly Briquette
Lanthanated Moly Capsules
Lanthanated Moly Circle
Lanthanated Moly Coil
Lanthanated Moly Coin
Lanthanated Moly Concentrate
Lanthanated Moly Crucibles
Lanthanated Moly Cylinder
Lanthanated Moly Disc
Lanthanated Moly Dust
Lanthanated Moly Flanges
Lanthanated Moly Foam
Lanthanated Moly Foil
Lanthanated Moly Fragments
Lanthanated Moly Grain
Lanthanated Moly Granules
Lanthanated Moly Ingot
Lanthanated Moly Lump
Lanthanated Moly Metal
Lanthanated Moly Nugget
Lanthanated Moly Parts
Lanthanated Moly Pebbles
Lanthanated Moly Pellets
Lanthanated Moly Pieces
Lanthanated Moly Pills
Lanthanated Moly Plate
Lanthanated Moly Powder
Lanthanated Moly Precipitate
Lanthanated Moly Puck
Lanthanated Moly Residue
Lanthanated Moly Ribbon
Lanthanated Moly Rocks
Lanthanated Moly Rod
Lanthanated Moly Samples
Lanthanated Moly Scraps
Lanthanated Moly Segments
Lanthanated Moly Shaving
Lanthanated Moly Sheet
Lanthanated Moly Shot
Lanthanated Moly Slugs
Lanthanated Moly Specimens
Lanthanated Moly Spheres
Lanthanated Moly Sponge
Lanthanated Moly Spring
Lanthanated Moly Strip
Lanthanated Moly Tape
Lanthanated Moly Tube
Lanthanated Moly Wafer
Lanthanated Moly Wire
Lanthanated Moly Wool
Lead Molybdate
Lithium Molybdate
Magnesium Molybdate
Manganese Molybdate
Molybdenum Acetate
Molybdenum Acetate Solution
Molybdenum Aluminide
Molybdenum Boride MoB
Molybdenum Boride Mo2B
Molybdenum Boride Mo2B5
Molybdenum(II) Bromide MoBr2
Molybdenum(III) Bromide MoBr3
Molybdenum Carbide MoC
Molybdenum Carbide Mo2C
Molybdenum Chloride
Molybdenum(II) Chloride MoCl2
Molybdenum(III) Chloride MoCl3
Molybdenum(V) Chloride MoCl5
Molybdenum Chloride Solution
Molybdenum Diboride
Molybdenum(VI) Dichloride Dioxide
Molybdenum Disilicide
Molybdenum Disilicide Heating Elements
Molybdenum(III) Fluoride MoF3
Molybdenum(VI) Fluoride MoF6
Molybdenum(II) Iodide MoI2
Molybdenum(III) Iodide MoI3
Molybdenum(IV) Iodide MoI4
Molybdenum(IV) Oxide MoO2
Molybdenum(VI) Oxide MoO3
Molybdenum Nitride MoN
Molybdenum Nitride Mo2N
Molybdenum Sulfate
Molybdenum Sulfate Solution
Molybdenum(VI) Tetrachloride Oxide
Molybdic Acid
Nickel(II) Molybdate
Nickel Molybdate Hydrate
Potassium Molybdate
Rubidium Molybdate
Silicomolybdic Acid Hydrate
Silver Molybdate
Silver Molybdenum Oxide
Sodium Molybdate Anhydrous
Sodium Molybdate Dihydrate
Sodium Molybdenum Oxide, Anhydrous
Sodium Phosphomolybdate Hydrate
Strontium Molybdate
Thallium Molybdate
Zinc Molybdate

Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Copper Molybdenum Sputtering Target
Aluminum Molybdenum Sputtering Target
Chromium Molybdenum Tantalum Sputtering Target
Indium Moly Oxide Sputtering Target
Lanthanated Moly Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Carbide Sputtering Targets
Molybdenum Chromium Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Disilicide Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Disulfide Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Oxide Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Phosphide Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Rotatable Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Selenide Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Silicon Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Telluride Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Titanium Sputtering Target
Molybdenum Trioxide Sputtering Targets
Molybdenum Tungsten Sputtering Target
Tantalum Molybdenum Sputtering Target
Vanadium Molybdenum Sputtering Target
TZM Moly Alloy Sputtering Target


Chromium Molybdenum Alloy
Chromium Molybdenum Metal
Cobalt Boron Silicon Iron Molybdenum Nickel Foil
Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum Alloy
Cobalt Chromium Nickel Iron Molybdenum Manganese
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Iron Molybdenum Titanium
Cobalt Molybdenum Alloy
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Iron Molybdenum Tungsten Titanium
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Alloy
Cobalt Silicon Molybdenum Iron Boron Niobium Foil
Copper Clad Molybdenum
Hastelloy B Alloy
Hastelloy B Alloy Foil
Hastelloy C-22 Alloy
Hastelloy C-276 Alloy
Hastelloy C276 Foil
Hastelloy X Alloy
Inconel 600 Alloy
Inconel 601 Alloy
Inconel 718 Alloy
Inconel 825 Alloy
Inconel 925 Alloy
Inconel X-750 Alloy
Iron Chromium Molybdenum Foil
Iron Chromium Nickel Copper Molybdenum Niobium
Iron Chromium Nickel Manganese Molybdenum
Iron Chromium Nickel Molybdenum
Iron Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Aluminum
Iron Chromium Nickel Titanium Molybdenum
Iron Manangese Chromium Molybdenum Nitrogen
Iron Manganese Molybdenum Nickel (Permalloy)
Molybdenum Aluminum Alloy
Molybdenum Chromium Alloy
Molybdenum Copper Heat Sinks
Molybdenum Copper Wafers
Molybdenum Rhenium Alloy
Molybdenum Rhenium Foil
Molybdenum Rhodium Alloy
Molybdenum Titanium Alloy
Molybdenum Tungsten Alloy
Nickel Chromium Cobalt Molybdenum Titanium Aluminum Alloy
Nickel Chromium Cobalt Molybdenum Titanium Aluminum Iron Alloy
Nickel Chromium Iron Molybdenum Alloy
Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Boron Alloy Powder
Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Iron Alloy
Nickel Iron Chromium Molybdenum Alloy
Nickel Iron Chromium Molybdenum Titanium Alloy
Nickel Iron Molybdenum Alloy
Nickel Iron Molybdenum Foil
Nickel Iron Molybdenum Wire
Nickel Molybdenum
Nickel Molybdenum Alloy
Nickel Molybdenum Chromium Iron Alloy
Nickel Molybdenum Iron Chromium Alloy
Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Boron Alloy Particles
Titanium Based Aluminum Molybdenum Zirconium Alloy
Titanium Molybdenum Alloy
Titanium Based Molybdenum Zirconium Iron Alloy
Titanium Based Molybdenum Zirconium Tin Alloy
Titanium Beta III Alloy Foil
Titanium Molybdenum Alloy
Titanium Molybdenum Niobium Aluminium Silicon Foil
Molybdenum Titanium Alloy
Tungsten Nickel Iron Molybdenum Alloy
TZM Moly Alloy
TZM Molybdenum Alloy Board
TZM Molybdenum Alloy Briquette
TZM Molybdenum Alloy Mesh
TZM Molybdenum Alloy Nugget
TZM Moly Alloy Balls
TZM Moly Alloy Bands
TZM Moly Alloy Bars
TZM Moly Alloy Bits
TZM Moly Alloy Capsules
TZM Moly Alloy Chunk
TZM Moly Alloy Circle
TZM Moly Alloy Coil
TZM Moly Alloy Coins
TZM Moly Alloy Concentrate
TZM Moly Alloy Crucible
TZM Moly Alloy Cups
TZM Moly Alloy Cylinder
TZM Moly Alloy Disc
TZM Moly Alloy Dust
TZM Moly Alloy Flanges
TZM Moly Alloy Foam
TZM Moly Alloy Foil
TZM Moly Alloy Fragments
TZM Moly Alloy Grain
TZM Moly Alloy Granules
TZM Moly Alloy Honeycomb
TZM Moly Alloy Ingot
TZM Moly Alloy Lump
TZM Moly Alloy Parts
TZM Moly Alloy Pebbles
TZM Moly Alloy Pellets
TZM Moly Alloy Pieces
TZM Moly Alloy Pills
TZM Moly Alloy Plate
TZM Moly Alloy Powder
TZM Moly Alloy Precipitate
TZM Moly Alloy Puck
TZM Moly Alloy Residue
TZM Moly Alloy Ribbon
TZM Moly Alloy Rings
TZM Moly Alloy Rocks
TZM Moly Alloy Rod
TZM Moly Alloy Samples
TZM Moly Alloy Scraps
TZM Moly Alloy Segments
TZM Moly Alloy Shaving
TZM Moly Alloy Sheet
TZM Moly Alloy Shot
TZM Moly Alloy Sleeve
TZM Moly Alloy Slugs
TZM Moly Alloy Specimens
TZM Moly Alloy Spheres
TZM Moly Alloy Sponge
TZM Moly Alloy Spring
TZM Moly Alloy Strip
TZM Moly Alloy Tape
TZM Moly Alloy Tube
TZM Moly Alloy Wafer
TZM Moly Alloy Wire
TZM Moly Alloy Wool


Molybdenum Carbide Nanopowder
Molybdenum Disulfide Nanotubes
Molybdenum Nanoparticles
Molybdenum Nanorods
Molybdenum Oxide Nanopowder
Molybdenum Sulfide Nanoparticles
Ultra Thin Molybdenum Nanofoil

Recent Research & Development for Molybdenum

  • Sub-femtomolar DNA detection based on layered molybdenum disulfide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, Au nanoparticle and enzyme multiple signal amplification. Huang KJ, Liu YJ, Wang HB, Wang YY, Liu YM. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 May
  • Electro-reduction of nitrogen on molybdenum nitride: structure, energetics, and vibrational spectra from DFT. Matanovic I, Garzon FH, Henson NJ. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2014 Feb.
  • Automated in-chip kinetic-catalytic method for molybdenum determination. Phansi P, Henríquez C, Palacio E, Nacapricha D, Cerdà V. Talanta. 2014 Feb.
  • Nano-molybdenum carbide/carbon nanotubes composite as bifunctional anode catalyst for high-performance Escherichia coli-based microbial fuel cell. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 create date:2013/09/03 | first author:Wang Y.
  • Molybdenum cofactor: A key component of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis? Williams M, Mizrahi V, Kana BD. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2014 Feb.
  • Method validation for simultaneous determination of chromium, molybdenum and selenium in infant formulas by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Food Chem. 2013 create date:2013/09/03 | first author:Khan N.
  • The reactivity of molybdenum pentachloride with ethers: routes to the synthesis of Mo(IV)Cl4 adducts, Mo(v) chlorido-alkoxides and Mo(v) oxydo-chlorides. Dalton Trans. 2013 create date:2013/09/06 | first author:Marchetti F
  • Tungsten and molybdenum incomplete cuboidal clusters; kinetico-mechanistic studies and association in dimers. Dalton Trans. 2013 create date:2013/09/03 | first author:Hernandez-Molina R
  • Elastic bending modulus of single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2): finite thickness effect. Nanotechnology. 2013 | first author:Jiang JW
  • Iron-molybdenum-oxo complexes as initiators for olefin autoxidation with O(2.) Dalton Trans. 2013 | first author:Falkenhagen JP
  • Hopping transport through defect-induced localized states in molybdenum disulphide. Nat Commun. 2013 | first author:Qiu H
  • Effect of exchange of the cysteine molybdenum ligand by selenocysteine on structure and function of the active site in human sulfite oxidase. Biochemistry. 2013 | first author:Reschke S
  • Tris(3,5-di-tert-butylcatecholato)molybdenum(VI): Lewis Acidity and Nonclassical Oxygen Atom Transfer Reactions. Inorg Chem. 2013 | first author:Randolph AH
  • Graphene-molybdenum oxynitride porous material with improved cyclic stability and rate capability for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 | first author:Zhou D
  • Alkene to carbyne: tandem lewis Acid activation and dehydrogenation of a molybdenum ethylene complex. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 | first author:Stennett TE
  • The interaction of molybdenum pentachloride with O- and S-heterocycles. Dalton Trans. 2013 create date:2013/10/15 | first author:Favero L
  • Highly Active, Low-Valence Molybdenum- and Tungsten-Amide Catalysts for Bifunctional Imine-Hydrogenation Reactions. Chem Asian J. 2013 | first author:Chakraborty S
  • Revealing and accelerating slow electron transport in amorphous molybdenum sulphide particles for hydrogen evolution reaction. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 | first author:Vrubel H
  • Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility. Environ Geochem Health. 2013 | first author:Lehoux AP
  • Trace elements (copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum) as markers in oral sub mucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2013 create date:2013/05/15 | first author:Khanna S

Molybdenum Isotopes

Molybdenum has 5 stable isotopes:

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
94Mo 93.9050883 Stable 0+
95Mo 94.9058421 Stable 5/2+
96Mo 95.9046795 Stable 0+
97Mo 96.9060215 Stable 5/2+
98Mo 97.9054082 Observationally Stable 0+