Niobium Elemental Symbol

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Niobium Niob Niobio Nióbio Niobio Niob

Niobium(Nb) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolNiobium is a Block D, Group 5, Period 5 element. Niobium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of niobium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 12, 1 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d4 5s1. Elemental NiobiumThe niobium atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7440-03-1, niobium has a gray metallic appearance. Niobium has the largest magnetic penetration depth of any element and it's one of three elemental type II superconductors (along with vanadium and technetium). Niobium is found in the minerals pyrochlore, its main commercial source, and columbite. It is not found in nature as a free element. Niobium was first discovered by Charles Hatchett in 1801. The word Niobium originates from Niobe, daughter of mythical Greek king Tantalus.

Niobium's main use is in alloys where it is used to produce arc-welding rods and corrosion-resistant steel. Other applications include its use in superconducting materials, electronics, optics, numismatics and jewelry. Niobium is the basis for various barium titanate compositions used as dielectric coatings in telecommunications and small advanced electronics, such as cell phones, pagers and laptop computers. High Purity (99.999%) Niobium Oxide (Nb2O5) PowderNiobium has medical research applications as well. Niobium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Niobium (Nb) Sputtering TargetElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Niobium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Niobium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Some niobium compounds are considered toxic. Safety data for Niobium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Niobium Properties

Symbol: Nb Melting Point: 2750 K, 2477 °C, 4491 °F
Atomic Number: 41 Boiling Point: 5017 K, 4744 °C, 8571 °F
Atomic Weight: 92.90638 Density: 8.57 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 5, 5, d Specific Heat: 0.27 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 680.19 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 27.2 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 41 Thermal Conductivity: 53.7 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 41 Thermal Expansion: 7.3 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 52 Electrical Resistivity: (0 °C) 152 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: 4d45s1 Electronegativity: 1.6 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 146 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 164±6 pm Molar Heat Capacity: N/A
Van der Waals radius: Young's Modulus: 105 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, -1 (mildly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: 38 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 170 GPa
Crystal Structure: cubic body-centered Poisson Ratio: 0.40
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 6.0
1st Ionization Energy: 652.13 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 1320 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1381.68 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 736 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2416.01 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 3480 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7440-03-1 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22378 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23936 Abundance in universe, by weight: 2 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011126 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.0 ppb
EC Number: 231-113-5 Discovered By: Charles Hatchett
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1801
SMILES Identifier: [Nb]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Nb Other Names: Niob, Niobio, Nióbio, Niobio

Niobium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials


Ammonium Hexafluoroniobate
Antimony Niobate
Barium Niobate
Barium Sodium Niobium Oxide
Barium Strontium Niobium Oxide
Bismuth(III) Niobate
Cadmium Niobate
Cesium Niobate
Copper(II) Niobate
Erbium(III) Niobate
Europium(III) Niobate
Lanthanum Niobate
Lead Magnesium Niobate
Lead Magnesium Niobate/Lead Titanate
Lead(II) Niobate
Lead Potassium Niobium Oxide
Lithium Niobate
Lithium Niobium Oxide
Niobium Aluminide NbAl
Niobium Aluminide Nb3Al
Niobium Aluminide NbAl3
Niobium Boride
Niobium(III) Bromide NbBr3
Niobium(V) Bromide NbBr5
Niobium Carbide NbC
Niobium Carbide Nb2C
Niobium Carbide Powder
Niobium(III) Chloride NbCl3
Niobium(V) Chloride NbCl5
Niobium Chloride Solution
Niobium Diboride
Niobium Disulfide
Niobium Fluoride NbF3
Niobium Fluoride NbF5
Niobium Hydride
Niobium(III) Iodide NbI3
Niobium(IV) Iodide NbI4
Niobium(V) Iodide NbI5
Niobium Monoboride
Niobium Nitride
Niobium(II) Oxide NbO
Niobium(IV) Oxide NbO2
Niobium(V) Oxide Nb2O5
Niobium(V) Oxychloride
Niobium Silicide NbSi2
Niobium Silicide Nb5Si3
Niobium Titanium Oxide
Potassium Heptafluoroniobate
Potassium Niobate
Potassium Tantalum Niobium Oxide
Sodium Niobate
Sodium Niobium Oxide
Strontium Barium Niobate
Strontium Niobate
Tantalum Niobium Carbide
Thulium(II) Niobate
Zinc Niobate


Niobium Boride Nanoparticles
Niobium Carbide Nanoparticles
Niobium Nanoparticles
Niobium Nanoprisms
Niobium Nanorods
Niobium Nitride Nanoparticles
Niobium Oxide Nanoparticles

Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Lithium Niobate Wafer
Niobium Antimonde
Niobium Arsenide
Niobium Phosphide
Niobium Selenide
Niobium Sulfide
Niobium Telluride
Potassium Niobate/Barium Nickel Niobate
Strontium Titanate (Niobium Doped)


Aluminum Niobium Tantalum Alloy
Cobalt Hafnium Niobium
Cobalt Iron Niobium
Cobalt Niobium Titanium Alloy
Cobalt Niobium Titanium Metal
Cobalt Niobium Zirconium Alloy
Cobalt Niobium Zirconium
Cobalt Silicon Molybdenum Iron Boron Niobium Foil
Iron Chromium Nickel Copper Molybdenum Niobium
Iron Chromium Nickel Copper Niobium
Iron Chromium Nickel Copper Titanium Niobium
Nickel Niobium Alloy
Niobium Tin Alloy
Niobium Tin Powder
Niobium Tin Wire
Niobium Titanium Alloy
Niobium Titanium Chromium Aluminum Alloy
Titanium Aluminum Niobium Alloy
Titanium Molybdenum Niobium Aluminium Silicon Foil
Titanium Niobium Alloy
Titanium Niobium Tantalum Alloy
Titanium based Niobium Zirconium Tantalum Alloy
Titanium based Niobium Zirconium Alloy

Oxide Forms

Niobium Monoxide Capacitor Powder
Niobium Oxide Nanoparticles
Niobium Oxide Particles
Niobium Oxide Pellets
Niobium Oxide Pieces
Niobium Oxide Powder
Niobium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Niobium Oxide Shot
Niobium Oxide Sputtering Target
Niobium Oxide Tablets

Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Magnesium Copper Sputtering Target
Niobium Carbide Sputtering Target
Niobium Nitride Sputtering Target
Niobium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Niobium Oxide Sputtering Target
Niobium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Niobium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Niobium Selenide Sputtering Target
Niobium Sputtering Target
Niobium Stannide Sputtering Target
Niobium Telluride Sputtering Target
Niobium Titanium Sputtering Target

Organometallic Compounds

Ammonium Niobate(V) Oxalate Hydrate
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)niobium(IV) Dichloride
Bis(methylcyclopentadienyl)niobium Dichloride
Cyclopentadienylniobium(V) Tetrachloride
Indenylzirconium(IV) Trichloride
Lithium Niobium Ethoxide
Lithium Niobium Isopropoxide
Lithium Niobium Methoxide
Lithium Niobium Tert-butoxide
Niobium(V) Ethoxide
Niobium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Niobium(III) Chloride 1,2-dimethoxyethane Complex
Niobium(IV) Chloride Tetrahydrofuran Complex
Niobium n-propoxide
Niobium Oxalate

Recent Research & Development for Niobium

  • P. Mastanaiah, G. Madhusudhan Reddy, K. Satya Prasad, C.V.S. Murthy, An investigation on microstructures and mechanical properties of explosive cladded C103 niobium alloy over C263 nimonic alloy, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 214, Issue 11, November 2014
  • Juan-Li Gao, Shuang Gao, Chun-Ling Liu, Zhao-Tie Liu, Wen-Sheng Dong, Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic application of ordered mesoporous carbon–niobium oxide composites, Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 59, November 2014
  • Aihua Yan, Changsheng Xie, Fei Huang, Shunping Zhang, Shaoliang Zhang, An efficient method to modulate the structure, morphology and properties of WO3 through niobium doping, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 610, 15 October 2014
  • Zhong-Li Liu, Ling-Cang Cai, Xiu-Lu Zhang, Novel high pressure structures and superconductivity of niobium disulfide, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 610, 15 October 2014
  • O. Toma, S. Georgescu, Excited-state absorption in erbium-doped calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • Agnieszka Gubernat, Lukasz Zych, The isothermal sintering of the single-phase non-stoichiometric niobium carbide (NbC1-x) and tantalum carbide (TaC1-x), Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 12, October 2014
  • Bo-Wen Huang, Jia-Xiang Shang, Zeng-Hui Liu, Yue Chen, Atomic simulation of bcc niobium 5 grain boundary under shear deformation, Acta Materialia, Volume 77, 15 September 2014
  • Chenning Zhang, Tetsuo Uchikoshi, Ji-Guang Li, Takayuki Watanabe, Takamasa Ishigaki, Photocatalytic activities of europium (III) and niobium (V) co-doped TiO2 nanopowders synthesized in Ar/O2 radio-frequency thermal plasmas, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 606, 5 September 2014
  • Lingxia Li, Dan Xu, Shihui Yu, Helei Dong, Yuxin Jin, Effect of thickness on the dielectric properties of bismuth magnesium niobium thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part A, September 2014
  • Maciej Sowa, Katarzyna Gren, Andrey I. Kukharenko, Danila M. Korotin, Joanna Michalska, Lilianna Szyk-Warszynska, Michal Mosialek, Jerzy Zak, Elzbieta Pamula, Ernst Z. Kurmaev, Seif O. Cholakh, Wojciech Simka, Influence of electropolishing and anodic oxidation on morphology, chemical composition and corrosion resistance of niobium, Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 42, 1 September 2014
  • L. Portebois, S. Mathieu, Y. Bouizi, M. Vilasi, S. Mathieu, Effect of boron addition on the oxidation resistance of silicide protective coatings: A focus on boron location in as-coated and oxidised coated niobium alloys, Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 253, 25 August 2014
  • Binbin Song, Peizhong Feng, Jianzhong Wang, Yuan Ge, Guangzhi Wu, Xiaohong Wang, Farid Akhtar, Oxidation properties of self-propagating high temperature synthesized niobium disilicide, Corrosion Science, Volume 85, August 2014
  • V.P. Krasin, S.I. Soyustova, Comparison of liquid metal solution model predictions with compatibility data of niobium with liquid sodium, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 451, Issues 1–3, August 2014
  • Bong-Yong Jeong, Eun-Hye Jung, Jin-Ho Kim, Fabrication of superhydrophobic niobium pentoxide thin films by anodization, Applied Surface Science, Volume 307, 15 July 2014
  • R.L. Grosso, R. Muccillo, E.N.S. Muccillo, Stabilization of the cubic phase in zirconia-scandia by niobium oxide addition, Materials Letters, Available online 12 July 2014
  • Mathias Woydt, Hardy Mohrbacher, The Use Of Niobium Carbide (Nbc) As Cutting Tools And For Wear Resistant Tribosystems, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Available online 8 July 2014
  • Hanjung Kwon, Jiwoong Kim, Wonbaek Kim, Stability domains of Nb(CN) during the carburization/nitridation of metallic niobium, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 6, July 2014
  • Xiuli Yang, Junwei Zhang, Xihui Fang, Tingsheng Qiu, Kinetics of pressure leaching of niobium ore by sulfuric acid, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Volume 45, July 2014
  • A.G. Kostryzhev, A. Al Shahrani, C. Zhu, J.M. Cairney, S.P. Ringer, C.R. Killmore, E.V. Pereloma, Effect of niobium clustering and precipitation on strength of an NbTi-microalloyed ferritic steel, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 607, 23 June 2014
  • Li Ming, Qingfeng Wang, Huibin Wang, Chuanyou Zhang, Zhang Wei, Aimin Guo, A remarkable role of niobium precipitation in refining microstructure and improving toughness of A QT-treated 20CrMo47NbV steel with ultrahigh strength, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Available online 20 June 2014

Niobium Isotopes

Niobium has one stable isotope: 93Nb

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
21Al 92.9063781 Stable 9/2+